The Instituto Politécnico Nacional is one of the largest public universities in Mexico with 171,581 students at the high school, undergraduate and postgraduate levels. It was founded on 1 January 1936 during the administration of President Lázaro Cárdenas del Río as a response to provide professional education to the most disadvantaged social classes in that historical period, a practice that is still maintained because it is one of the few vocational schools that are still maintained in the world.The institute consists of 98 academic units offering 293 courses of study. It includes 78 technical careers, 80 different undergraduate and 135 postgraduate programs. Its main campus, called Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos or Zacatenco, is situated on approximately 530 acres north Mexico City.The IPN is based primarily in Mexico City and its suburbs, but with several research institutes and facilities distributed over 22 different states. Wikipedia.
Juarez-Salazar R.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico
Applied Optics | Year: 2016
A geometrical model based on an inverse ray-tracing approach to describe the Ronchi test for a concave spherical mirror is presented. In contrast to the conventional ray-tracing method, which refers to information unavailable in ronchigrams, the proposed model provides an explicit relation between the available information in the ronchigram and the parameters of the setup (radius of the sphere, position of the source, position and orientation of the observation, and grating planes). This allows for extracting the parameters of interest by a simple fitting procedure, as demonstrated by an application. The derived model exhibits new unexplored potential applications of the Ronchi test, establishing it as a very useful, simple, and universal tool for optical evaluation. © 2016 Optical Society of America.
National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico and Mexican Institute of Petroleum | Date: 2015-06-12
Bacterial cultures of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans are isolated, maintained and identified and used in the treatment of materials containing sulfur-compounds, such as contaminated and/or spent catalysts with elemental sulfur (S). Bacterial cultures of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans exhibit sulfur-oxidizing activity particularly useful in the transformation of elemental sulfur (S) to sulfates (SO_(4)), a compound soluble in water (H_(2)O) and usable in industry. The bacterial cultures of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans are mainly used as a biological or biotechnological procedure for the treatment of contaminated and/or spent catalysts with elemental sulfur (S) hazardous contaminated wastes that are mainly, but not exclusively, from the Claus process that operates at environmental conditions; does not impact the environment or ecosystem; and recovers 91-100% of the elemental sulfur (S) in sulfate form (SO_(4)).
Pena-Ayala A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2014
This review pursues a twofold goal, the first is to preserve and enhance the chronicles of recent educational data mining (EDM) advances development; the second is to organize, analyze, and discuss the content of the review based on the outcomes produced by a data mining (DM) approach. Thus, as result of the selection and analysis of 240 EDM works, an EDM work profile was compiled to describe 222 EDM approaches and 18 tools. A profile of the EDM works was organized as a raw data base, which was transformed into an ad-hoc data base suitable to be mined. As result of the execution of statistical and clustering processes, a set of educational functionalities was found, a realistic pattern of EDM approaches was discovered, and two patterns of value-instances to depict EDM approaches based on descriptive and predictive models were identified. One key finding is: most of the EDM approaches are ground on a basic set composed by three kinds of educational systems, disciplines, tasks, methods, and algorithms each. The review concludes with a snapshot of the surveyed EDM works, and provides an analysis of the EDM strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats, whose factors represent, in a sense, future work to be fulfilled. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shkvarko Y.V.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2010
This paper considers the problem of high-resolution remote sensing (RS) of the environment formalized in the terms of a nonlinear ill-posed inverse problem of estimation of the power spatial spectrum pattern (SSP) of the wavefield scattered from an extended remotely sensed scene via processing the discrete measurements of a finite number of independent realizations of the observed degraded data signals [single realization of the trajectory signal in the case of synthetic aperture radar (SAR)]. We address a new descriptive experiment design regularization (DEDR) approach to treat the SSP reconstruction problem in the uncertain RS environment that unifies the paradigms of maximum likelihood nonparametric spectral estimation, descriptive experiment design, and worst case statistical performance optimization-based regularization. Pursuing such an approach, we establish a family of the DEDR-related SSP estimators that encompass a manifold of algorithms ranging from the traditional matched filter to the modified robust adaptive spatial filtering and minimum variance beamforming methods. The theoretical study is resumed with the development of a fixed-point iterative DEDR technique that incorporates the regularizing projections onto convex solution sets into the SSP reconstruction procedures to enforce the robustness and convergence. For the imaging SAR application, the proposed DEDR approach is aimed at performing, in a single optimized processing, adaptive SAR focusing, speckle reduction and RS scene image enhancement, and accounts for the possible presence of uncertain trajectory deviations. © 2009 IEEE.
Gould V.F.C.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico
Neurotherapeutics | Year: 2012
Summary: Machado-Joseph disease, also called spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (MJD/SCA3), is a hereditary and neurodegenerative movement disorder caused by ataxin-3 with a pathological polyglutamine stretch (mutant ataxin-3). Seven transgenic mouse models expressing full-length human mutant ataxin-3 throughout the brain have been generated and are compared in this review. They vary in the corresponding transgenic DNA constructs with differences that include the encoded human ataxin-3 isoform(s), number of polyglutamine(s), and the promoter driving transgene expression. The behaviors/signs evaluated in most models are body weight, balance/coordination, locomotor activity, gait, limb position, and age at death. The pathology analyzed includes presence of neuronal intranuclear inclusions, and qualitative evidence of neurodegeneration. On the basis of striking similarities in age-range of detection and number of behavior/sign abnormalities and pathology, all but 1 mouse model could be readily sorted into groups with high, intermediate, and low severity of phenotype. Stereological analysis of neurodegeneration was performed in the same brain regions in 2 mouse models; the corresponding results are consistent with the classification of the mouse models. © 2012 The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc.
Del Toro-De Leon G.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico |
Garcia-Aguilar M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico |
Gillmor C.S.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico
Nature | Year: 2014
Zygotic genome activation in metazoans typically occurs several hours to a day after fertilization, and thus maternal RNAs and proteins drive early animal embryo development. In plants, despite several molecular studies of post-fertilization transcriptional activation, the timing of zygotic genome activation remains a matter of debate. For example, two recent reports that used different hybrid ecotype combinations for RNA sequence profiling of early Arabidopsis embryo transcriptomes came to divergent conclusions. One identified paternal contributions that varied by gene, but with overall maternal dominance, while the other found that the maternal and paternal genomes are transcriptionally equivalent. Here we assess paternal gene activation functionally in an isogenic background, by performing a large-scale genetic analysis of 49 EMBRYO DEFECTIVE genes and testing the ability of wild-type paternal alleles to complement phenotypes conditioned by mutant maternal alleles. Our results demonstrate that wild-type paternal alleles for nine of these genes are completely functional 2 days after pollination, with the remaining 40 genes showing partial activity beginning at 2, 3 or 5 days after pollination. Using our functional assay, we also demonstrate that different hybrid combinations exhibit significant variation in paternal allele activation, reconciling the apparently contradictory results of previous transcriptional studies. The variation in timing of gene function that we observe confirms that paternal genome activation does not occur in one early discrete step, provides large-scale functional evidence that maternal and paternal genomes make non-equivalent contributions to early plant embryogenesis, and uncovers an unexpectedly profound effect of hybrid genetic backgrounds on paternal gene activity. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Davila J.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2013
In this technical note, a controller ensuring exponential exact tracking in the presence of matched and unmatched disturbances for the nonlinear systems in the block controllable form is proposed. The controller is designed using the backstepping procedure and combines the feedback linearization technique with the high-order sliding-modes. The matched and unmatched disturbances are compensated by the injection of a continuous term generated by the robust exact high-order sliding-modes differentiator. The obtained control law is differentiable and can be applied directly to the system. Simulations verify the performance of the proposed controller. © 1963-2012 IEEE.
National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Date: 2014-10-22
The present invention relates to a method for producing a transfer factor. The method comprises the following steps: freezing and thawing of peripheral-blood leukocytes, dialysis, tangential ultrafiltration, identification and quantification using high-resolution, molecular-exclusion liquid chromatography, and in vitro biological validation. The resulting product is suitable for medical use.
De Jesus Rubio J.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2014
In this paper, the modelling problem of brain and eye signals is considered. To solve this problem, three important evolving and stable intelligent algorithms are applied: the sequential adaptive fuzzy inference system (SAFIS), uniform stable backpropagation algorithm (SBP), and online self-organizing fuzzy modified least-squares networks (SOFMLS). The effectiveness of the studied methods is verified by simulations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Rubio J.J.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico
IET Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2012
In this study, the trajectory tracking problem of robotic arms is considered. To solve this problem, two novel modified optimal controllers based on neural networks are proposed. The uniform stability of both the tracking error and approximation error for the aforementioned controllers is guaranteed by means of a Lyapunov-like analysis. The effectiveness of the proposed controllers is verified by simulations. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.