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Fu W.C.,Southwest forestry University | Tian K.,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center | Tian K.,Chongqing University | Xiao D.R.,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2014

In the present study, Jianhu, a typical degraded plateau wetland in Northwesten Yunnan, is selected as the study site and for the efficiency assessment of an ecological restoration project. The aim of the this study is to provide a scientific basis for restoring degraded wetlands and treating water pollution problems in Yunnan Plateau area, and to maintain ecological stability of associated lake ecosystems. The result showed that after two years' ecological restoration effort, estuarine landscape structure has been greatly improved with diversified landscape and optimized spatial structure. Also, water quality has been improved, with the transparency of the water body increased by 101%, and the concentrations of TN, NH+ 4 -N, NO- 3 -N, TP and COD significantly decreased by 62.5%, 89.3%, 62.5%, 91.7% and 68.0%, respectively. The purification process of water suggests that the sediment treatment has improved the hydrological conditions in the estuarine environment, and the selection of plant species should be based on nutrient content of the sewage. Also, a high proportion of submerge plants could be used to enhance purification effect. However, the purification effect varied for wetlands with different plant communities, which suggest that aquatic plants have different preference to nitrogen and phosphorus, and they have established complex interactions. Also, once exposed to different nutrient content, the same plant species could display varying levels of water purification function. Therefore, to better deal with sewage problem, it is essential to select the right plant species for community assembly purpose according to water pollution levels. Meanwhile, it is necessary to adjust the composition of plant community according to the change of water quality so that plants could grow well, the stability of the wetland ecosystem could be maintained, and the recovery of ecosystem functions and services could be sustained. After the degraded wetland is restored, it would offer multiple ecosystem services each year, with the yield value of the water purifying effect estimated as RMB 1850000 yuan, the yield value of biodiversity conservation, ecological tourism and other ecosystem services estimated as RMB 327000 yuan, and the market value of the ecological agriculture system estimated as RMB 2700000 yuan. Therefore, the comprehensive benefits of economy, society and ecology could be accomplished, and the goal of demonstrating restoration feasibility of a degraded plateau wetland is fulfilled.


Liang Q.B.,Southwest forestry University | Liu Y.G.,Southwest forestry University | Tian K.,Southwest forestry University | Tian K.,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

The study aimed at phosphorus and nitrogen removal by honeycomb cinder modified with Zinc chloride (ZnCl2). By bench-scale batch experiments, honeycomb cinders with different modification time and ZnCl2 dosage were modified and its adsorption capacities were evaluated by methylence blue as the adsorbate. Under the optimal modification conditions, large amount modified honeycomb cinders were prepared to remove the phosphorus and nitrogen from domestic sewage, which different operating conditions of honeycomb cinders dosage, and contact time were considered. The results show that removal efficiencies of total phosphate (TP), orthophosphate (PO4 3--P), total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) could reach 89.9%, 96.7%, 18.9% and 23.3% under the optimal conditions, respectively. Modified honeycomb cinders might be an effective and low cost adsorbent for phosphorus removal. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Lai J.-D.,Southwest forestry University | Tian K.,Southwest forestry University | Tian K.,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center | Guo X.-L.,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center | Fan Q.-F.,Southwest forestry University
Wetland Science | Year: 2014

The marshes, marshy meadows and meadows in Napahai wetlands were selected to study the distribution and variation of soil organic carbon and soil microbial biomass carbon contents. The results showed that the mean contents of organic carbon of various soil layers (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-40 cm) in marshes, marshy meadows and meadows in the depth of 0-40 cm varied from (18.02 ± 0.24) to (258.44 ± 3.37) g/kg. They were significantly different (p<0.05) and declined as the increase of soil depth. The mean contents of microbial biomass carbon of various soil layers in the marshy meadows, marshes and meadows all were higher in the surface soil layer (0-10 cm), the contents were (446.23 ± 98.72) mg/kg, (204.23 ± 44.90) mg/kg and (158.64 ± 65.24) mg/kg, respectively. It appeared the similar regularity of the vertical variations as soil organic carbon. The mean contents of soil microbial biomass carbon of the marshes, marshy meadows and meadows were different, that of marshy meadows was the highest (940.00 mg/kg), but that of meadows was lowest. There were significant correlation relationships between the soil organic carbon content, microbial biomass carbon content and soil moisture, suggested that the drainage by human disturbances was the main cause.


Liang Q.,Southwest forestry University | Liu Y.,Southwest forestry University | Tian K.,Southwest forestry University | Tian K.,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center | Wang W.,Southwest forestry University
Chinese Journal of Environmental Engineering | Year: 2013

The neural network model was build to predict treatment efficiency of the constructed wetland because of the complex decontamination mechanism and nonlinear. In 4 month experiment, 56 groups of COD removal rate were obtained from constructed wetland with different compound substrates. To predict the COD removal rate, the models based on the radial basis function(RBF) and Elman neural network were presented after wavelet de-noising under the environment of Matlab. The results showed that the RMS error of RBF and Elman neural network are 0.0186 and 0.0163, respectively, which means that the precision of the model is high. The COD removal rates are 49.4%~59.0%.


Yang H.-S.,Southwest forestry University | Tian K.,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center | Yao X.,Southwest forestry University | Cao P.-L.,Southwest forestry University
Chinese Journal of Ecology | Year: 2015

Dam enlargement can lead to the increasing distribution area of flooded wetlands. In the present study, soil samples along a flooding gradient in Lashihai Plateau wetland were collected and analyzed in order to understand the distribution patterns of soil organic matter and total nitrogen, and the differences in their contents before and after the dam impoundment were compared. The results showed that compared to the unflooded area, the contents of soil organic matter and total nitrogen in the flooded area were higher. Also, as the flood intensity increased, the contents of organic matter and total nitrogen first increased and then decreased. As far as the same flood intensity was concerned, the soils severely affected by human activities (e.g., abandoned cropland soils) had lower levels of organic matter and total nitrogen than the undisturbed soils (e.g., meadow soil). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the contents of organic matter and total nitrogen were significantly changed in the perennial waterlogging area (P<0.05) but not in the seasonal flooding area with the alternation of wet and dry seasons (P>0.05). Correlation analysis showed that flood intensity was positively correlated with soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents (P<0.01). Also, soil organic matter was positively correlated with total N (P<0.01). The results could provide basic data to evaluate the impacts of dam impoundment on wetland ecosystems and also a theoretical basis for protection and management of plateau wetland ecosystems. © 2015, editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Ecology. All rights reserved.


Yao X.,Southwest forestry University | Tian K.,Southwest forestry University | Tian K.,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center | Xiao D.-R.,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Ecology | Year: 2015

Effects of different intensities of pig forage disturbance on plant community diversity nd soil physicochemical properties in meadow wetlands in Napahai Natural Reserve were studied. The results showed that the species number, plant diversity (including indexes of Shannon diversity , Margalef richness, and Pielou evenness), and biomass (below- and aboveground) decreased as the grazing intensity increased. As the soil depth increased, the soil bulk density decreased first and then increased under light-intensity forage but its change was reversed under medium to heavy disturbance. The content of soil organic matter decreased as the grazing intensity increased. The soil organic matter content also decreased with the increase of soil depth, especially in the upper layer. Unreasonable grazing of pig was the main reason causing decrease in plant diversity, destruction of soil structure, and decline in content of soil organic matter. © 2015, editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Ecology. All rights reserved.


Yang Q.,Southwest forestry University | Tian K.,Southwest forestry University | Tian K.,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center | Xiao D.-R.,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2012

Selecting the restoration site of Napahai, a representative degraded wetland in Northwest Yunnan Plateau, as test object, a comparative study was made on the changes of plant community species composition, water quality, and soil organic matter (OM) and total nitrogen (TN) contents within stream way, meadow, and lakeside before and after vegetation restoration, aimed to verify the effectiveness of integrated ecosystem restoration at catchment scale. In the early restoration period, the plants at the study site increased from 13 to 28 species, 12 to 22 genera, and 8 to 18 families, and the aboveground biomass increased from 318.56 g·m-2 to 507.68 g·m-2. The plant community structure and composition in lakeside and riverside had an obvious change before and after the vegetation restoration. Pollution-tolerant species diminished or disappeared, while the primary swamp communities of Sparganium stoloniferum and Batrachium bungei appeared after their disappearance for many years. After vegetation restoration, soil OM and TN contents increased from 28.85 g·kg-1 and 0.79 g·kg-1 to 50.26 g·kg-1 and 1.45 g·kg-1, respectively. The TN and TP contents and COD in the water decreased significantly, and their removal rates reached to 67.9%, 79.2%, and 71.2%, respectively. The transparency of water body increased to 179%, indicating that the structure and function of the wetland ecosystem had been substantially improved and restored. It was concluded that the vegetation restoration measures and technology used in closed or half-closed plateau wetland area were effective.


Li Y.,Southwest forestry University | Tian K.,Southwest forestry University | Tian K.,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center | Xiao D.-r.,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Ecology | Year: 2012

Field investigation in combining with laboratory simulation test was conducted to study the effects of 7 lakeside plant communities commonly found in plateau wetlands on the purification of different concentration urban sewage, aimed to provide reference to the selection and spatial allocation of plants for the recovery of degraded wetlands and the treatment of polluted lakes in Yunna Plateau of Southwest China. The test lakeside plant communities had definite limitations in enduring and purifying urban sewage. Only under the conditions of suitable sewage concentration (total nitrogen 8.39-22.95 mg· L-1, total phosphorous 0.61-1.96 mg· L-1, and NH4 +-N 6.42-19.80 mg· L-1), the plant communities could have effective and obvious purification effects, with the removal rate of total phosphorous and NH4 +-N reached over 30% and that of total nitrogen nearly 20%. Under high sewage concentration, the plant communities composed of the species in favor of nitrogen and phosphorus, such as Zizana caduciflora, Potamogeton pectinnatus and Ceratophyllum demersum, showed better purification effects. There existed significant differences in the purification effects among the plant communities composed of one same species but different other species (P<0.05), indicating the interactions among the plant species. It was suggested that plant species selection and their spatial allocation would have great significance in the bio-treatment of polluted lakes and the ecological recovery of degraded wetlands.


Guo X.,Southwest forestry University | Xiao D.,Southwest forestry University | Xiao D.,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center | Tian K.,Southwest forestry University | And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2013

Biomass production and litter decomposition of wetland plants are two important phases for carbon cycle of wetland ecosystems and its trade-off is essential for the carbon sink function and carbon sequestration research on wetland ecosystems. Napahai wetland, one of the 12 Ramsar plateau wetlands, is located in the northwest Yunnan plateau. It is a typical wetland with enclosed and semi-enclosed character and its high biodiversity and uniqueness has received considerable concern worldwide. However, there is few studies on its ecological function of regional carbon cycle and greenhouse gas trade-off under a chilly and humid plateau climate. In this paper, three dominant lakeshore plants, Zizania caducifolia, Scirpus tabernaemontani and Heleocharis liouana were selected as target species. For each species their community characteristics and aboveground biomass were measured by field survey and harvesting, and their litter decomposition rate was determined by mesh bag method. The aims of this study were 1) to quantify biomass retention among these species and 2) to gain insights into the carbon cycle process of wetland ecosystems and their roles of different lakeshore plants. The results showed that Zizania caducifolia, Scirpus tabernaemontani, and Heleocharis liouana all formed typical lakeshore monoculture communities with high biomass that varied among species. Aboveground biomass of Zizania caducifolia (853.6±58.2) g·m-2· a-1 was significantly higher than those of Scirpus tabernaemontani (730.7±7.8) g·m·-2 a-1, and Heleocharis liouana (338. 9 ±32. 6) g·m-2·a-1. In addition of a general trend of increase with rising mean monthly temperatures, their litter decomposition rates differed. The decomposition rate value k of Heleocharis liouana (0.067 ± 0.0026) was the largest, followed by Zizania caducifolia (0. 062±0. 0072) and Scirpus tabernaemontani (0. 039 ± 0.0062). Meanwhile, after one-year decomposition, the litter residual was (62. 0±8. 8)%, (47. 5±9. 0)% and (44. 5± 7. 9)% for Scirpus tabernaemontani, Zizania caducifolia and Heleocharis liouana respectively. Further analysis showed that the annual retention of aboveground biomass of Scirpus tabernaemontani (453. 1±4. 9) g·m·-2 a-1 was significantly higher than those of Zizania caducifolia (405. 4±27. 7) g·m-2·a-1 and Heleocharis liouana (150. 9±14. 5) g·m-2·a-1. These results indicated that litter decomposition rate of the lakeshore plants were low under the chilly and humid condition of Napahai wetland. Consequently a large amount of biomass of lakeshore plants could be accumulated into the soil in the form of organic matter, which served as a carbon sink function in such ecosystem. This study obtained a primary picture on carbon sink function and carbon sink process in Napahai wetland in the northwestern Yunnan Plateau and further study on plant-specific processes and their roles is needed to reveal the carbon sequestration processes and functions in this region.


Dong Y.,Southwest forestry University | Tian K.,Southwest forestry University | Tian K.,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center | Xiao D.,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2014

Plateau wetland provides an ecological protection barrier for the safety of watershed. As appearance of global climate warming and climatic anomaly, to understand the physiological and biochemical response of aquatic plants in the plateau region to the climate change and the harms under the temperature stress is critical for maintaining the plateau ecosystem and dealing with the climate change. 4 dominant plant species of Scirpus tabernaemontani, Zizania caduciflora and Heleocharis liouana, Sparganium simplex with their original soils in the lakeside of Napahai, a typical wetland in plateau region of northwestern Yunnan were selected to study the impacts of regional climate condition variations on physiological and biochemical properties of those plants. Got with local climate conditions of Napahai in Shangrila those plants with their growing soils were removed as a soil-plant unit to Lashi Lake in Lijiang and Dianchi watershed in Kunming where the climate conditions are different. Comparing with original growing area, the variations of index of physiological and biochemical to indicate adversity stress, including MDA, Pro, SS and POD were analyzed under the impacts of climatic change. The results showed that even though wetland plant is azonal plant but affected significantly by the climate change and the response to the climate change was different from plants. Such widespread species as Scirpus tabernaemontani and Zizania caduciflora could well adapt to climate warming and grow better. With temperature rise, both of their biomass increased to 196% and 190% in Lashihai Lake and 487% and 408% in Dianchi watershed, respectively. But content of MDA, Pro,POD all fell from 16%, 27%, 14% in Lashi Lake to 31%, 52%, 48% in Dianchi watershed for Scirpus tabernaemontani, and 24%, 12%, 58% in Lashihai Lake to 24%, 25%, 73% in Dianchi watershed for Zizania caduciflora, respectively. In spite of the stress of climate change, Heleocharis liouana, another widespread species could resist the alterability through its own metabolic regulations, which reflected the strong climate adaptability of widespread species. By contrast, Sparganium simplex, a narrowly spread species sustained great damage for it was too sensitive to the climate change. With the temperature rise the biomass rising at beginning to 17% in Lashihai Lake, and then dropped to 20% in Dianchi watershed. MDA and Pro decreased at beginning to 0. 001387 µmol/g and 13. 386891 µg/g, and then increased to 0.002739 µmol/g and 18.172878 µg/g, respectively. For such a narrow distribution species, it would face the survival crisis along with the change of the climate conditions. That reflected the fragility of plateau wetland ecosystem and its importance under global warming. Thus, the potential ecological risk behind the maintaining of plateau wetland ecosystem was revealed. © 2014 Science Press. All rights reserved.

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