National Plant Quarantine Service

Incheon, South Korea

National Plant Quarantine Service

Incheon, South Korea
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Byun B.-K.,Hannam University | Lee B.-W.,Korea National Arboretum | Lee E.-S.,Chungbuk National University | Choi D.-S.,National Plant Quarantine Service | And 4 more authors.
Animal Cells and Systems | Year: 2012

We reviewed the genus Adoxophyes (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from Korea and recognized three species of the genus. Among them, A. paraorana sp. nov., formerly misidentified as A. orana in Korea, is described as new to science. Adoxophyes orana, a notorious pest known in most Eurasian countries for a long time, turns out to be only recently introduced or found in Korea. Photographs of the adults and genitalia of the species are provided. Specific distinction was supported by the COI barcode study. © 2012 Copyright Korean Society for Integrative Biology.

Kim H.,Ewha Womans University | Choi H.,Seoul National University | Ji J.,National Plant Quarantine Service | Jang Y.,Ewha Womans University | Lee S.,Seoul National University
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology | Year: 2011

The genus Illinoia is found primarily in North America. Illinoia (Illinoia) liriodendri (Monell in Riley and Monell), the tulip tree aphid, is recognized for the first time in Korea. Colonies of I. liriodendri were found on tulip trees, Liriodendron tulipifera L. (Magnoliaceae), in Osan and Seoul, Korea. Illinoia liriodendri feeds on the underside of tulip tree leaves. We report the tulip tree aphid with re-descriptions, illustrations, and measurements for apterous and alate viviparous females. © 2011 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.

Kim H.,Ewha Womans University | Kim M.,Seoul National University | Ho Kwon D.,Seoul National University | Park S.,Seoul National University | And 7 more authors.
Animal Cells and Systems | Year: 2011

Lycorma delicatula (White 1845), which has been recently introduced into Korea, is a notorious pest on grapes. This invasive insect has rapidly spread throughout central and southern Korea. To date, we have no behavioral or population genetics information, such as invasion routes and subsequent dispersal rates in Korea, to help understand and control populations of L. delicatula. Here, we have developed 15 novel microsatellite loci for L. delicatula. The isolated loci were polymorphic, with 2 to 19 alleles in 42 individuals from a single population in Korea. The analyses revealed that all 42 individuals had different multilocus genotypes with heterozygosity ranging from 0.214 to 0.866. Eleven of the 15 loci did not deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The isolated markers will facilitate population genetic studies of L. delicatula. © 2011 Copyright Korean Society for Integrative Biology.

Kim Y.,Seoul National University | Kim M.,Seoul National University | Hong K.-J.,National Plant Quarantine Service | Lee S.,Seoul National University
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology | Year: 2011

The citrus flatid planthopper, Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (Hemiptera: Flatidae), has a native distribution in eastern North America, It has recently invaded Italy in 1979 and has since spread to other European countries. In 2009, Metcalfa pruinosa was discovered in Seoul and the Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. This is the first record in the eastern part of Palaearctic. One year after its discovery, in July 2010, we found significant populations and serious damage on many deciduous forest trees, ornamental trees, and agricultural crops in central regions of the Korean Peninsula. In this paper, we report the status of the outbreak and discuss the biology, morphological characters, distribution, host plants, and the importance of M. pruinosa as a potential insect pest in the Korean Peninsula. © 2011 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society.

Lee W.,Seoul National University | Kim H.,Seoul National University | Lim J.,Seoul National University | Choi H.-R.,Seoul National University | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2011

DNA barcode (mitochondrial COI) sequences are provided for species identification of aphids from the Korean Peninsula. Most (98%) of the 154 species had distinct COI sequences (average 0.05% intraspecific pairwise divergence) relative to the degree of sequence divergence among species (average value 5.84%). For species in common with other regions, barcodes for Korean samples fell near or within known levels of variation. Based on these results, we conclude that DNA barcodes can provide an effective tool for identifying aphid species in such applications as pest management, monitoring and plant quarantine. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Yim K.-O.,National Plant Quarantine Service | Lee H.-I.,National Plant Quarantine Service | Kim J.-H.,National Plant Quarantine Service | Lee S.-D.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

Phenotypic variants of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) were isolated from pepper fields and from pepper seeds during quarantine inspections. All strains isolated from pepper (pepper isolates) produced orange-coloured colonies with lower mucoidy than typical Cmm strains isolated from tomato (tomato isolates). However, the results of ELISA, fatty acid analysis, 16S rDNA sequencing, and PCR analysis showed that all pepper isolates were similar enough to be identified as Cmm. In addition to phenotypic variations, the pepper isolates showed different pathogenic and genetic characteristics from tomato isolates from the USA, Europe, or other countries. They could be clearly distinguished in terms of pathogenicity, as they showed increased pathogenicity to pepper but reduced pathogenicity to tomato. Tomato isolates caused strong wilting and canker in tomato, but caused only canker and no wilting in pepper and bell pepper. However, pepper isolates caused no wilting, even in tomato, and only caused canker in the three host plants. In addition, compared to tomato isolates, pepper isolates showed increased colonization efficiency and caused a greater reduction in shoot dry weight in pepper. Pepper and tomato isolates could be separated into two groups according to host origin on the basis of 16S rDNA and ITS sequence analysis. They also showed different rep-PCR genomic fingerprints. All pepper isolates showed higher cellulase activity than tomato isolates on M9CMC plates. However, two plasmid-borne virulence genes of Cmm, pat-1, and celA, were not detected in any pepper isolates by PCR. Furthermore, PCR for pathogenicity-related genes located on a pathogenicity island (PAI) revealed that all tomato isolates were positive for these genes, whereas the pepper isolates did not show any PCR products for the chpC, chpG, ppaA, or tomA genes. Therefore, we suggest that the pepper isolates may represent a separate Cmm population that has evolved within the limits of this host. © 2011 The Author(s).

Kong H.G.,Dong - A University | Kim J.-C.,Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology | Choi G.J.,Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology | Lee K.Y.,Dong - A University | And 4 more authors.
Plant Pathology Journal | Year: 2010

Bacillus licheniformis N1, previously developed as a biofungicide formulation N1E to control gray mold disease of plants, was investigated to study the bacterial traits that may be involved in its biological control activity. Two N1E based formulations, bacterial cell based formulation PN1E and culture supernatant based formulation SN1E, were evaluated for disease control activity against gray mold disease of tomato and strawberry plants. Neither PN1E nor SN1E was as effective as the original formulation N1E. Fractionation of antifungal compounds from the bacterial culture supernatant of B. licheniformis Nl indicated that two different cyclic lipo-peptides were responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the Nl strain. These two purified compounds were identified as iturin A and surfactin by HPLC and LC-MS. The purified lipopeptides were evaluated for plant disease control activity against seven plant diseases. Crude extracts and purified compounds applied at 500 μg/ml concentration controlled tomato gray mold, tomato late blight and pepper anthracnose effectively with over 70% disease control value. While iturin showed broad spectrum activity against all tested plant diseases, the control activity by surfactin was limited to tomato gray mold, tomato late blight, and pepper anthracnose. Although antifungal compounds from B. licheniformis Nl exhibited disease control activity, our results suggested that bacterial cells present in the N1E formulation also contribute to the disease control activity together with the antifungal compounds. © The Korean Society of Plant Pathology.

Bae C.H.,National Plant Quarantine Service | Bae C.H.,University of Arkansas | Robbins R.T.,University of Arkansas | Szalanski A.L.,University of Arkansas
Journal of Nematology | Year: 2010

The D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) were sequenced and compared to predict secondary structures for Hoplolaiminae species based on free energy minimization and comparative sequence analysis. The free energy based prediction method provides putative stem regions within primary structure and these base pairings in stems were confirmed manually by compensatory base changes among closely and distantly related species. Sequence differences ranged from identical between Hoplolaimus Columbus and H. seinhorsti to 20.8% between Scutellonema brachyurum and H. concaudajuvencus. The comparative sequence analysis and energy minimization method yielded 9 stems in the D2 and 6 stems in the D3 which showed complete or partial compensatory base changes. At least 75% of nucleotides in the D2 and 68% of nucleotides in the D3 were related with formation of base pairings to maintain secondary structure. GC contents in stems ranged from 61 to 73% for the D2 and from 64 to 71% for the D3 region. These ranges are higher than G-C contents in loops which ranged from 37 to 48% in the D2 and 33-45% in the D3. In stems, G-C/C-G base pairings were the most common in the D2 and the D3 and also non-canonical base pairs including A·A and U·U, C·U/U·C, and G·A/A·G occurred in stems. The predicted secondary model and new sequence alignment based on predicted secondary structures for the D2 and D3 expansion segments provide useful information to assign positional nucleotide homology and reconstruction of more reliable phylogenetic trees. © The Society of Nematologists 2010.

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