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Xing J.,China Agricultural University | Sun Q.,China Agricultural University | Ni Z.,National Plant Gene Research Center Beijing
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics | Year: 2015

Heterosis is characterized by higher seed yields, plant biomass or other traits in heterozygotes or hybrids compared with their genetically divergent parents, which are often homozygous. Despite extensive investigation of heterosis and its wide application in crops such as maize, rice, wheat and sorghum, its molecular basis is still enigmatic. In the past century, some pioneers have proposed multigene models referring to the complementation of allelic and gene expression variation, which is likely to be an important contributor to heterosis. In addition, there are potential interactions of epigenetic variation involved in heterosis via novel mechanisms. At the level of gene expression, many recent studies have revealed that the heterosis phenomenon can be deciphered not only at the transcriptional level but also at the proteomic level. This review presents an update on the information supporting the involvement of proteomic patterns in heterosis and a possible future direction of the field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics - a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Yang J.,China Agricultural University | Zhao X.,China Agricultural University | Sun J.,China Agricultural University | Kang Z.,Northwest University, China | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Year: 2010

In Magnaporthe oryzae, pyriform conidia are the primary inoculum and the main source for disease dissemination in the Field. In this study, we identified and characterized the COM1 gene that was disrupted in three insertional mutants producing slender conidia. COM1 encodes a putative transcription regulator unique to filamentous ascomycetes. The com1 disruption and deletion mutants had similar defects in conidium morphology and were significantly reduced in virulence on rice and barley seedlings. Microscopic examination revealed that the △com1 mutants were defective in appressorium turgor generation, penetration, and infectious growth. COM1 was expressed constitutively in M. oryzae. The Com1 protein had putative helix-loop-helix structures and three predicted nuclear localization signal sequences. In transformants expressing COM1335-613-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion constructs, fluorescence signals were observed in the nucleus. Our data indicated that the COM1 gene may encode a novel transcription regulator that regulates conidial development and invasive growth in M. oryzae. © 2010 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

Wang Y.,China Agricultural University | Wang Y.,Peking University | Hou Y.,Peking University | Gu H.,Peking University | And 7 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2012

Summary The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is involved in regulating cell-cycle progression. It has been widely studied in yeast and animal cells, but the function and regulation of the APC/C in plant cells are largely unknown. The Arabidopsis APC/C comprises at least 11 subunits, only a few of which have been studied in detail. APC4 is proposed to be a connector in the APC/C in yeast and animals. Here, we report the functional characterization of the Arabidopsis APC4 protein. We examined three heterozygous plant lines carrying apc4 alleles. These plants showed pleiotropic developmental defects in reproductive processes, including abnormal nuclear behavior in the developing embryo sac and aberrant cell division in embryos; these phenotypes differ from those reported for mutants of other subunits. Some ovules and embryos of apc4/+ plants also accumulated cyclin B protein, a known substrate of APC/C, suggesting a compromised function of APC/C. Arabidopsis APC4 was expressed in meristematic cells of seedlings, ovules in pistils and embryos in siliques, and was mainly localized in the nucleus. Additionally, the distribution of auxin was distorted in some embryos of apc4/+ plants. Our results indicate that Arabidopsis APC4 plays critical roles in female gametogenesis and embryogenesis, possibly as a connector in APC/C, and that regulation of auxin distribution may be involved in these processes. © 2011 The Authors. Source

Ou B.,Peking University | Yin K.-Q.,Peking University | Liu S.-N.,Peking University | Yang Y.,Peking University | And 10 more authors.
Molecular Plant | Year: 2011

The activities of transcription factors (TFs) require interactions with specific DNA sequences and other regulatory proteins. To detect such interactions in Arabidopsis, we developed a high-throughput screening system with a Gateway-compatible Gal4-AD-TF library of 1589 Arabidopsis TFs, which can be easily screened by mating-based yeast-one-hybrid (Y1H) and yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) methods. The efficiency of the system was validated by examining two well-characterized TF-DNA and TF-protein interactions: the CHE-CCA1 promoter interaction by Y1H and NPR1-TGAs interactions by Y2H. We used this system to identify eight TFs that interact with a Mediator subunit, Med25, a key regulator in JA signaling. We identified five TFs that interacted with the GCC-box cis-element in the promoter of PDF1.2, a downstream gene of Med25. We found that three of these TFs, all from the AP2-EREBP family, interact directly both with Med25 and the GCC-box of PDF1.2, suggesting that Med25 regulates PDF1.2 expression through these three TFs. These results demonstrate that this high-throughput Y1H/Y2H screening system is an efficient tool for studying transcriptional regulation networks in Arabidopsis. This system will be available for other Arabidopsis researchers, and thus it provides a vital resource for the Arabidopsis community. © 2011 The Author. Source

Liu J.,Tsinghua University | Zhong S.,Tsinghua University | Guo X.,Tsinghua University | Hao L.,Tsinghua University | And 9 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2013

Successful sexual reproduction in animals and plants requires communication between male and female gametes. In flowering plants, unlike in animals, eggs and sperm cells are enclosed in multicellular embryo sacs and pollen grains, respectively [1]; guided growth of the pollen tube into the ovule is necessary for fertilization [2]. Pollen tube guidance requires accurate perception of ovule-emitted guidance cues by the receptors in pollen tubes [2-4]. Although several ovule-secreted peptides controlling pollen tube guidance have recently been identified, i.e.; maize EGG APPARATUS1 (EA1) [5], Torenia LURE1/LURE2 [6], and Arabidopsis CRP810-1/AtLURE1 [7], little is known about the receptors. Here, we identified two receptor-like kinase (RLK) genes preferentially expressed in Arabidopsis pollen tubes, Lost In Pollen tube guidance 1 (LIP1) and 2 (LIP2), which are involved in guidance control of pollen tubes. LIP1 and LIP2 were anchored to the membrane in the pollen tube tip region via palmitoylation, which was essential for their guidance control. Simultaneous inactivation of LIP1 and LIP2 led to impaired pollen tube guidance into micropyle and significantly reduced attraction of pollen tubes toward AtLURE1 [7]. Our results suggest that LIP1 and LIP2 represent essential components of the pollen tube receptor complex to perceive the female signal AtLURE1 for micropylar pollen tube guidance. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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