Nangen, South Korea
Nangen, South Korea

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Kim B.-W.,National Park Research Institute | Kim J.-P.,Dongguk University
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2012

The identity of Alloclubionoides paikwunensis (Kim and Jung, 1993) is clarified by examination of type specimen and the female of the species is redescribed with additional collections and illustrated. Alloclubionoides solea sp. nov. from the Dadohaehaesang Marine National Park, southern Korea is described with detailed illustrations, leg spination, trichobothrium patterns and scanning electron micrographs. The new species can be distinguished from other Alloclubionoides spiders by the male palpal organs, which feature an embolus with a crescent-shaped distal part surrounded by a large conductor, and by the female genitalia, which feature a large genital opening situated in the side of atrium and broadly spiral copulatory ducts. Furthermore, Coelotes samaksanensis Namkung, 2001 is found to be a junior synonym of A. paikwunensis. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Kang J.-G.,Seoul National University | Kim H.-C.,5th Medical Detachment | Choi C.-Y.,National Park Research Institute | Nam H.-Y.,National Park Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2013

Bird migration is a recurring annual and seasonal event undertaken by more than 100 species of birds in the southeast Asian and northeast Palearctic regions that pass through or remain for short periods from April to May and September to November at Hong-do Island, Republic of Korea (ROK). A total of 212 ticks (40 Haemaphysalis flava, 12 H. longicornis, 146 Ixodes turdus, 13 I. nipponensis, and 1 I. ornithophila) were collected from 65/2,161 (3.0%) migratory birds consisting of 21 species that were captured from January, 2008, through December, 2009, as part of the Migratory Birds Center, Hong-do bird banding program for studying bird migration patterns. Adult ticks were assayed individually while larvae and nymphs were pooled (1-22 and 1-6 ticks per pool, respectively) into 31 and 65 pools, respectively. Ticks were assayed for zoonotic pathogens by PCR using 16S rRNA, heat shock protein (groEL), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene primers to amplify genera specific for Anapalsma, Bartonella, and Borrelia PCR amplicons. Using the 16S rRNA-based nested PCR, A. phagocytophilum (n=1) was detected in I. nipponensis collected from Zoothera sibirica and A. bovis (n=1) was detected in I. turdus collected from Emberiza chrysophrys. Borrelia turdi 16S rRNA genes (n=3) were detected in I. turdus and I. nipponensis collected from Turdus pallidus and Zoothera aurea. Borrelia spp. 16S rRNA genes (n=4) were detected in Ixodes ticks collected from Emberiza tristrami, T. pallidus, and Z. aurea. The Bartonella grahamii ITS gene (n=1) was detected by nested PCR assay in I. turdus collected from Z. aurea. These results provide insight into the potential role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks and associated tick-borne pathogens throughout their ranges in Asia. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2013.


Jeong B.,Mokpo Maritime University | Jeong B.,National Park Research Institute | Jeong E.-S.,Laboratory Animal Center | Malazarte J.M.,Mokpo Maritime University | Sin Y.,Mokpo Maritime University
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2016

Bioassay and gene expression experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the growth and physiology of Prorocentrum minimum isolated from a eutrophic coastal water in response to tannic acid. In the bioassay experiments, variations in abundance, chlorophyll (chl) a concentration, maximum fluorescence (in vivo Fm), and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) were measured over the course of a seven-day incubation. Moreover, stress-related gene expression in both the control and an experimental (2.5 ppm TA treatment) group was observed for 24 h and 48 h. The molecular markers used in this study were the heat shock proteins (Hsp70 and Hsp90) and cyclophilin (CYP). The findings show that P. minimum can thrive and grow at low concentrations (<2.5 ppm) of tannic acid, and, above this concentration, cells begin to slow down development. In addition, TA concentration of 10 ppm halted photosynthetic activity. At the molecular level, treatment with tannic acid increased the expression of Hsp70, Hsp90, and CYP, and heat shock proteins are more upregulated than the cyclophilin gene. Exposure to tannic acid increased the expression of stress factors over time (48 h) by 10- to 27-fold the expression level of the control group. These results suggest that tannic acid can be used to control harmful algal blooms such as those containing P. minimum in eutrophic coastal waters. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Kim S.-Y.,Hokkaido University of Science | Kim S.-Y.,National Park Research Institute
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

The osteologic and myologic characteristics of the family Pentacerotidae are described in detail. The family Pentacerotidae is a monophyletic group supported by 11 synapomorphies found in all family members. Of their synapomorphies, two (the second infraorbital and endopterygoid articulate with lateral ethmoid conditions) are considerably rare in percoids and strongly support the monophyly of the family. A comparison of 44 transformation series among all species revealed four equally parsimonious trees, and a strict consensus tree was adopted. On the basis of the inferred phylogenetic relationships of the Pentacerotidae, this family was cladistically classified into two subfamilies and seven genera: Histiopterinae (Histiopterus, Evistias, Zanclistius, Pentaceropsis, Paristiopterus, and Parazanclistius) and Pentacerotinae (Pentaceros). The center of origin of pentacerotids was inferred to be the Southern Australian region. I propose that the two families, Ostracoberycidae and Chaetodontidae, are closely related with Pentacerotidae. © 2012 Magnolia Press.


Song S.J.,National Park Research Institute | Dahms H.-U.,Sangmyung University | Khim J.S.,Korea University
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington | Year: 2011

Symbiosis is an evolutionary trend in several phylogenetic clades of the taxonomically and functionally diverse Copepoda. However, little attention has been paid to associated and parasitic taxa that infest macroalgae. Harmful effects of phytal harpacticoids that are borers or produce galls, have been reported for several species of wild and farmed macroalgae. Besides being food for human consumption, marine macroalgae provide promising products for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries and biomass for the production of biofuel. A study of their consumers and parasites is, therefore, of great significance for fundamental marine ecology, as well as for their mass production in mariculture. We describe here the naupliar and copepodid stages of Amenophia orientalis, with illustrations of naupliar stages IIIV and copepodid stages IIV. Postembryonic characters of the naupliar and copepodid phases of development are discussed in the context of phylogenetic relationships among the Thalestridae. Remarks are provided on the ecology of the species. © Biological Society of Washington.


Lee N.-Y.,Korea University | Lee N.-Y.,National Park Research Institute | Koo J.-W.,Korea University | Noh N.J.,Korea University | And 2 more authors.
Ecological Research | Year: 2010

We measured the soil surface CO2 efflux (RS) from January 2005 to December 2006 in two neighboring stands in Gwangneung Forest, central Korea: evergreen coniferous forest (Abies holophylla, stand A) and broad-leaved deciduous forest (Quercus-dominated, stand Q). Regarding seasonal variation, RS rate was low during the winter and early spring months in each stand and peaked in late July [1170 (stand A) and 1130 (stand Q) in 2005, and 1000 (stand A) and 740 (stand Q) mg CO2 m-2 h-1 in 2006]. RS rate was higher in stand A than in stand Q during most of the growing season. The pattern of summer rainfall differed between 2005 and 2006. RS rate for both stands was suppressed significantly by the droughts in June 2005 and September 2006. After the heavy rainfall of July 2006, RS rate was lower than in July 2005 in both stands, but this decrement was much greater in stand Q than in stand A. In midsummer (August) 2006, under higher soil temperature (ST) and lower soil water content (SWC) conditions than in August 2005, RS rate of stand A was lower than that in August 2005, whereas stand Q showed no marked change. The exponential relationship between ST and RS accounted for approximately 91-97% of the RS variability in each stand and in each year. In stand A, the application of a second-order polynomial function indicated a significant correlation between SWC and RS when the soil was warm (ST > 15°C). Our results suggest that the seasonality of RS is strongly affected by the pattern of summer rainfall even in an Asia monsoon climate regime. In addition, the vegetation type (i.e., evergreen coniferous forest vs. broad-leaved deciduous forest) plays a significant role in response of RS to various environmental fluctuations such as drought, heavy rainfall, and hot-dry condition. © 2010 The Ecological Society of Japan.


Lee N.,Korea University | Lee N.,National Park Research Institute | Koo J.-W.,Korea University | Noh N.J.,Korea University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Research | Year: 2010

To investigate annual variation in soil respiration (RS) and its components [autotrophic (RA) and heterotrophic (RH)] in relation to seasonal changes in soil temperature (ST) and soil water content (SWC) in an Abies holophylla stand (stand A) and a Quercus-dominated stand (stand Q), we set up trenched plots and measured RS, ST and SWC for 2 years. The mean annual rate of RS was 436 mg CO2 m-2 h-1, ranging from 76 to 1,170 mg CO2 m-2 h-1, in stand A and 376 mg CO2 m-2 h-1, ranging from 82 to 1,133 mg CO2 m-2 h-1, in stand Q. A significant relationship between RS and its components and ST was observed over the 2 years in both stands, whereas a significant correlation between RA and SWC was detected only in stand Q. On average over the 2 years, RA accounted for approximately 34% (range 17-67%) and 31% (15-82%) of the variation in RS in stands A and Q, respectively. Our results suggested that vegetation type did not significantly affect the annual mean contributions of RA or RH, but did affect the pattern of seasonal change in the contribution of RA to RS. © 2010 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.


Yashiro Y.,Gifu University | Shizu Y.,Gifu University | Adachi T.,Gifu University | Ohtsuka T.,Gifu University | And 3 more authors.
Ecological Research | Year: 2012

To evaluate the effect of understory dwarf bamboo (Sasa senanensis) on soil respiration in forest ecosystems, we compared soil respiration rates between four deciduous broad-leaved forest sites representing two levels of understory Sasa (with and without) and two levels of forest stand age (50-year-old stand and 1-year-old stand after clearcut). The understory Sasa enhances the soil respiration rate both before and after the clearcutting of deciduous broad-leaved forest. The Sasa sites had larger total belowground biomass compared with the non-Sasa sites, which could be attributed to Sasa presence. Our results also suggest that clearcutting decreases temperature-normalized soil respiration rates (R 15) and temperature sensitivity (Q 10) in both Sasa and non-Sasa ecosystems. Clearcutting significantly reduced the fine root biomass of trees and Sasa. The fine roots of trees and Sasa had high specific respiration rates compared with larger roots and rhizomes at Sasa and non-Sasa sites, respectively. Therefore, we hypothesize that the loss of fine roots after clearcutting is responsible for the reduction in soil respiration rate. A comparison with other studies revealed a positive linear relationship between total (tree and Sasa) fine root biomass and R 15, suggesting that fine root biomass controls soil respiration at the landscape scale. The Q 10 value is also likely to be related to fine root biomass, although the relationship was not significant. We conclude that understory Sasa increases belowground biomass, especially fine roots, and the spatial variation in soil respiration at the landscape scale. © 2012 The Ecological Society of Japan.


Lee W.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Lee W.-S.,University of Glasgow | Kwon Y.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Kwon Y.-S.,National Park Research Institute | Yoo J.-C.,Kyung Hee University
Journal of Ornithology | Year: 2010

A long-standing hypothesis posits that, for species with exposed nests, a close match between the colour of the eggs and that of the nest in which they are laid should enhance egg survival, but this has rarely been tested in a rigorous manner. Here, we demonstrate the effects of egg-nest colour matching on egg survival in Black-tailed Gulls (Larus crassirostris) on Hongdo Island, Korea. We quantified the ground colour of eggshells and that of the nest background using a digital camera and computerized RGB and greyscale colour systems. We show that a close match of eggshell ground colour and nest background colour was associated with increased chances of eggs surviving through to hatching. In particular, there were strong survival advantages for eggs matching the nest colour in sites with poor concealment, whereas there was no effect of eggshell ground colour in nests that were more concealed by vegetation. Our findings support the hypothesis that egg colour functions to make eggs cryptic and that egg colouration may be a significant factor affecting egg loss. © 2010 Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V.


Schoville S.D.,University of California at San Diego | Kim B.-W.,National Park Research Institute
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2011

Rock-crawlers (Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae) in northeastern Asia are low-vagility insects that are restricted to cool temperate forests and mountainous regions. Morphologically distinguishable species are similar ecologically and show narrow endemism and a patchy distribution. As a result, grylloblattids are hypothesized to be relict species that have persisted in situ over long periods of climatic and geological change (Storozhenko and Oliger 1984). We investigate whether the diversification pattern of Asian grylloblattids reflects long-term persistence and divergence due to geological events, or more recent diversification in response to climatic change. Using multilocus genetic data, we examine the phylogenetic relationship to other Asian Grylloblattidae and the geographic pattern of diversification of Korean rock-crawlers, Galloisiana Caudell & King (1924) and Namkungia Storozhenko & Park (2002). Our analysis reveals a monophyletic grouping of Korean species, with multiple cryptic lineages and restricted geographical distributions. Based on genetic data, Korean species are closely related to Japanese Galloisiana. Using a Bayesian relaxed clock model calibrated with a mitochondrial substitution rate, the age of the most recent common ancestor of the Korean-Japanese lineage is estimated within the Miocene epoch. This provides evidence for a diversification event closely tied to the geological events separating the Japanese archipelago from the Korean peninsula. © 2011 Entomological Society of America.

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