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Budapest, Hungary

Plutzer J.,Qinghai University | Plutzer J.,National Public Health Center | Karanis P.,Qinghai University
Water Research

Outbreak incidents raise the question of whether the less frequent aetiological agents of outbreaks are really less frequent in water. Alternatively, waterborne transmission could be relevant, but the lack of attention and rapid, sensitive methods to recover and detect the exogenous stages in water may keep them under-recognized. High quality information on the prevalence and detection of less frequent waterborne protozoa, such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Isospora belli, Balantidium coli, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and other free-living amoebae (FLA), are not available.This present paper discusses the detection tools applied for the water surveillance of the neglected waterborne protozoa mentioned above and provides future perspectives. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Thuroczy J.,SzIU | Muller L.,SzIU | Kollar E.,SzIU | Balogh L.,National Public Health Center

Serum progesterone and thyroxin concentrations were measured weekly until 61 to 62 days after ovulation in 24 pregnant bitches and in the control group of nine nonpregnant bitches in the luteal phase. Fourteen of the 24 dogs had a normal pregnancy and parturition. Ten of the 24 dogs showed mucinous or colored vaginal discharge, decreased appetite, or lethargy. These initial signs of abortion or fetal resorption were noted during the fourth week of pregnancy, and the process occurred over the next 2 weeks. Progesterone and thyroxin concentrations were measured by quantitative ELISAs validated to dog serum. The serum progesterone concentrations of the group going through abortions differed significantly from the third week until the end of the eighth week. The mean serum thyroxin concentrations of healthy pregnant and nonpregnant groups significantly exceeded the reference range (20-45 nmol/L). The serum thyroxin concentrations in the abortion group were between 16.15 ± 3.17 and 40.78 ± 8.97 nmol/L. The values in this group were significantly different from the other two groups at the third week of the luteal phase. Clinical signs of abortion or fetus resorption manifested in midpregnancy. The clinical signs of abortion coincided in each case with a low serum progesterone concentration (<10 ng/mL). This phenomenon indicated, in contrast with other studies, that the decrease of serum progesterone below 10 ng/mL at the fourth week of pregnancy may signal impending abortion. In the second half of pregnancy, the thyroid gland was not able to respond adequately to the elevated requirement in thyroid hormone, although in other periods of the ovarian cycle, there were no clinical signs of hypothyroidism. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

de Hoogh K.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | de Hoogh K.,University of Basel | Gulliver J.,Imperial College London | Donkelaar A.V.,Dalhousie University | And 52 more authors.
Environmental Research

Satellite-derived (SAT) and chemical transport model (CTM) estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 are increasingly used in combination with Land Use Regression (LUR) models. We aimed to compare the contribution of SAT and CTM data to the performance of LUR PM2.5 and NO2 models for Europe. Four sets of models, all including local traffic and land use variables, were compared (LUR without SAT or CTM, with SAT only, with CTM only, and with both SAT and CTM). LUR models were developed using two monitoring data sets: PM2.5 and NO2 ground level measurements from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and from the European AIRBASE network. LUR PM2.5 models including SAT and SAT+CTM explained ~60% of spatial variation in measured PM2.5 concentrations, substantially more than the LUR model without SAT and CTM (adjR2: 0.33–0.38). For NO2 CTM improved prediction modestly (adjR2: 0.58) compared to models without SAT and CTM (adjR2: 0.47–0.51). Both monitoring networks are capable of producing models explaining the spatial variance over a large study area. SAT and CTM estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 significantly improved the performance of high spatial resolution LUR models at the European scale for use in large epidemiological studies. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Gallas-Lindemann C.,University of Cologne | Sotiriadou I.,University of Cologne | Plutzer J.,National Public Health Center | Noack M.J.,University of Cologne | And 3 more authors.
Acta Tropica

Environmental water samples from the Lower Rhine area in Germany were investigated via immunofluorescence assays (IFAs), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect the presence of Giardia spp. (n = 185) and Cryptosporidium spp. (n = 227). The samples were concentrated through filtration or flocculation, and oocysts were purified via centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient. For all samples, IFA was performed first, followed by DNA extraction for the nested PCR and LAMP assays. Giardia cysts were detected in 105 samples (56.8%) by IFA, 62 samples (33.5%) by nested PCR and 79 samples (42.7%) by LAMP. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (30.4%) by IFA, 95 samples (41.9%) by nested PCR and 99 samples (43.6%) by LAMP. According to these results, the three detection methods are complementary for monitoring Giardia and Cryptosporidium in environmental waters. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

Makra L.,University of Szeged | Matyasovszky I.,Eotvos Lorand University | Tusnady G.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Wang Y.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | And 26 more authors.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology

Long-distance pollen transport can substantially raise local pollen levels, but their relative contribution has not yet been quantified temporally or spatially in ragweed infested regions. Using common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen accumulation at a ragweed infested area, Szeged, Hungary as a test case, this study attempted to: (1) identify, using cluster analysis, biogeographical regions that contribute to long-range transport of ragweed pollen to Szeged; (2) quantify the relative contribution of ragweed pollen from these regions; (3) determine the relative contribution of "local" and "transported" pollen for Szeged. Using the HYSPLIT model, three-dimensional backward trajectories were produced daily over a 5-year period, 2009-2013 for ragweed pollen accumulation at Szeged. A k-means clustering algorithm using the Mahalanobis distance was applied in order to develop trajectory types. Nine back-trajectory clusters were identified. Cluster 1 (direction: from the Channel area south of Great Britain) and cluster 5 (direction: from Northern Mediterranean) were found the most relevant potential long-distance sources for Ambrosia pollen transport to Szeged. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) values indicated additional potential source areas including the central and eastern part of France, the northern part of Italy and the Carpathian Basin. For Szeged on non-rainy days, medium-range transport is important, while on rainy days the two transport ranges have equal weights. Based on the Granger causality, annual pollen amount transported by the atmospheric circulation is 27.8% of the annual total pollen at Szeged. From this quantity, 7.5% is added to (due to transport), while 20.3% is subtracted from (e.g. because of wash-out by frontal rainfalls going towards Szeged) local sources. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

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