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Moeller S.J.,Ohio State University | Miller R.K.,Texas A&M University | Aldredge T.L.,Texas A&M University | Logan K.E.,Ohio State University | And 5 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2010

The present study evaluated individual and interactive influences of pork loin (n = 679) ultimate ph (pH), intramuscular fat (IMF), Minolta L* color (L*), Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and internal cooked temperatures (62.8 °C, 68.3 °C, 73.9 °C, and 79.4 °C) on trained sensory perception of palatability. Logistical regression analyses were used, fitting sensory responses as dependent variables and quality and cooked temperature as independent variables, testing quadratic and interactive effects. Incremental increases in cooked temperature reduced sensory juiciness and tenderness scores by 3.8% and 0.9%, respectively, but did not influence sensory flavor or saltiness scores. An increase of 4.9 N in WBSF, from a base of 14.7 N (lowest) to 58.8 N (greatest) was associated with a 3.7% and 1.8% reduction in sensory tenderness and juiciness scores, respectively, with predicted sensory tenderness scores reduced by 3.55 units when comparing ends of the WBSF range. Modeled sensory responses for loins with pH of 5.40 and 5.60 had reduced tenderness, chewiness, and fat flavor ratings when compared with responses for loins with pH of 5.80 to 6.40, the range indicative of optimal sensory response. Loin IMF and L* were significant model effects; however, their influence on sensory attributes was small, with predicted mean sensory responses measurably improved only when comparing 6% and 1% IMF and L* values of 46.9 (dark) when compared with 65.0 (pale). Tenderness and juiciness scores, were related to a greater extent to loin WBSF and pH, and to a lesser extent to cooked temperature, IMF and L*. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Shelver W.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lupton S.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Newman D.J.,North Dakota State University | Larsen S.,National Pork Board | Smith D.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Sows (n = 126; 228 ± 30.1 kg) were administered daily IM doses of penicillin G procaine (33 000 IU/kg bw; 5× the label dose) for 3 consecutive days using three different administration patterns. Within treatment, six sows each were slaughtered on withdrawal day 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 32, and 39. Tissues (injection site, kidney, liver, skeletal muscle) or body fluids (serum and urine) were screened for penicillin G using the KIS test, recently adopted by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service. The IM administration patterns had no discernible effect on penicillin G depletion. Residues were depleted more rapidly from liver and skeletal muscle and more slowly from kidney and urine. Kidney was the most sensitive and suitable tissue for detecting penicillin G residues on-site, with two positive results after a 39-day withdrawal period. Urine was the most suitable ante-mortem surrogate to predict the results of kidney tests. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Moeller S.J.,Ohio State University | Miller R.K.,Texas A&M University | Edwards K.K.,Texas A&M University | Zerby H.N.,Ohio State University | And 5 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2010

The study evaluated the interactive and individual effects of fresh pork loin (n = 679) ultimate pH (pH), intramuscular fat (IMF), Minolta L* color (L*), Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS), and four cooked temperatures (62.8 °C, 68.3 °C, 73.9 °C, and 79.4 °C) on consumer (n = 2280) perception of eating quality (n = 13,265 observations). Data were analyzed using ordered logistical regression. Predicted mean responses were consistently near or under five on the 1-8-point end-anchored scale, indicating a neutral perception of pork eating quality regardless of fresh quality or cooked temperature. Responses improved as IMF and pH increased and WBS decreased, whereas L* did not contribute significantly to variation in responses. Increasing IMF resulted in a very small incremental improvement in responses, but was of practical size only when comparing the least (1%) to the greatest (6%) levels. Loin pH and WBS were primary contributors to consumer perceptions, whereby an incremental increase in pH (0.20 unit) and decrease in WBS (4.9 N) resulted in a 4-5% reduction in the proportion of consumers rating pork as ≥6 (favorable) on the 8-point scale. No interactions between quality and temperature effects were observed. Increased cooked temperature was negatively (P < 0.05) associated with Overall-Like and Tenderness ratings, but the incremental effect was small. Juiciness-Like and Level responses decreased by 0.50 units as temperature increased across the range. Consumer responses favor pork with lower WBS, greater pH and IMF, and pork cooked to a lower temperature. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dzikamunhenga R.S.,Iowa State University | Anthony R.,University of Alaska Anchorage | Coetzee J.,Iowa State University | Gould S.,Iowa State University | And 6 more authors.
Animal Health Research Reviews | Year: 2014

Routine procedures carried out on piglets (i.e. castration, tail docking, teeth clipping, and ear notching) are considered painful. Unfortunately the efficacy of current pain mitigation modalities is poorly understood. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the existing primary scientific literature regarding the effectiveness of pain management interventions used for routine procedures on piglets. The review question was, 'In piglets under twenty-eight days old, undergoing castration, tail docking, teeth clipping, and/or methods of identification that involve cutting of the ear tissue, what is the effect of pain mitigation compared with no pain mitigation on behavioral and non-behavioral outcomes that indicate procedural pain and post-procedural pain?' A review protocol was designed a priori. Data sources used were Agricola (EBSCO), CAB Abstracts (Thomson Reuters), PubMed, Web of Science (Thomson Reuters), BIOSIS Previews (Thomson Reuters), and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text. No restrictions on year of publication or language were placed on the search. Eligible studies assessed an intervention designed to mitigate the pain of the procedures of interest and included a comparison group that did not receive an intervention. Eligible non-English studies were translated using a translation service. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts for relevance using pre-defined questions. Data were extracted from relevant articles onto pre-defined forms. From the 2203 retrieved citations forty publications, containing 52 studies met the eligibility criteria. In 40 studies, piglets underwent castration only. In seven studies, piglets underwent tail docking only. In one study, piglets underwent teeth clipping only, and in one study piglets underwent ear notching only. Three studies used multiple procedures. Thirty-two trial arms assessed general anesthesia protocols, 30 trial arms assessed local anesthetic protocols, and 28 trial arms assessed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) protocols. Forty-one trial arms were controls where piglets received either placebo or no treatment. Forty-five outcomes were extracted from the studies, however only the results from studies that assessed cortisol (six studies), β-endorphins (one study), vocalisations (nine studies), and pain-related behaviors (nine studies) are reported. Other outcomes were reported in only one or two studies. Confident decision making will likely be difficult based on this body of work because lack of comprehensive reporting precludes calculation of the magnitude of pain mitigation for most outcomes. © Cambridge University Press 2014.

Knauer M.T.,North Carolina State University | Hostetler C.E.,National Pork Board
Journal of Swine Health and Production | Year: 2013

Objective: To quantify US swine production trends for sow-farm and grow-finish traits from a large available database. Materials and methods: Data were provided by a data management company, representing annual production of approximately 1.8 million sows in the United States. Sow-farm traits included pigs per mated female per year, litters per mated female per year, total number born, number born alive, number weaned, preweaning mortality, weaning age, weaning weight, replacement rate, culling rate, sow mortality, lactation-feed intake, and gestation-feed intake. Grow-finish traits included entry age, entry weight, exit age, exit weight, average daily gain, feed efficiency, caloric efficiency, and mortality. Results: From 2005 to 2010, pigs per mated female per year, litters per mated female per year, number born alive, number weaned, weaning age, weaning weight, and lactation-feed intake increased (P <. 05). Sow mortality decreased (P <. 05) and replacement rate did not change [P >. 05). Entry age and entry weight increased (P <. 05) for nursery and wean-to-finish pigs. Average daily gain improved for nursery and finishing production (P <. 05), but not for wean-to-finish (P >. 05). No improvements were made for finishing caloric efficiency (P >. 05), and wean-to-finish caloric efficiency worsened (P <. 05). Mortality for both finishing and wean-to-finish operations improved (P <. 05). Implications: Both scientists and producers can use these results to better understand US sow-farm and grow-finish production levels. Pig industry trends from 2005 to 2010 indicate varied degrees of improvement for pig production traits.

PubMed | Agricultural University of Athens, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, National Academy of science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2014

Trichinella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are important zoonotic parasites that infect warm blooded animals and humans worldwide. Among domesticated food animals, pigs are the main host for Trichinella spiralis. Pigs, chickens, sheep, and goats are known to be infected with T. gondii at varying rates, depending on husbandry. Infections in wildlife with these parasites are generally higher than in domesticated species. Feral swine act as reservoirs of infection in the sylvatic ecosystem for Trichinella spp. and T. gondii, acting as sources of infection for peridomestic carnivores whose home ranges overlap with domestic pigs. Feral swine can have direct contact with non-biosecure domestic pigs, presenting opportunity for direct disease transmission through cannibalistic behavior. Determination of the prevalence of Trichinella spp. and T. gondii infection in feral swine is needed to understand the risk of transmission of these parasites to domestic pigs. A cross-sectional serological survey was conducted between 2006 and 2010 to estimate the antibody prevalence of Trichinella spp. and T. gondii and risk factors associated with infection in feral swine in the USA. Serum samples were tested from 3247 feral pigs from 32 states; results are reported from 26 states. Maximum entropy ecological niche modeling and spatial scan statistic were utilized to predict the geographic range and to examine clusters of infection of Trichinella spp. and T. gondii in feral pigs. The seroprevalence of antibodies to Trichinella spp. and T. gondii was 3.0% and 17.7%, respectively. Species distribution modeling indicated that the most probable distribution areas for both parasites was similar, concentrated primarily in the South and the Midwest regions of the USA. A follow up survey conducted during 2012-2013 revealed that 2.9% of 984 sampled feral swine were seropositive for Trichinella spp., and 28.4% were seropositive for T. gondii. Three hundred and thirty (330) tongues were collected from the 984 sampled animals during 2012-2013; 1.81% were tissue positive for T. spiralis muscle larvae; no other genotypes were found. The potential exists for introduction of these pathogens into domestic herds of non-biosecure domestic pigs as a result of increasing overlap of the range of feral pigs with non-biosecure domestic pigs production facilities in the USA.

News Article | November 1, 2016

The non-profit Partnership for Food Safety Education and food industry sponsors team up to raise awareness about simple actions to reduce risk of foodborne illness ARLINGTON, VA--(Marketwired - November 01, 2016) - This holiday season millions of Americans will be cooking -- or eating -- a special holiday feast with family and friends. To support these home cooks in getting a safe and healthy meal on the table, the Partnership for Food Safety Education (PFSE) offers "The Story of Your Dinner" consumer education campaign. "With so many home cooks planning to prepare large meals over the holidays, coupled with the fact that one in six people become sick from a foodborne illness each year, this is the best time for reminders about the importance of safe food handling for good health," said Shelley Feist, PFSE executive director. "We're excited to tell 'The Story of Your Dinner' and to showcase the many food safety steps taken -- from farm and processing to retail and, finally, in the home kitchen -- to safely prepare food for our loved ones." At, the campaign stresses the importance of the "Core Four" Fight BAC!® home food safety practices: Useful at-home tips will be shared through the following: Learn about food safety and find educational materials at "The Story of Your Dinner" is a pilot project focused on reaching Southeastern audiences, including people from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee. Campaign sponsors, who demonstrate a collective commitment to engaging Americans on the importance of food safety, include Cargill, Coca-Cola, the Frozen Food Foundation, Nestlé USA and Publix Super Markets. About the Partnership for Food Safety Education The non-profit Partnership for Food Safety Education is the originator of science-based food safety messages and the national leader in developing and disseminating information around the linkage of food safety consumer education with positive health outcomes. Food safety and health educators, and consumers, can download free food safety education information from the Partnership's website at The Partnership is the creator and steward of the popular Fight BAC!® national food safety education campaign. The Partnership is supported by the Food Marketing Institute, the Grocery Manufacturers Association, NSF International, the Produce Marketing Association, and the National Pork Board among other leading industry associations, professional societies in food science, nutrition and health, and consumer groups. Cargill provides food, agriculture, financial and industrial products and services to the world. Together with farmers, customers, governments and communities, the company helps people thrive by applying its insights and 150 years of experience. Cargill has 149,000 employees in 70 countries who are committed to feeding the world in a responsible way, reducing environmental impact and improving the communities where they live and work. For more information, visit The Coca-Cola Company ( : KO) is the world's largest beverage company, refreshing consumers with more than 500 sparkling and still brands and more than 3,800 beverage choices. Led by Coca-Cola, one of the world's most valuable and recognizable brands, our company's portfolio features 20 billion-dollar brands, 18 of which are available in reduced-, low- or no-calorie options. More than 1.9 billion servings of our beverages are enjoyed by consumers in more than 200 countries each day. With an enduring commitment to food and beverage safety, our company is focused on initiatives that ensure our production and distribution processes achieve world class food safety standards and that we continuously work to educate and inform consumers on good consumer food safety practices. For more information, visit Coca-Cola Journey at, follow us on Twitter at, visit our blog, Coca-Cola Unbottled, at or find us on LinkedIn at The Frozen Food Foundation exists to foster scientific research, public awareness and industry education regarding the nutritional, safety and societal attributes of frozen foods for the benefit of the common good. The Frozen Food Foundation is affiliated with the American Frozen Food Institute. To learn more, please visit Named one of "The World's Most Admired Food Companies" in Fortune magazine for nineteen consecutive years, Nestlé provides quality brands that bring flavor to life every day. From nutritious meals with Lean Cuisine® to baking traditions with Nestlé® Toll House®, Nestlé USA makes delicious, convenient, and nutritious food and beverages that make good living possible. That's what "Nestlé. Good Food, Good Life" is all about. Nestlé USA, with 2015 sales of $9.7 billion, is part of Nestlé S.A. in Vevey, Switzerland - the world's largest food company with a commitment to Nutrition, Health & Wellness - with 2015 sales of $92 billion. Nestlé is celebrating its 150th anniversary in 2016, and we're commemorating our legacy by honoring our past and rich history, engaging the present with our customers and consumers and looking forward to the future with our commitment to Creating Shared Value and Nutrition, Health and Wellness. For product news and information, visit or Publix is privately owned and operated by its 182,500 employees, with 2015 sales of $32.4 billion. Currently Publix has 1,120 stores in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, South Carolina and North Carolina. The company has been named one of Fortune's "100 Best Companies to Work for in America" for 19 consecutive years. In addition, Publix's dedication to superior quality and customer service is recognized among the top in the grocery business. For more information, visit the company's website,

News Article | March 1, 2017

ATLANTA, March 1, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- In 2016, the U.S. pork industry saw record-breaking pork production and strong ongoing consumer demand. Additionally, consumer interest in how food is produced is at an all-time high, leading the National Pork Board today to reaffirm its commitment...

DES MOINES, Iowa, Feb. 20, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- This week, food enthusiasts across the country will visit the Magic City to take part in the 2017 Food Network & Cooking Channel South Beach Wine & Food Festival (SOBEWFF), where the National Pork Board (NPB) returns as the Official...

News Article | February 24, 2017

New Consumer Campaign Is Key Component of Eastman's Latest Move in Expanding Category Leadership for its World Class LLumar® Products and Dealer Network KINGSPORT, TN--(Marketwired - Feb 24, 2017) - After years of category development, product and service innovation, dealer training and certification, Eastman Chemical Company ( : EMN), the world's leading manufacturer and marketer of high performance window tints that are used in automotive, residential and commercial applications -- today announced its plans to launch an aggressive consumer marketing campaign designed to capture growing consumer interest in automotive window film to accelerate demand for the LLumar® dealer network in North America, as a first phase in a multi-year plan. Darrell Reed, Performance Films Commercial Director for Americas, Europe, Middle East & Africa, told more than 300 attendees at the company's 2017 Elite Dealer Conference in Austin, Texas, that the campaign will both generate sales leads and help dealers more powerfully differentiate themselves from their competitors. The 2017 conference was one of the highest attended since the event began in the 1990s. "We see exciting growth potential for both our LLumar branded portfolio of films and our dealer network, particularly our LLumar® SelectPro™ dealers," said Reed. "Over the course of the last few years, we've invested in building the finest dealer network in the category and helping them separate themselves from their competition both in terms of technical professionalism and customer service." At last year's Elite Dealer Conference, Eastman overhauled its Elite Dealer Program, replacing it with LLumar SelectPro and a new professional certification process. Eastman's Strategy, Insights & Analytics team also systematically identified significant market opportunity among distinct consumer segments that seek actionable information on window film, its performance, and where to find superior dealers for installation. "Our LLumar SelectPro dealers are raising the bar and evolving quickly. You can see it in their stores, their websites, their work, their drive for growth and their confidence," said Reed. "So, we're continuing to invest in new tools, technology, and messaging to send more informed consumers than ever before their way." New Integrated Marketing Agency to Lead National Effort The campaign includes a newly forged relationship with Chicago-based marketing agency, Schafer Condon Carter (SCC) as well as the debut of a revamped website Eastman developed to support consumers' need for easy-to-understand expert information on the film selection and installation process. In addition to these new elements, Eastman continues to reinforce and celebrate its LLumar SelectPro dealer program across the country. SCC will develop a fully integrated, creative communications platform to reach consumers in key market segments that have high interest in the category. The multifaceted plan will tap a combination of influencer marketing, public relations programming, digital advertising and social media to drive consumers to the new website and support the LLumar dealer network. "The Eastman team has a vision and passion for growth that runs through their culture and we are delighted to work with such a sharp and motivated group," said David Selby, SCC President and Managing Partner. "Our team has excitedly and confidently accepted Eastman's challenge to collaborate in transforming the category. We see so much potential. We look forward to delivering a plan that motivates and inspires consumers and drives results for the LLumar brand." SCC's portfolio includes demand creation work for the Chicago Cubs (well before the team won the World Series Championship), PepsiCo's MIST TWST, Johnson & Johnson Wellness programs and IDEAL Industries Advanced Solutions and Tools businesses. New Website and Capabilities - "The Most Powerful Sales Tool Possible" The new is a single-source destination for consumers to obtain expert information and knowledgeable insights on films and the overall installation process. "We're thrilled to announce the robust evolution of," added Reed. "We set out to build our dealers the most powerful sales tool possible. The end result is a highly interactive experience that serves consumers who are shopping for film, with the information they need to make an informed decision." Some of the new features include: an enhanced buyers guide, product pages, videos, comparison tools and case studies. The new site aims to build trust with the consumer and provide multiple, easy touch points to find a dealer near them -- consumers can even search for a dealer by zip code right on the home page. Case studies and performance data help tell the full benefits story and more explicitly outline the differences between LLumar product offerings. Perhaps most exciting, the site offers LLumar SelectPro Dealer profile pages, a place for them to highlight their business and provide consumers the information they need to buy -- including the ability to connect with the dealer right away from their laptop or mobile phone. For more information and to check out the new features, visit New Product Innovations - "Based on Consumer Insights to Drive Consumer Demand" As part of this year's Elite Dealer Conference, Eastman announced the launch of Stratos™, a new high-end product series of automotive window tint under the FormulaOne® High Performance Auto Tint by LLumar® line, exclusive to LLumar SelectPro dealers. Stratos is based on breakthrough Hybrid-Matrix™ technology, specifically developed for discerning, ever-more connected consumers, to completely solve their needs for aesthetics, heat rejection, and no signal interference. Based on growing consumer demand for LLumar Paint Protection Film, Eastman also introduced LLumar Platinum Paint Protection Film to meet consumers' needs for protecting their cars and increasing their peace of mind. The new film continues to deliver the high-gloss, virtually invisible shield with self-healing properties that consumers love. In addition, it offers advancements with Hydrogard™ technology that results in distinct improvements for water, dirt, oil, and stain resistance, superior durability, and a new, longer 10-year manufacturer's limited warranty. About Eastman Chemical Company Eastman is a global advanced materials and specialty additives company that produces a broad range of products found in items people use every day. With a portfolio of specialty businesses, Eastman works with customers to deliver innovative products and solutions while maintaining a commitment to safety and sustainability. Its market-driven approaches take advantage of world-class technology platforms and leading positions in attractive end-markets such as transportation, building and construction and consumables. Eastman focuses on creating consistent, superior value for all stakeholders. As a globally diverse company, Eastman serves customers in more than 100 countries and had 2016 revenues of approximately $9.0 billion. The company is headquartered in Kingsport, Tennessee, USA and employs approximately 14,000 people around the world. For more information, visit About Schafer Condon Carter Schafer Condon Carter (SCC) is an independent creative and technology company that delivers transformative brand and business ideas to drive results for its clients. AOR clients include Procter & Gamble, Johnson & Johnson, National Pork Board, PepsiCo, Chicago Cubs, Ideal Industries, Friendly's Restaurants and Solo Cup Company among others. A simple mission drives SCC's entrepreneurial, results-driven culture: "Think Again." SCC's integrated assets include SCC|Digital, SCC|Social, SCC|Public Relations, MAKE247 Content Studio and SCC|Design Services. The company also operates a private equity portfolio, SCC|Ventures, which has holdings in the food and tech sectors. Headquartered in a landmark building in Chicago's historic West Loop district, SCC has a full-time staff of over 100. To learn more about SCC, visit:

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