National Public Health Center

Budapest, Hungary

National Public Health Center

Budapest, Hungary
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Mura-Meszaros A.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Mura-Meszaros A.,Leibniz Institute on Aging Fritz Lipmann Institute Jena | Magyar D.,National Public Health Center
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2017

The present study applied indicator value analysis as a novel approach to estimate honey authenticity: microscopic indicators of honey origin were identified based on the distinct fungal content of honeys from different sources. The abundance and the IndVal index of 34 selected fungal spore types were quantified in 82 melissopalynological honey samples originating from various honeydew (Pinus, Abies) or nectar sources using multivariate statistical approaches. A dissimilarity matrix of honey samples was obtained by computing Bray-Curtis coefficients, and the distances were visualized using non-metric multidimensional scaling. K-means clustering was applied to sample coordinates to create a classification based on the frequency of selected fungal taxa. Strikingly, the resulting clusters were on a high level of agreement with the melissopalynological or geographical classification of samples. Various fungal taxa were shown to characterize groups of honey samples with a significant indicator value: floral honeys (Metschnikowia reukaufii), Pinus honeydew honeys (Capnobotrys sp., Antennatula sp.), Abies honeydew honeys from Greece (staurospore and scolecospore types) and honeydew honeys from Italy (Tripospermum spp. and Excipularia fusispora). Having revealed that the mere presence of distinct fungal taxa can indicate differences in the botanical and geographical source of honeys, the present findings encourage the confirmation of honey origin also by recording the occurrence of given honeydew elements during routine melissopalynological analysis. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Magyar D.,National Public Health Center | Vass M.,University of Pannonia | Vass M.,Uppsala University | Oros G.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Cryptogamie, Mycologie | Year: 2017

Water-filled tree holes (dendrotelmata) are mostly ephemeral micro-ecosystems characterized by high level of heterotrophic microbial activity sustained by allochthonous organic matter. In this paper, description of a five-year long observation of fungal consortia in a Norway maple tree-hole is presented. Overall, 139 fungal taxa were detected. Among them, Excipularia fusispora, Ellisembia leptospora, Rebentischia unicaudata, Tricladium castaneicola, Thielavia terricola and Alternaria spp. occurred most frequently. Our observations suggest that even an individual dendrotelma represents an exceptional microhabitat, forming a hot-spot for microfungi due to its role as a natural spore trap and its (temporarily) aquatic environment. Our results show that this aquatic micro-ecosystem supports highly diverse mycobiota with continuous temporal dynamics, with an important fraction of sporadic taxa. © 2017 Adac. Tous droits réservés.


Lumniczky K.,National Public Health Center | Szatmari T.,National Public Health Center | Safrany G.,National Public Health Center
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2017

Radiation-induced late brain injury consisting of vascular abnormalities, demyelination, white matter necrosis, and cognitive impairment has been described in patients subjected to cranial radiotherapy for brain tumors. Accumulating evidence suggests that various degrees of cognitive deficit can develop after much lower doses of ionizing radiation, as well. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these alterations are not elucidated so far. A permanent deficit in neurogenesis, chronic microvascular alterations, and blood-brain barrier dysfunctionality are considered among the main causative factors. Chronic neuroinflammation and altered immune reactions in the brain, which are inherent complications of brain irradiation, have also been directly implicated in the development of cognitive decline after radiation. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview on radiation-induced immune alterations and inflammatory reactions in the brain and summarizes how these processes can influence cognitive performance. The available data on the risk of low-dose radiation exposure in the development of cognitive impairment and the underlying mechanisms are also discussed. © 2017 Lumniczky, Szatmári and Sáfrány.


Gallas-Lindemann C.,University of Cologne | Sotiriadou I.,University of Cologne | Plutzer J.,National Public Health Center | Noack M.J.,University of Cologne | And 3 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2016

Environmental water samples from the Lower Rhine area in Germany were investigated via immunofluorescence assays (IFAs), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect the presence of Giardia spp. (n = 185) and Cryptosporidium spp. (n = 227). The samples were concentrated through filtration or flocculation, and oocysts were purified via centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient. For all samples, IFA was performed first, followed by DNA extraction for the nested PCR and LAMP assays. Giardia cysts were detected in 105 samples (56.8%) by IFA, 62 samples (33.5%) by nested PCR and 79 samples (42.7%) by LAMP. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (30.4%) by IFA, 95 samples (41.9%) by nested PCR and 99 samples (43.6%) by LAMP. According to these results, the three detection methods are complementary for monitoring Giardia and Cryptosporidium in environmental waters. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Environmental water samples from the Lower Rhine area in Germany were investigated via immunofluorescence assays (IFAs), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect the presence of Giardia spp. (n=185) and Cryptosporidium spp. (n=227). The samples were concentrated through filtration or flocculation, and oocysts were purified via centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient. For all samples, IFA was performed first, followed by DNA extraction for the nested PCR and LAMP assays. Giardia cysts were detected in 105 samples (56.8%) by IFA, 62 samples (33.5%) by nested PCR and 79 samples (42.7%) by LAMP. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (30.4%) by IFA, 95 samples (41.9%) by nested PCR and 99 samples (43.6%) by LAMP. According to these results, the three detection methods are complementary for monitoring Giardia and Cryptosporidium in environmental waters.


Plutzer J.,Qinghai University | Plutzer J.,National Public Health Center | Karanis P.,Qinghai University
Water Research | Year: 2016

Outbreak incidents raise the question of whether the less frequent aetiological agents of outbreaks are really less frequent in water. Alternatively, waterborne transmission could be relevant, but the lack of attention and rapid, sensitive methods to recover and detect the exogenous stages in water may keep them under-recognized. High quality information on the prevalence and detection of less frequent waterborne protozoa, such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Isospora belli, Balantidium coli, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and other free-living amoebae (FLA), are not available.This present paper discusses the detection tools applied for the water surveillance of the neglected waterborne protozoa mentioned above and provides future perspectives. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University of Worcester, University of Rzeszow, Leiden University, Adam Mickiewicz University and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of biometeorology | Year: 2016

The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common or short ragweed) is increasing its range in Europe. In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air (above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms) were recorded in Leicester (UK) and Leiden (NL) on 4 and 5 September 2014. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the episode could be the result of long distance transport, to identify the potential sources of these pollen grains and to describe the conditions that facilitated this possible long distance transport. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data were collected at 10 sites in Europe. Back trajectory and atmospheric dispersion calculations were performed using HYSPLIT_4. Back trajectories calculated at Leicester and Leiden show that higher altitude air masses (1500m) originated from source areas on the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. During the episode, air masses veered to the west and passed over the Rhne Valley. Dispersion calculations showed that the atmospheric conditions were suitable for Ambrosia pollen released from the Pannonian Plain and the Rhne Valley to reach the higher levels and enter the airstream moving to northwest Europe where they were deposited at ground level and recorded by monitoring sites. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Leicester and Leiden were probably not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions in east Europe, i.e. the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine, as well as the Rhne Valley in France.


PubMed | National Public Health Center and Semmelweis University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Asia-Pacific journal of oncology nursing | Year: 2017

Several biomarkers may be used to detect harmful exposure and individual susceptibility to cancer. Monitoring of biomarkers related to exposure may have a significant effect on early detection of cell transformation, thereby aiding the primary prevention of various chronic and malignant diseases. Nurses who handle cytotoxic drugs are exposed to carcinogenic agents, which have the potential to interrupt the cell cycle and to induce chromosomal aberrations. The presence of high chromosomal aberrations indicates the need for intervention even when exposure to these carcinogens is low.Nationally representative samples of 552 nurses were investigated by a follow-up monitoring system. The measured biomarkers were clinical laboratory routine tests, completed with genotoxicological (chromosome aberrations [CAs] and sister chromatid exchanges [SCEs]) and immunotoxicological monitoring (ratio of lymphocyte subpopulations and lymphocyte activation markers) measured on peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results were compared to the data of 140 healthy, age-matched controls.In nurses exposed to cytostatics, we observed a significantly increased frequency of CAs and SCEs compared with those in the controls. Cytostatic drug exposure also manifested itself in an increased frequency of helper T lymphocytes. Genotoxicological and immunotoxicological changes, as well as negative health effects (i.e., iron deficiency, anemia, and thyroid diseases), increased among cytostatic exposed subjects.These results raised concerns about the protection of nursing staff from chemical carcinogens in the working environment.


Barna Z.,National Public Health Center | Kadar M.,National Public Health Center | Kalman E.,National Public Health Center | Scheirich Szax A.,National Public Health Center | Vargha M.,National Public Health Center
Water Research | Year: 2016

Legionella is one of the emerging concerns of water quality in built water environments. Premise plumbing systems are among the recognised sources of infection. In the present study, colonisation of hot water networks in health care facilities, schools, hotels, private residences, office and industrial buildings was investigated. Data was analysed in connection with building and premise plumbing characteristics. Over 60% of all buildings were colonised by Legionella; counts were over 1000 CFU/L in 49%. The most prevalent type was Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2-14, isolated from 75% of the positive samples. Centrally produced hot water was found to be a key risk factor (46% of the samples were positive vs. 16% in individual systems); within this group the type of the building was less relevant. Colonisation levels in schools were similar to hotels or hospitals, representing a previously underestimated risk setting. Systems supplied by water from deep groundwater sources were significantly less likely to be colonised than more vulnerable sources (bank-wall filtration, surface water abstraction or karstic water; 28% vs. 51% positive), regardless of the type of treatment applied, including the presence of disinfection. The aggravating effect of larger, more complex and older buildings on colonisation was also confirmed.The present study represents the first baseline analysis, pre-empting regulation or monitoring requirements for Legionella. The prevalence of legionellae and the identified risk factors are indicative for other settings lacking targeted interventions. The statistically confirmed risk factors can serve as indicators for preliminary risk assessment and the prioritisation of interventions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | National Public Health Center
Type: | Journal: Water research | Year: 2016

Legionella is one of the emerging concerns of water quality in built water environments. Premise plumbing systems are among the recognised sources of infection. In the present study, colonisation of hot water networks in health care facilities, schools, hotels, private residences, office and industrial buildings was investigated. Data was analysed in connection with building and premise plumbing characteristics. Over 60% of all buildings were colonised by Legionella; counts were over 1000CFU/L in 49%. The most prevalent type was Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2-14, isolated from 75% of the positive samples. Centrally produced hot water was found to be a key risk factor (46% of the samples were positive vs. 16% in individual systems); within this group the type of the building was less relevant. Colonisation levels in schools were similar to hotels or hospitals, representing a previously underestimated risk setting. Systems supplied by water from deep groundwater sources were significantly less likely to be colonised than more vulnerable sources (bank-wall filtration, surface water abstraction or karstic water; 28% vs. 51% positive), regardless of the type of treatment applied, including the presence of disinfection. The aggravating effect of larger, more complex and older buildings on colonisation was also confirmed. The present study represents the first baseline analysis, pre-empting regulation or monitoring requirements for Legionella. The prevalence of legionellae and the identified risk factors are indicative for other settings lacking targeted interventions. The statistically confirmed risk factors can serve as indicators for preliminary risk assessment and the prioritisation of interventions.

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