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PubMed | Health Canada, World Health Organization, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, International Atomic Energy Agency and 12 more.
Type: | Journal: Radiation protection dosimetry | Year: 2016

The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) established a laboratory network within the GHSI community to develop collective surge capacity for radionuclide bioassay in response to a radiological or nuclear emergency as a means of enhancing response capability, health outcomes and community resilience. GHSI partners conducted an exercise in collaboration with the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network and the IAEA Response and Assistance Network, to test the participating laboratories (18) for their capabilities in in vitro assay of biological samples, using a urine sample spiked with multiple high-risk radionuclides (


PubMed | Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, International Agency for Research on Cancer, National Cancer Institute, CIBER ISCIII and 11 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology | Year: 2016

Poor oral hygiene has been proposed to contribute to head and neck cancer (HNC) risk, although causality and independency of some indicators are uncertain. This study investigates the relationship of five oral hygiene indicators with incident HNCs.In a pooled analysis of 8925 HNC cases and 12 527 controls from 13 studies participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium, comparable data on good oral hygiene indicators were harmonized. These included: no denture wear, no gum disease (or bleeding), <5 missing teeth, tooth brushing at least daily, and visiting a dentist once a year. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of each oral hygiene indicator and cumulative score on HNC risk, adjusting for tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption.Inverse associations with any HNC, in the hypothesized direction, were observed for <5 missing teeth [odds ratio (OR) = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74, 0.82], annual dentist visit (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.78, 0.87), daily tooth brushing (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.79, 0.88), and no gum disease (OR = 0.94; 95% CI 0.89, 0.99), and no association was observed for wearing dentures. These associations were relatively consistent across specific cancer sites, especially for tooth brushing and dentist visits. The population attributable fraction for 2 out of 5 good oral hygiene indicators was 8.9% (95% CI 3.3%, 14%) for oral cavity cancer.Good oral hygiene, as characterized by few missing teeth, annual dentist visits, and daily tooth brushing, may modestly reduce the risk of HNC.


Gallas-Lindemann C.,University of Cologne | Sotiriadou I.,University of Cologne | Plutzer J.,National Public Health Center | Noack M.J.,University of Cologne | And 3 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2016

Environmental water samples from the Lower Rhine area in Germany were investigated via immunofluorescence assays (IFAs), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect the presence of Giardia spp. (n = 185) and Cryptosporidium spp. (n = 227). The samples were concentrated through filtration or flocculation, and oocysts were purified via centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient. For all samples, IFA was performed first, followed by DNA extraction for the nested PCR and LAMP assays. Giardia cysts were detected in 105 samples (56.8%) by IFA, 62 samples (33.5%) by nested PCR and 79 samples (42.7%) by LAMP. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (30.4%) by IFA, 95 samples (41.9%) by nested PCR and 99 samples (43.6%) by LAMP. According to these results, the three detection methods are complementary for monitoring Giardia and Cryptosporidium in environmental waters. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Environmental water samples from the Lower Rhine area in Germany were investigated via immunofluorescence assays (IFAs), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect the presence of Giardia spp. (n=185) and Cryptosporidium spp. (n=227). The samples were concentrated through filtration or flocculation, and oocysts were purified via centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient. For all samples, IFA was performed first, followed by DNA extraction for the nested PCR and LAMP assays. Giardia cysts were detected in 105 samples (56.8%) by IFA, 62 samples (33.5%) by nested PCR and 79 samples (42.7%) by LAMP. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (30.4%) by IFA, 95 samples (41.9%) by nested PCR and 99 samples (43.6%) by LAMP. According to these results, the three detection methods are complementary for monitoring Giardia and Cryptosporidium in environmental waters.


Plutzer J.,Qinghai University | Plutzer J.,National Public Health Center | Karanis P.,Qinghai University
Water Research | Year: 2016

Outbreak incidents raise the question of whether the less frequent aetiological agents of outbreaks are really less frequent in water. Alternatively, waterborne transmission could be relevant, but the lack of attention and rapid, sensitive methods to recover and detect the exogenous stages in water may keep them under-recognized. High quality information on the prevalence and detection of less frequent waterborne protozoa, such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Isospora belli, Balantidium coli, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and other free-living amoebae (FLA), are not available.This present paper discusses the detection tools applied for the water surveillance of the neglected waterborne protozoa mentioned above and provides future perspectives. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University of Worcester, University of Rzeszow, Leiden University, Adam Mickiewicz University and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of biometeorology | Year: 2016

The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common or short ragweed) is increasing its range in Europe. In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air (above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms) were recorded in Leicester (UK) and Leiden (NL) on 4 and 5 September 2014. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the episode could be the result of long distance transport, to identify the potential sources of these pollen grains and to describe the conditions that facilitated this possible long distance transport. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data were collected at 10 sites in Europe. Back trajectory and atmospheric dispersion calculations were performed using HYSPLIT_4. Back trajectories calculated at Leicester and Leiden show that higher altitude air masses (1500m) originated from source areas on the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. During the episode, air masses veered to the west and passed over the Rhne Valley. Dispersion calculations showed that the atmospheric conditions were suitable for Ambrosia pollen released from the Pannonian Plain and the Rhne Valley to reach the higher levels and enter the airstream moving to northwest Europe where they were deposited at ground level and recorded by monitoring sites. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Leicester and Leiden were probably not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions in east Europe, i.e. the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine, as well as the Rhne Valley in France.

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