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Li H.,Yunnan University | Li H.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li H.,National Engineering Research Center for Ornamental Horticulture | Li H.,Yunnan Flower Research and Development Center | And 22 more authors.
Mitochondrial DNA

The complete nucleotide sequence of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 149,637 bp in length, containing a pair of 24,439 bp inverted repeat regions (IR), which were separated by small and large single copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 17,701 and 83,057 bp, respectively. 53.4% of the sugar beet cpDNA consisted of gene coding regions (protein coding and RNA genes). The gene content and relative positions of 113 individual genes (79 protein encoding genes, 30 tRNA genes, 4 rRNA genes) were almost identical to those of tabacoo cpDNA. The overall AT contents of the sugar beet cpDNA were 63.6% and in the LSC, SSC and IR regions were 65.9%, 70.8% and 57.8%, respectively. Fifteen genes contained one intron, while three genes had two introns. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. Source

Cai Y.,Yunnan University | Cai Y.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Cai Y.,National Engineering Research Center for Ornamental Horticulture | Wang J.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 10 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science

Rhododendron delavayi Franch is an evergreen shrub or small tree with large scarlet flowers that makes it highly attractive as an ornamental species. The species is native to southwest China and southeast Asia, especially the Himalayan region, showing good adaptability, and tolerance to drought. To understand the water stress coping mechanisms of R. delavayi, we analyzed the plant's photosynthetic performance during water stress and recovery. In particular, we looked at the regulation of stomatal (gs) and mesophyll conductance (gm), and maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax). After 4 days of water stress treatment, the net CO2 assimilation rate (An) declined slightly while gs and gm were not affected and stomatal limitation (SL) was therefore negligible. At this stage mesophyll conductance limitation (MCL) and biochemical limitation (BL) constituted the main limitation factors. After 8 days of water stress treatment, AN, gs, and gm had decreased notably. At this stage SL increased markedly and MCL even more so, while BL remained relatively constant. After re-watering, the recovery of An, gs, and gm was rapid, although remaining below the levels of the control plants, while Vcmax fully regained control levels after 3 days of re-watering. MCL remained the main limitation factor irrespective of the degree of photosynthetic recovery. In conclusion, in our experiment MCL was the main photosynthetic limitation factor of R. delavayi under water stress and during the recovery phase, with the regulation of gm probably being the result of interactions between the environment and leaf anatomical features. © 2015 Cai, Wang, Li, Zhang, Peng, Xie and Liu. Source

Zhou X.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Zhou X.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhou X.,National Engineering Research Center for Ornamental Horticulture | Mo X.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 13 more authors.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry

In plant evolution, because of its key role in sexual polyploidization or whole genome duplication events, diploid gamete formation is considered as an important component in diversification and speciation. Environmental stress often triggers unreduced gamete production. However, the molecular, cellular mechanisms and adverse temperature regulating diplogamete production in carnation remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the cytological basis for 2n male gamete formation and describe the isolation and characterization of the first gene, DcPS1 (Dianthus Caryophyllus Parallel Spindle 1). In addition, we analyze influence of temperature stress on diploid gamete formation and transcript levels of DcPS1. Cytological evidence indicated that 2n male gamete formation is attributable to abnormal spindle orientation at male meiosis II. DcPS1 protein is conserved throughout the plant kingdom and carries domains suggestive of a regulatory function. DcPS1 expression analysis show DcPS1 gene probably have a role in 2n pollen formation. Unreduced pollen formation in various cultivation was sensitive to high or low temperature which was probably regulated by the level of DcPS1 transcripts. In a broader perspective, these findings can have potential applications in fundamental polyploidization research and plant breeding programs. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Wu X.W.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu X.W.,National Engineering Research Center for Ornamental Horticulture | Tian M.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Tian M.,National Engineering Research Center for Ornamental Horticulture | And 16 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae

China, the central distribution area of Lilium in the world, is home a reported 55 species and 30 varieties. They are mainly distributed in four areas which are South West, East, North West and North East of China. Given the complex climate and topography of China, Lilium species show a great diversity, including Martagon, Sinomartagon, and Daurolirion. The height of Chinese native species runs from less than 15 cm (L. souliei, L. lophophorum, and L. amoenum) to more than 2 m (L. leichtlinii, L. henryi, and L. primulinum). Leaves are alternate or verticillate. Flower shapes are campanulate, trumpet, and revolute. This paper introduces morphological and distribution characters of 85 native species including L. hansonii, L. martagon, L. tsingtauense, L. distichum, L. medeoloides, L. paradoxum, L. medogense, L. lophophorum, L. lophophorum var. lophophorum, L. lophophorum var. linearifolium, L. nanum, L. nanum var. nanum, L. nanum var. flavidum, L. brevistylum, L. concolor, L. concolor var. concolor, L. concolor var. pulchellum, L. concolor var. megalanthum, L. dauricum, L. henrici, L. henrici var. henrici, L. henrici var. maculatum, L. bakerianum, L. bakerianum var. bakerianum, L. bakerianum var. aureum, L. bakerianum var. delavayi, L. bakerianum var. rubrum, L. bakerianum var. yunnanense, L. sempervivoideum, L. amoenum, L. pinifolium, L. souliei, L. saccatum, L. huidongense, L. speciosum, L. henryi, L. rosthornii, L. primulinum, L. primulinum var. Myanmarnicum, L. primulinum var. ochraceum, L. nepalense, L. nepalense var. Myanmarnicum, L. nepalense var. Myanmarnicum, L. wardii, L. matangense, L. stewartianum, L. habaense, L. taliense, L. jinfushanense, L. lijiangense, L. duchartrei, L. lankongense, L. amabile, L. leichtlinii, L. leichtlinii var. maximowiczii, L. pumilum, L. davidii, L. davidii var. davidii, L. davidii var. willmottiae, L. cernuum, L. callosum, L. papilliferum, L. fargesii, L. xanthellum, L. xanthellum var. anthellum, L. xanthellum var. luteum, L. tigrinum, L. brownii, L. brownii var. brownii, L. brownii var. giganteum, L. brownii var. viridulum, L. wenshansense, L. anhuiense, L. regale, L. formosanum, L. formosanum var. formosanum, L. formosanum var. microphyllum, L. longiflorum var. centifolium, L. leucanthum, L. leucanthum var. leucanthum, L. leucanthum, L. sulphureum, L. sargentiae, L. tianschanicum, and L. Pyi. Source

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