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Shi Y.,China Agricultural University | Tian S.,China Agricultural University | Hou L.,China Agricultural University | Huang X.,China Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2012

The phytohormone ethylene regulates multiple aspects of plant growth and development and responses to environmental stress. However, the exact role of ethylene in freezing stress remains unclear. Here, we report that ethylene negatively regulates plant responses to freezing stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Freezing tolerance was decreased in ethylene overproducer1 and by the application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid but increased by the addition of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinyl glycine or the perception antagonist Ag+. Furthermore, ethylene-insensitive mutants, including etr1-1, ein4-1, ein2-5, ein3-1, and ein3 eil1, displayed enhanced freezing tolerance. By contrast, the constitutive ethylene response mutant ctr1-1 and EIN3-overexpressing plants exhibited reduced freezing tolerance. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that EIN3 negatively regulates the expression of CBFs and type-A Arabidopsis response regulator5 (ARR5), ARR7, and ARR15 by binding to specific elements in their promoters. Overexpression of these ARR genes enhanced the freezing tolerance of plants. Thus, our study demonstrates that ethylene negatively regulates cold signaling at least partially through the direct transcriptional control of cold-regulated CBFs and type-A ARR genes by EIN3. Our study also provides evidence that type-A ARRs function as key nodes to integrate ethylene and cytokinin signaling in regulation of plant responses to environmental stress. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.


Tao Q.,Peking University | Guo D.,Peking University | Wei B.,Peking University | Zhang F.,Peking University | And 10 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2013

Leaf size and shape are mainly determined by coordinated cell division and differentiation in lamina. The CINCINNATA (CIN)- like TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) transcription factors are key regulators of leaf development. However, the mechanisms that control TCP activities during leaf development are largely unknown. We identified the TCP Interactor containing EAR motif protein1 (TIE1), a novel transcriptional repressor, as a major modulator of TCP activities during leaf development. Overexpression of TIE1 leads to hyponastic and serrated leaves, whereas disruption of TIE1 causes epinastic leaves. TIE1 is expressed in young leaves and encodes a transcriptional repressor containing a C-terminal EAR motif, which mediates interactions with the TOPLESS (TPL)/TOPLESS-RELATED (TPR) corepressors. In addition, TIE1 physically interacts with CIN-like TCPs. We propose that TIE1 regulates leaf size and morphology by inhibiting the activities of TCPs through recruiting the TPL/TPR corepressors to form a tertiary complex at early stages of leaf development. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.


Wang Y.,China Agricultural University | Zhang Y.,China Agricultural University | Wang Z.,China Agricultural University | Zhang X.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2013

Low temperature is an environmental factor that affects plant growth and development and plant-pathogen interactions. How temperature regulates plant defense responses is not well understood. In this study, we characterized chilling-sensitive mutant 1 (chs1), and functionally analyzed the role of the CHS1 gene in plant responses to chilling stress. The chs1 mutant displayed a chilling-sensitive phenotype, and also displayed defense-associated phenotypes, including extensive cell death, the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid, and an increased expression of PR genes: these phenotypes indicated that the mutation in chs1 activates the defense responses under chilling stress. A map-based cloning analysis revealed that CHS1 encodes a TIR-NB-type protein. The chilling sensitivity of chs1 was fully rescued by pad4 and eds1, but not by ndr1. The overexpression of the TIR and NB domains can suppress the chs1-conferred phenotypes. Interestingly, the stability of the CHS1 protein was positively regulated by low temperatures independently of the 26S proteasome pathway. This study revealed the role of a TIR-NB-type gene in plant growth and cell death under chilling stress, and suggests that temperature modulates the stability of the TIR-NB protein in Arabidopsis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Bhadauria V.,China Agricultural University | Bhadauria V.,University of Saskatchewan | Wang L.-X.,China Agricultural University | Peng Y.-L.,China Agricultural University | Peng Y.-L.,National Plant Gene Research Center
Biology Direct | Year: 2010

Background: The rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is a major constraint on world rice production. The conidia produced by this fungal pathogen are the main source of disease dissemination. The morphology of conidia may be a critical factor in the spore dispersal and virulence of M. oryzae in the field. Deletion of a conidial morphology regulating gene encoding putative transcriptional regulator COM1 in M. oryzae resulted in aberrant conidial shape, reduced conidiation and attenuated virulence.Results: In this study, a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/matrix assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight mass spectrometry (2-DE/MALDI-TOF MS) based proteomics approach was employed to identify the cellular and molecular components regulated by the COM1 protein (COM1p) that might contribute to the aberrant phenotypes in M. oryzae. By comparing the conidial proteomes of COM1 deletion mutant and its isogenic wild-type strain P131, we identified a potpourri of 31 proteins that exhibited statistically significant alterations in their abundance levels. Of these differentially regulated proteins, the abundance levels of nine proteins were elevated and twelve were reduced in the Δcom1 mutant. Three proteins were detected only in the Δcom1 conidial proteome, whereas seven proteins were apparently undetectable. The data obtained in the study suggest that the COM1p plays a key role in transcriptional reprogramming of genes implicated in melanin biosynthesis, carbon and energy metabolism, structural organization of cell, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, etc. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed the down-regulation of genes encoding enzymes involved in melanin biosynthesis in the COM1 mutant.Conclusions: Our results suggest that the COM1p may regulate the transcription of genes involved in various cellular processes indispensable for conidial development and appressorial penetration. These functions are likely to contribute to the effects of COM1p upon the aberrant phenotypes of M. oryzae.Reviewers: This article is reviewed by George V. Shpakovski, Karthikeyan Sivaraman (nominated by M. Madan Babu) and Lakshminarayan M. Iyer. © 2010 Bhadauria et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Wang Z.,China Agricultural University | Meng P.,China Agricultural University | Zhang X.,China Agricultural University | Ren D.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2011

The Arabidopsis copine gene BON1 encodes a calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein involved in plant growth homeostasis and disease resistance. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which BON1 modulates plant growth and defense responses are not well understood. Here, we show that BON1 interacts physically with the leucine-rich-repeat receptor-like kinases BIR1 (BAK1-interacting receptor-like kinase 1) and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) receptor regulator BAK1 in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, bon1 and bir1 mutants exhibit synergistic interaction. While a bir1 null mutant has similar growth and cell-death defects compared with bon1, a bir1 bon1 double mutant displays more severe phenotypes than does the single mutants. The bon1-1 and bir1-1 phenotypes are partially suppressed by overexpression of BIR1 and BON1, respectively. Furthermore, the bir1 phenotype is attenuated by a loss-of-function mutation in the resistance (R) gene SNC1 (Suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1), which mediates defense responses in bon1. Intriguingly, BON1 and BIR1 can be phosphorylated by BAK1 in vitro. Our findings suggest that BIR1 functions as a negative regulator of plant resistance and that BON1 and BIR1 might modulate both PAMP- and R protein-triggered immune responses. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Shi Y.,China Agricultural University | Wang Z.,China Agricultural University | Meng P.,China Agricultural University | Tian S.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM1 (AMP1) encodes a glutamate carboxypeptidase that plays an important role in shoot apical meristem development and phytohormone homeostasis. We isolated a new mutant allele of AMP1, amp1-20, from a screen for abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitive mutants and characterized the function of AMP1 in plant stress responses. amp1 mutants displayed ABA hypersensitivity, while overexpression of AMP1 caused ABA insensitivity. Moreover, endogenous ABA concentration was increased in amp1-20- and decreased in AMP1-overexpressing plants under stress conditions. Application of ABA reduced the AMP1 protein level in plants. Interestingly, amp1 mutants accumulated excess superoxide and displayed hypersensitivity to oxidative stress. The hypersensitivity of amp1 to ABA and oxidative stress was partially rescued by reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging agent. Furthermore, amp1 was tolerant to freezing and drought stress. The ABA hypersensitivity and freezing tolerance of amp1 was dependent on ABA signaling. Moreover, amp1 had elevated soluble sugar content and showed hypersensitivity to high concentrations of sugar. By contrast, the contents of amino acids were changed in amp1 mutant compared to the wild-type. This study suggests that AMP1 modulates ABA, oxidative and abotic stress responses, and is involved in carbon and amino acid metabolism in Arabidopsis. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.


Yang H.,China Agricultural University | Shi Y.,China Agricultural University | Liu J.,China Agricultural University | Guo L.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2010

Low temperature is one of environmental factors that restrict plant growth homeostasis and plant-pathogen interactions. Recent studies suggest a link between temperature responses and defense responses; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the chilling sensitive 3 (chs3-1) mutant in Arabidopsis was characterized. chs3-1 plants showed arrested growth and chlorosis when grown at 16°C or when shifted from 22 to 4°C. chs3-1 plants also exhibited constitutively activated defense responses at 16°C, which were alleviated at a higher temperature (22°C). Map-based cloning of CHS3 revealed that it encodes an unconventional disease resistance (R) protein belonging to the TIR-NB-LRR class with a zinc-binding LIM domain (Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 domains) at the carboxyl terminus. The chs3-1 mutation in the conserved LIM-containing domain led to the constitutive activation of the TIR-NB-LRR domain. Consistently, the growth and defense phenotypes of chs3-1 plants were completely suppressed by eds1, sgt1b and rar1, partially by pad4 and nahG, but not by npr1 and ndr1. Intriguingly, chs3-1 plants grown at 16°C showed enhanced tolerance to freezing temperatures. This tolerance was correlated with growth defect and cell death phenotypes caused by activated defense responses. Other mutants with activated defense responses, including cpr1, cpr5 and slh1 also displayed enhanced freezing tolerance. These findings revealed a role of an unconventional mutant R gene in plant growth, defense response and cold stress, suggesting a mutual interaction between cold signaling and defense responses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Luo G.,Tsinghua University | Gu H.,Tsinghua University | Gu H.,National Plant Gene Research Center | Liu J.,Tsinghua University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology | Year: 2012

Ubiquitination of proteins is one of the critical regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotes. In higher plants, protein ubiquitination plays an essential role in many biological processes, including hormone signaling, photomorphogenesis, and pathogen defense. However, the roles of protein ubiquitination in the reproductive process are not clear. In this study, we identified four plant-specific RING-finger genes designated Aberrant Pollen Development 1 (APD1) to APD4, as regulators of pollen mitosis II (PMII) in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.). The apd1 apd2 double mutant showed a significantly increased percentage of bicellular-like pollen at the mature pollen stage. Further downregulation of the APD3 and APD4 transcripts in apd1 apd2 by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in more severe abnormal bicellular-like pollen phenotypes than in apd1 apd2, suggesting that cell division was defective in male gametogenesis. All of the four genes were expressed in multiple stages at different levels during male gametophyte development. Confocal analysis using green florescence fusion proteins (GFP) GFP-APD1 and GFP-APD2 showed that APDs are associated with intracellular membranes. Furthermore, APD2 had E2-dependent E3 ligase activity in vitro, and five APD2-interacting proteins were identified. Our results suggest that these four genes may be involved, redundantly, in regulating the PMII process during male gametogenesis. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.


Yan Y.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Yan Y.,National Plant Gene Research Center | Wang H.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Wang H.,National Plant Gene Research Center | And 7 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2014

Nitrate (NO3-) is a key signaling molecule in plant metabolism and development, in addition to its role as a nutrient. It has been shown previously in Arabidopsis that ANR1, a MADS-box transcription factor, is a major component in the NO3 - signaling pathway that triggers lateral root growth and that miR444, which is specific to monocots, targets four genes that are homologous to ANR1 in rice. Here, we show that miR444a plays multiple roles in the rice NO3 - signaling pathway - not only in root development, but also involving nitrate accumulation and even Pi-starvation responses. miR444a overexpression resulted in reduced rice lateral root elongation, but promoted rice primary and adventitious root growth, in a nitrate-dependent manner. In addition, overexpression of miR444a improved nitrate accumulation and expression of nitrate transporter genes under high nitrate concentration conditions, but reduced the remobilization of nitrate from old leaves to young leaves thus affecting the plant's ability to adapt to nitrogen-limitating conditions. Intriguingly, we found that Pi starvation strongly induced miR444 accumulation in rice roots and that overexpression of miR444a altered P i-starvation-induced root architecture and enhanced Pi accumulation and expression of three Pi transporter genes. We further provide evidence that miR444a is involved in the interaction between the NO3 - signaling and Pi-signaling pathways in rice. Taken together, our observations demonstrated that miR444a plays multiple roles in the rice NO3 - signaling pathway in nitrate-dependent root growth, nitrate accumulation and phosphate-starvation responses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Hamera S.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Hamera S.,National Plant Gene Research Center | Hamera S.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Song X.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | And 8 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2012

Cucumber mosaic virus suppressor 2b (CMV2b) is a nuclear viral suppressor that interferes with local and systemic silencing and inhibits AGO1 slicer activity. CMV2b-mediated transgene hypomethylation and its localization in Cajal bodies suggests a role of CMV2b in RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). However, its direct involvement in RdDM, or its binding with small RNAs (sRNAs) in vivo is not yet established. Here, we show that CMV2b binds both microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in vivo. sRNA sequencing data from the CMV2b immunocomplex revealed its preferential binding with 24-nt repeat-associated siRNAs. We provide evidence that CMV2b also has direct interaction with the AGO4 protein by recognizing its PAZ and PIWI domains. Subsequent analysis of AGO4 functions revealed that CMV2b reduced AGO4 slicer activity and the methylation of several loci, accompanied by the augmented accumulation of 24-nt siRNAs in Arabidopsis inflorescences. Intriguingly, CMV2b also regulated an AGO4-related epiallele independently of its catalytic potential, which further reinforces the repressive effects of CMV2b on AGO4 activity. Collectively, our results demonstrate that CMV2b can counteract AGO4-related functions. We propose that by adopting novel counter-host defense strategies against AGO1 and AGO4 proteins, CMV creates a favorable cellular niche for its proliferation. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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