National Power Training Institute

Farīdābād, India

National Power Training Institute

Farīdābād, India

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Pathak A.A.,National Power Training Institute | Moharil S.V.,Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University
Journal of Luminescence | Year: 2016

Near infrared (NIR) emitting phosphor, LaCaAl3O7:Ce3+,Nd3+ was synthesized by one step combustion synthesis and characterized with scanning electron microscope, photoluminescence emission, photoluminescence excitation spectra and fluorescence decay measurements. When excited with UV, the phosphor gives broadband emission at 410 nm, which corresponds to the allowed 5d→4f transition of Ce3+ ions and an intense NIR emissions in the range 800–1400 nm, which are assigned to the characteristic transitions from 4I9/2,11/2,13/2 states of Nd3+ ions. The dependences of visible and NIR emissions, decay lifetime and the energy transfer efficiency (ηETE) on dopant concentrations were investigated in detail. The luminescence spectra, both in visible (VIS) and NIR regions, and decay curves of Ce3+ have been measured to prove energy transfer (ET) from Ce3+ to Nd3+. These results demonstrate the possibility for enhancing the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of c-Si solar cell by modifying the absorption and utilizing the UV part of the solar spectrum where the efficiency of c-Si solar cell is low. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Parmar K.P.S.,National Power Training Institute | Majhi S.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | Kothari D.P.,G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2012

In this paper, load frequency control (LFC) of a realistic power system with multi-source power generation is presented. The single area power system includes dynamics of thermal with reheat turbine, hydro and gas power plants. Appropriate generation rate constraints (GRCs) are considered for the thermal and hydro plants. In practice, access to all the state variables of a system is not possible and also their measurement is costly and difficult. Usually only a reduced number of state variables or linear combinations thereof, are available. To resolve this difficulty, optimal output feedback controller which uses only the output state variables is proposed. The performances of the proposed controller are compared with the full state feedback controller. The action of this proposed controller provides satisfactory balance between frequency overshoot and transient oscillations with zero steady state error in the multi-source power system environment. The effect of regulation parameter (R) on the frequency deviation response is examined. The sensitivity analysis reveals that the proposed controller is quite robust and optimum controller gains once set for nominal condition need not to be changed for ±25% variations in the system parameters and operating load condition from their nominal values. To show the effectiveness of the proposed controller on the actual power system, the LFC of hydro power plants operational in KHOZESTAN (a province in southwest of Iran) has also been presented. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Shrivastava N.,National Power Training Institute | Sharma S.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Chauhan K.,Center for Management Studies
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

Per capita consumption 1 of electricity in India is many folds lesser than Canada, USA, Australia, Japan, Chaina and world average. Even though, total energy shortage 2 and peaking shortage 3 were recorded as 11.2% and 11.85%, respectively, in 2008-09 reflecting non-availability of sufficient supply of electricity. Performance improvement of very small amount can lead to large contribution in financial terms, which can be utilized for capacity addition to reduce demand supply gap. Coal fired thermal power plants are main sources of electricity in India. In this paper, relative technical efficiency of 60 coal fired power plants has been evaluated and compared using CCR and BCC models of data envelopment analysis. Target benchmark of input variables has also been evaluated. Performance comparison includes small versus medium versus large power plants and also state owned versus central owned versus private owned. Result indicates poor performance of few power plants due to over use of input resources. Finding reveals that efficiency of small power plants is lower in comparison to medium and large category and also performance of state owned power plants is comparatively lower than central and privately owned. Study also suggests different measures to improve technical efficiency of the plants. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Raja J.,National Power Training Institute | Rajan C.C.A.,Pondicherry Engineering College
Iranian Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering | Year: 2011

This paper presents an application of layered ANN controller to study load frequency control problem in power system. The objective of control scheme guarantees that steady state error of frequencies and inadvertent interchange of tie-lines are maintained in a given tolerance limitation. The proposed controller has been designed for a two-area interconnected power system. Only one ANN, which controls the inputs of each area in the power system together, is considered. In this study, back propagation-through time algorithm is used as ANN learning rule. The performance of the power system is simulated by using conventional integral controller and ANN controller, separately. For the first time comparative study has been carried out between SMES and CES unit, all of the areas are included with SMES and CES unit separately. By comparing the results for both cases, the performance of ANN controller with CES unit is found to be better than conventional controllers with SMES, CES and ANN with SMES. © 2011 ACECR.


Raja J.,National Power Training Institute | Rajan C.C.A.,Pondicherry Engineering College
Journal of Electrical Systems | Year: 2011

This paper analyses a comparative transient performance of six types of single machine power system. The six types of system configurations are viz. (i) AVR loop with Proportional Integral controller (PI) combined with AGC loop. (ii) AVR loop with single input CPSS combined with AGC loop. (iii) AVR with PI combined with SMES unit based AGC loop. For AGC loop both thermal unit and hydro unit are individually consider. (iv) AVR with CPSS combined with SMES unit based AGC loop. For AGC loop both thermal unit and hydro unit are individually considered. (v) AVR with FLC combined with FLC based AGC loop. For AGC loop both thermal unit and hydro unit are individually considered. (vi) AVR with FLC combined with SMES unit based AGC with FLC loop. For FLC based AGC loop both thermal unit and hydro unit are individually considered. The Thermal unit is either single or double reheat turbine. Hydro unit is considered with mechanical or electrical governor. Proportional Integral, Conventional power system stabilizer and fuzzy controller is provided in AGC loop. It is shown that the SMES based fuzzy controlled AGC loop along with fuzzy controlled AVR assist better transient performance of the power system in all cases under different operating conditions. © JES 2011.


Raja A.J.,National Power Training Institute | Christober Asir Rajan B.C.,Pondicherry Engineering College
Journal of Electrical Engineering | Year: 2011

This paper presents a new approach to control Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) unit for damping power system oscillations in a combined cycle power plant. MATLAB-SIMULINK based dynamic model of a combined cycle stand alone gas power plant and transfer function model of load frequency and temperature control loop with SMES is developed. The SMES unit is used to improve the dynamic performance of P-f of power system, it regulates the frequency and temperature in order to maintain the system stability and safety of the power plant. To get maximum benefit, from the SMES unit, a supplementary control is generated by using the output of fuzzy frequency controller (FFC) and the inductor current deviation (ΔIsm) as inputs. ΔIsm is also used as negative feedback signal to ensure the SMES energy that is restored to its predisturbance level. If temperature is low, it causes low efficiency of the heat recovery boiler, and maintaining temperature higher than allowed will reduce life of the equipment. Hence the temperature has to be regulated to have safe operation of the power plant. Considering these backgrounds. The desired P modulation from the SMES is obtained by adding supplementary control signal to the output of FFC. The effective use of the SMES unit is verified for small as well as large disturbances.


Raja A.J.,National Power Training Institute | Christober Asir Rajan C.,Pondicherry Engineering College
Journal of Electrical Engineering | Year: 2014

This paper adresses the results of an analysis of the dynamic performance of tie line power and frequency control, for an Automatic Generation Control (AGC) in three-area power system after deregulation, based on Bacterial Foraging (BF) optimization technique with the presence of energy storage devices. A comparative transient performance of AGC Control with SMES and CES are analyzed in deregulated environment. A maiden attempt has been made by implementing AGC with SMES, CES in deregulated environment with BF based optimal tuning of three area interconnected power system. The proposed method optimizes the parameter of integral controller by selecting the optimal gain which drives the change in frequency in the two areas and tie line power flow to zero within the shortest time span. The conventional three areas AGC system is modified to take into account the e ffect of bilateral contracts on the dynamics. In the considered power system, each area contains three GENCOs, three DISCOs and three area includes H-T-H systems generating units. After deregulation, to describe bilateral contract for three area AGC, DISCO participation matrix is used. The performance of the system is studied for di fferent operating cases. Simulation results revealed that the proposed controller damped out the frequency of oscillations and restore the system frequency and tie line power to set the value after the step load disturbance.


Parmar K.P.S.,National Power Training Institute | Majhi S.,Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati | Kothari D.P.,MVSR Engineering College | Kothari D.P.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2014

In this paper, an interconnected power system with multi-source power generation is proposed for load frequency control (LFC) in deregulated power environment. Keeping in view the new power environment, modified LFC scheme is proposed in deregulated environment for multi-source combination of hydro, reheat thermal and gas generating units in each control area. Optimal output feedback controller with pragmatic viewpoint is presented which uses less number of state variables for feedback as measurement of all of the state variables of a large system is impossible in the real world. The proposed controller incorporates all possible power transactions taking place in a deregulated power market. An extensive analysis is done for LFC and it is found that dynamic responses obtained satisfy the LFC requirements in deregulated power environment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kumar N.V.,National Power Training Institute | Sinha N.,Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University
International Journal of Technology and Globalisation | Year: 2014

The energy use in India is at present considerably higher than a few decades ago, mainly as a result of economic growth. The primary source of energy in India, thermal power, is a source of greenhouse gas emissions. To stabilise the CO2 emissions and promote sustainable development, economic development must go hand in hand with low-carbon society's development. A transition towards a green economy will require a shift away from current production and consumption patterns of energy. This is achievable through improved process and end-use energy efficiency, and increased adoption of cleaner energy sources. Fostering increased investments in clean energy and energy efficiency is an important step to achieving more sustainable economic development. Therefore, we have undertaken this study that attempts to examine the impact of FDI in Indian power sector on the path of clean energy. Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Saroha S.,DCRUST | Verma R.,National Power Training Institute
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2013

Power sector reform is currently underway in several countries of South Asia. This is noticed mainly in the form of change in the investment and ownership pattern, and increasing role for the private investment, both domestic and foreign. These countries continue to be characterized by low per capita consumption of energy, poor quality of energy infrastructure, skewed distribution and inaccessible and costly energy availability. Interconnection of power systems of contiguously located countries and their coordinated operation provide immense technical and economic benefits. The main issue is to run the system in free and fair manner ensuring quality power to the consumer's at most economical price through safe, secure and reliable operation of the power system resulting in transparent price discovery. Although a number of market models are prevalent in the international arena, the same could not be directly adopted for South Asian Regional power market. This paper is focused on integrating the power market in South Asia, examining the opportunities, benefits, and challenges. Complexity of electricity market in cross border international model scenario has been analyzed in this paper and a model for South Asian Regional Power Pool has been proposed. Demand and supply side bidding scenarios with case studies are presented in the paper. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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