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Grey D.,University of Oxford | Grey D.,University of Exeter | Garrick D.,University of Oxford | Garrick D.,McMaster University | And 9 more authors.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2013

Water-related risks threaten society at the local, national and global scales in our inter-connected and rapidly changing world. Most of the world's poor are deeply water insecure and face intolerable waterrelated risks associated with complex hydrology. Most of the world's wealthy face lower waterrelated risks and less complex hydrology. This inverse relationship between hydrological complexity and wealth contributes to a divided world. This must be addressed if global water security is to be achieved. Using a risk-based framework provides the potential to link the current policy-oriented discourse on water security to a new and rigorous sciencebased approach to the description, measurement, analysis and management of water security. To provide the basis for this science-based approach, we propose an encompassing definition rooted in risk science: water security is a tolerable level of water-related risk to society.Water security policy questions need to be framed so that science can marshal interdisciplinary data and evidence to identify solutions. We join a growing group of scientists in asserting a bold vision for science leadership, calling for a new and comprehensive understanding of the planet's water system and society's water needs. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Aina F.,National Bureau of Statistics | Faniran D.,National Planning Commission-NPC | Olaniyan K.,National Bureau of Statistics
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2014

This paper describes the imperative of information and communication technology for achieving timely release of official data for national development. Development planning remains a vital component of national development while timely release of official statistics to inform policy is key to effective and efficient planning. In this paper we therefore explore the imperatives of timely releases of official statistics through computer to computer communication (C2C) for national development by the apex national statistical institution in Nigeria. The National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) is a statutory agency that anchors and warehouses all official statistics as well as the coordinator of Nigeria's National Statistical System. The paper reviews some of the periodic releases by the NBS and the dissemination mechanism using electronic and smart tools as a channel of using electronic transfer or electronic governance to make data communication convenient for both the data producer and user for national development. The paper also highlights the challenges of timely releases of data experienced by the NBS and the strategies put in place by the NBS to address these challenges. Finally, the paper also suggests policy recommendations for effective smart approach to data production and dissemination in Nigeria. Copyright 2014 ACM.


Faniran S.,National Planning Commission-NPC | Olaniyan K.,National Bureau of Statistics
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2013

Africa's progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 is receiving considerable attention, due to the magnitude of its development challenges. As the second most populous continent, the world's "progress" on the MDGs is heavily dependent on whatever progress is made in Africa. Using a similar analogy, whatever progress Nigeria makes - being Africa's most populous nation- is likely to determine to a large extent the measure of success recorded by the continent. This study explores MDG 7: To ensure environmental sustainability, specifically Target 11 which seeks to improve the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020. Based on a case study of Nigeria's capital city, Abuja where the Federal Capital Territory Administration established the Abuja Geographic Information System (AGIS) as an infrastructure to support land administration, housing allocation and urban planning, the paper discusses how AGIS, as an e-government tool, has helped in addressing the emergence of slums within the capital city. Supported by evidence from Africa and Asia, the study concludes that if there is substantial replication, GIS-based applications in land administration by sub-national governments across the country can ultimately contribute towards the MDG of reducing the number of slum dwellers in Nigeria. Copyright © 2013 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.


Faniran S.,National Planning Commission-NPC | Ojudu O.,Ekiti State Government
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2014

Many developing countries including Nigeria adopted various strategies to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with empathy on Goal one (1) which is eradication of extreme poverty by the year 2015. In Nigeria different programs were adopted by different Governments at both federal and state levels to aggressively address poverty. Social Security for indigent elderly was introduced as a step towards achieving the MDGs (1) in Ekiti State, which is one of the thirty six states in the western part of Nigeria. In 2011, a bold step was taken by the governor of Ekiti State to start social security system as a survival package to her indigent elderly. The principle behind the social security to indigent elderly was to address extreme poverty particularly among the senior citizens. Social Security is seen generally as a comprehensive program of benefits that provides workers and their dependents with retirement income, disability income, and other payments. Information and communication technology (ICT) was recognized as the only solution to effective delivery of the scheme. This made Smart tools to become a veritable tool to address the challenges identified in the manual method of prequalifying beneficiaries. This therefore placed the scheme at the front burner of e-Governance in the State. The use of smart tools greatly improved accuracy, completeness and transparency. This paper provides a case study of the use of smart tools in delivering Social Security Scheme in Ekiti State, the procedure for proper identification of beneficiaries before payment is made. Smart tools were adapted to improve the implementation of the Scheme in the wake of identified challenges. Conclusion was drawn on implication of the scheme for poverty reduction and good governance. Copyright 2014 ACM.


Monye S.,National Planning Commission-NPC | Ansah E.,National Planning Commission-NPC | Orakwue E.,National Planning Commission-NPC
Development Policy Review | Year: 2010

The arguments in academia over the effectiveness of foreign aid fall into two broad categories: those grounded in political economy and those focused on donor conduct and aid effectiveness. There have been policy attempts within the donor community to reconcile them, including the 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. This article examines the key features of foreign aid to Nigeria between 1999 and 2007. Using the Declaration as a framework, it looks for ways of making foreign aid in Nigeria more effective. © The Authors 2010. Development Policy Review © 2010 Overseas Development Institute.


Olaniyan K.,National Planning Commission-NPC | Faniran S.,National Planning Commission-NPC
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2011

This study considers the growing influence of information communication technologies and proposes the establishment of community information centres (CICs) to boost citizens' participation in socio-political governance at the local level. The research relied principally on interaction with the political leadership and selected communities in Egbedore Local Government Area in Osun State, south-west Nigeria to ascertain how CICs can provide a viable platform for increased participation in governance at the local community level. By providing a means of information flow between citizens and the elected community officials with respect to basic public services such as reporting crime, monitoring weather trends, providing information on agricultural products prices, collection of local taxes, e-voting etc, the likelihood of a disruptive breakdown of law and order due to lack of communication between leaders and followers can be greatly minimized. The challenges to implementing such community systems in Nigeria are also highlighted. Copyright 2011 ACM.


Faniran S.,National Planning Commission-NPC | Olaniyan K.,National Planning Commission-NPC
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2011

Recent developments in the socio-political landscape on the African continent suggest that there is still a pre-dominant weakness in the governance systems of many countries. This is traceable to the process by which leaders emerge in these countries often through coup d'etats, revolutionary struggles, but more recently through flawed electoral processes. In most cases where elections have been undertaken, dissatisfaction of citizens with the outcomes have been a common result, due to both real and perceived vote frauds. This has led to colossal losses in terms of human lives, infrastructure, tourism opportunities and even ostracism of countries. To increase public confidence, citizen participation, and strengthen the electoral process in African countries, this paper proposes the widespread use of electronic voting machines and systems in the conduct of elections using Nigeria as case study. The proposed framework relies on the existence of Nigeria's global communications satellite, NigComSat as well as the country's growing IT-literate population while emphasizing simplicity without compromising the security of system processes. A deliberate policy to improve electricity supply and internet connectivity across the country will go a long way in overcoming the major infrastructure constraint against this framework. Furthermore, growing voter consciousness and political participation in the country is expected to result in a higher demand for improved transparency in the electoral process over time, a demand which the proposed electronic voting can potentially meet. Copyright 2011 ACM.


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