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Islamabad, Pakistan

Biberman Y.,Skidmore College | Zahid F.,National Police Academy
Terrorism and Political Violence | Year: 2016

Why do terrorists engage in behavior that is extreme even by their own admission—killing children? This behavior poses a major puzzle to our understanding of terrorism, but it has been surprisingly underexplored. This article addresses the question of why terrorists intentionally target children with a comparative study of the two deadliest attacks in which children were deliberately targeted by a militant organization: the Peshawar (2014) and Beslan (2004) school massacres. The article identifies two factors that increase the likelihood that a terrorist group will target children. The first is the presence of internal rifts within an already highly violent organization. This is likely to trigger outbidding and, thus, result in more brutal attacks. The second is existentially threatening external pressure, which seriously weakens the group and, thus, leads it to select soft and shocking targets, such as schools. The findings are based on evidence drawn from primary and secondary sources, including interviews conducted in Peshawar and Islamabad, Pakistan, and Moscow, Russia. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Source


Ozgul F.,National Police Academy | Erdem Z.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2015

In this paper we presented resilience measure for criminal networks which is tested on two real criminal networks. We investigated resilience results in parallel with their activities, their recruitment policy, and growth of network, their survival strategy and secrecy after they are prosecuted. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Source


Ozgul F.,National Police Academy | Erdem Z.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2015

In order to understand crime networks, criminological and practical knowledge should be merged. Criminals are similar, criminals are different. Crime networks can be categorized but still the links, actors, and characteristics are different. This paper gives a literature review of crime networks from criminological as well as network analysis views. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Source


Moriyama M.,University of Electro - Communications | Moriyama M.,National Police Academy | Fujii T.,University of Electro - Communications
IEICE Transactions on Communications | Year: 2015

In this paper, a novel synchronization method is proposed for a heterogeneous cognitive radio that combines public safety mobile communication systems (PMCSs) with commercial mobile wireless communication systems (CMWCSs). The proposed method enables selfsynchronization of the PMCSs as well as co-synchronization of PMCSs and CMWCSs. In this paper, the self-synchronization indicates that each system obtains own timing synchronization. The co-synchronization indicates that a system recognizes data transmitted from other systems correctly. In our research, we especially focus on PMCS self-synchronization because it is one of the most difficult parts of our proposed cognitive radio that improves PMCS's communication quality. The proposed method is utilized for systems employing differentially encoded π/4 shift QPSK modulation. The synchronization can be achieved by correlating envelopes calculated from a PMCS's received signals with subsidiary information (SI) sent via a CMWCS. In this paper, the performance of the proposed synchronization method is evaluated by computer simulation. Moreover, because this SI can also be used to improve the bit error rate (BER) of PMCSs, BER improvement and efficient SI sending methods are derived, after which their performance is evaluated. Copyright © 2015 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers. Source


Saito M.,National Police Academy | Ishibashi K.,Nippon Telegraph and Telephone
8th Asia-Pacific Symposium on Information and Telecommunication Technologies, APSITT 2010 | Year: 2010

uRPF is a widely used technology for filtering source IP spoofed packets by using route information. With uRPF filtering, a router automatically updates filtering rules based on its route information and does not require manual changes by operators. However, uRPF, specifically when it is in strict mode, has a drawback in that it may incorrectly detect packets as spoofed when a route is asymmetric, i.e., the routes from and to the sender are different from each other. This is due to uRPF using the internal (receiving router's own) route information. In this paper, we present a method for filtering using external route information. Here, external means that the route information of sender routers is included. Generally, however, the route information of sender routers is not available. Thus, we use publicly available route information, which is provided by research projects, and infer the route information of sender routers. Source

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