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Nangen, South Korea

Schoville S.D.,University of California at San Diego | Kim B.-W.,National Park Research Institute
Annals of the Entomological Society of America

Rock-crawlers (Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae) in northeastern Asia are low-vagility insects that are restricted to cool temperate forests and mountainous regions. Morphologically distinguishable species are similar ecologically and show narrow endemism and a patchy distribution. As a result, grylloblattids are hypothesized to be relict species that have persisted in situ over long periods of climatic and geological change (Storozhenko and Oliger 1984). We investigate whether the diversification pattern of Asian grylloblattids reflects long-term persistence and divergence due to geological events, or more recent diversification in response to climatic change. Using multilocus genetic data, we examine the phylogenetic relationship to other Asian Grylloblattidae and the geographic pattern of diversification of Korean rock-crawlers, Galloisiana Caudell & King (1924) and Namkungia Storozhenko & Park (2002). Our analysis reveals a monophyletic grouping of Korean species, with multiple cryptic lineages and restricted geographical distributions. Based on genetic data, Korean species are closely related to Japanese Galloisiana. Using a Bayesian relaxed clock model calibrated with a mitochondrial substitution rate, the age of the most recent common ancestor of the Korean-Japanese lineage is estimated within the Miocene epoch. This provides evidence for a diversification event closely tied to the geological events separating the Japanese archipelago from the Korean peninsula. © 2011 Entomological Society of America. Source

Lee W.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Lee W.-S.,University of Glasgow | Kwon Y.-S.,Kyung Hee University | Kwon Y.-S.,National Park Research Institute | Yoo J.-C.,Kyung Hee University
Journal of Ornithology

A long-standing hypothesis posits that, for species with exposed nests, a close match between the colour of the eggs and that of the nest in which they are laid should enhance egg survival, but this has rarely been tested in a rigorous manner. Here, we demonstrate the effects of egg-nest colour matching on egg survival in Black-tailed Gulls (Larus crassirostris) on Hongdo Island, Korea. We quantified the ground colour of eggshells and that of the nest background using a digital camera and computerized RGB and greyscale colour systems. We show that a close match of eggshell ground colour and nest background colour was associated with increased chances of eggs surviving through to hatching. In particular, there were strong survival advantages for eggs matching the nest colour in sites with poor concealment, whereas there was no effect of eggshell ground colour in nests that were more concealed by vegetation. Our findings support the hypothesis that egg colour functions to make eggs cryptic and that egg colouration may be a significant factor affecting egg loss. © 2010 Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. Source

Lee N.-Y.,Korea University | Lee N.-Y.,National Park Research Institute | Koo J.-W.,Korea University | Noh N.J.,Korea University | And 2 more authors.
Ecological Research

We measured the soil surface CO2 efflux (RS) from January 2005 to December 2006 in two neighboring stands in Gwangneung Forest, central Korea: evergreen coniferous forest (Abies holophylla, stand A) and broad-leaved deciduous forest (Quercus-dominated, stand Q). Regarding seasonal variation, RS rate was low during the winter and early spring months in each stand and peaked in late July [1170 (stand A) and 1130 (stand Q) in 2005, and 1000 (stand A) and 740 (stand Q) mg CO2 m-2 h-1 in 2006]. RS rate was higher in stand A than in stand Q during most of the growing season. The pattern of summer rainfall differed between 2005 and 2006. RS rate for both stands was suppressed significantly by the droughts in June 2005 and September 2006. After the heavy rainfall of July 2006, RS rate was lower than in July 2005 in both stands, but this decrement was much greater in stand Q than in stand A. In midsummer (August) 2006, under higher soil temperature (ST) and lower soil water content (SWC) conditions than in August 2005, RS rate of stand A was lower than that in August 2005, whereas stand Q showed no marked change. The exponential relationship between ST and RS accounted for approximately 91-97% of the RS variability in each stand and in each year. In stand A, the application of a second-order polynomial function indicated a significant correlation between SWC and RS when the soil was warm (ST > 15°C). Our results suggest that the seasonality of RS is strongly affected by the pattern of summer rainfall even in an Asia monsoon climate regime. In addition, the vegetation type (i.e., evergreen coniferous forest vs. broad-leaved deciduous forest) plays a significant role in response of RS to various environmental fluctuations such as drought, heavy rainfall, and hot-dry condition. © 2010 The Ecological Society of Japan. Source

Song S.J.,National Park Research Institute | Dahms H.-U.,Sangmyung University | Khim J.S.,Korea University
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington

Symbiosis is an evolutionary trend in several phylogenetic clades of the taxonomically and functionally diverse Copepoda. However, little attention has been paid to associated and parasitic taxa that infest macroalgae. Harmful effects of phytal harpacticoids that are borers or produce galls, have been reported for several species of wild and farmed macroalgae. Besides being food for human consumption, marine macroalgae provide promising products for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries and biomass for the production of biofuel. A study of their consumers and parasites is, therefore, of great significance for fundamental marine ecology, as well as for their mass production in mariculture. We describe here the naupliar and copepodid stages of Amenophia orientalis, with illustrations of naupliar stages IIIV and copepodid stages IIV. Postembryonic characters of the naupliar and copepodid phases of development are discussed in the context of phylogenetic relationships among the Thalestridae. Remarks are provided on the ecology of the species. © Biological Society of Washington. Source

Lee N.,Korea University | Lee N.,National Park Research Institute | Koo J.-W.,Korea University | Noh N.J.,Korea University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Research

To investigate annual variation in soil respiration (RS) and its components [autotrophic (RA) and heterotrophic (RH)] in relation to seasonal changes in soil temperature (ST) and soil water content (SWC) in an Abies holophylla stand (stand A) and a Quercus-dominated stand (stand Q), we set up trenched plots and measured RS, ST and SWC for 2 years. The mean annual rate of RS was 436 mg CO2 m-2 h-1, ranging from 76 to 1,170 mg CO2 m-2 h-1, in stand A and 376 mg CO2 m-2 h-1, ranging from 82 to 1,133 mg CO2 m-2 h-1, in stand Q. A significant relationship between RS and its components and ST was observed over the 2 years in both stands, whereas a significant correlation between RA and SWC was detected only in stand Q. On average over the 2 years, RA accounted for approximately 34% (range 17-67%) and 31% (15-82%) of the variation in RS in stands A and Q, respectively. Our results suggested that vegetation type did not significantly affect the annual mean contributions of RA or RH, but did affect the pattern of seasonal change in the contribution of RA to RS. © 2010 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer. Source

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