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Bonants P.J.M.,Plant Research International B.V | van Gent-Pelzer M.P.E.,Plant Research International B.V | van Leeuwen G.C.M.,National Plant Protection Organization NPPO NL | van der Lee T.A.J.,Plant Research International B.V
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Synchytrium endobioticum is a severe pathogen of potato causing wart disease. For this obligate fungus many pathotypes exist, which are pathogenic or non-pathogenic to different cultivars of potato. To determine to which pathotype an isolate belongs, two biological assays are used on a set of different potato cultivars: the Spieckermann and the Glynne-Lemmerzahl test. A differential set of cultivars has been recommended by EPPO (European Plant Protection Organization) for these tests. Drawbacks of these tests are that it can take up to several months to score the interaction and results are difficult to score and also often not conclusive. Therefore, possibilities were investigated to look for molecular markers for pathotype specificity. An extremely low level of diversity was observed in a set of eight isolates using CRoPS™ (Complexity Reduction of Polymorphic Sequences) technology. Only 191 sequence polymorphisms were found in 14,660 contigs representing approximately 195 Kb of sequence for eight isolates. Nine sequence polymorphisms could be related to pathotype specificity. Two of these polymorphisms were transferred into a real-time TaqMan PCR assay to discriminate between pathotype specific groups. Validation of the assays was performed using multiple isolates from different countries for which the bioassay had been performed. © 2015, Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging.

Flath K.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Przetakiewicz J.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization | van Rijswick P.C.J.,National Plant Protection Organization NPPO NL | Ristau V.,Julius Kuhn Institute | van Leeuwen G.C.M.,National Plant Protection Organization NPPO NL
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2014

Synchytrium endobioticum is a major quarantine pathogen of potato causing potato wart disease. In Europe, the pathotypes 1(D1), 2(G1), 6(O1) and 18(T1) are the most widespread and occur locally in almost all countries. Resistance to this disease in potato cultivars is tested for in the majority of the EU countries by the Glynne-Lemmerzahl method. This paper describes the results of testing two different protocols of this method in five laboratories of three different countries (Germany, Poland, and the Netherlands). The four pathotypes 1(D1), 2(G1), 6(O1) and 18(T1) were tested mainly on the cultivars described in the EPPO Standard PM 7/28 Synchytrium endobioticum. For pathotype 1(D1) and in most cases also for pathotype 18(T1), the results of the cultivars tested were identical to the rating in the EPPO Standard for both protocols. For pathotypes 2(G1) and 6(O1), the cultivars Désirée, Delcora and Miriam showed different results between laboratories as well as between the two protocols. In conclusion, further research is needed to develop one harmonised methodology for resistance testing of potato cultivars to the pathotypes 2(G1), 6(O1) and 18(T1) and to develop a new differential set of potato cultivars for the identification of pathotypes of S. endobioticum. © 2014 OEPP/EPPO.

van Valkenburg J.,National Plant Protection Organization NPPO NL | Brunel S.,European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization EPPO | Brundu G.,University of Sassari | Ehret P.,DRAAF Service Regional de lAlimentation Maison de lAgriculture | And 2 more authors.
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2014

Pathway analysis represents an effective means of identifying emerging invasive alien species. For plants, a significant number of invasions have been caused by plant species originally voluntary introduced as ornamentals. The pathway analysis for terrestrial ornamental plants imported from East Asia has been undertaken to provide information on the imports and to identify emerging terrestrial invasive alien plants. Data for terrestrial ornamental plants imported from East Asia into Austria, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Turkey was assembled at the genus level. Thousands of species of plants for planting are imported from East Asia in very large volumes. However, despite the fact that the data could only been analyzed at the genus level, it is considered that only a very limited number of taxa would become invasive. The potentially invasive alien species are already widely available in European nurseries and are principally produced within the European Union. © 2014 OEPP/EPPO.

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