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Klausner V.,National Observatory ON | Klausner V.,National Institute for Space Research | Papa A.R.R.,National Observatory ON | Papa A.R.R.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics | Year: 2013

The horizontal component amplitudes of magnetograms recorded by ground-based observatories of the INTERMAGNET network have been used to analyze the global pattern variance of the solar diurnal variations. Those kinds of data present gaps in records and consequently we explore them via a time-frequency gapped wavelet algorithm. We propose a new approach to analyze magnetograms based on scale correlation. The results show that the magnetic records have a latitudinal dependence affected by the season of year and by the level of solar activity. We have found a disparity on the latitudinal response at Southern and Northern Hemispheres during solstices, which is expected due to the asymmetry of the Sq field. On the other hand at equinoxes, records from stations located at approximately the same latitude but at different longitudes presented peculiar dissimilarities. The achieved results suggest that quiet day patterns and the physical processes involved in their formation are strongly affected by the conductivity of the E-region, the geomagnetic field intensity and its configuration, and the thermospheric winds. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Klausner V.,National Institute for Space Research | Klausner V.,National Observatory ON | Ojeda Gonzalez A.,National Institute for Space Research | Oliveira Domingues M.,National Institute for Space Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics | Year: 2014

Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) can reach the Earth[U+05F3]s magnetosphere causing magnetic disturbances. For monitoring purposes, some satellites measure the interplanetary parameters which are related to energy transfer from solar wind into magnetosphere, while ground-based magnetometers measure the geomagnetic disturbance effects. Data from the ACE satellite and from some representative magnetometers were examined here via discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The increase in the amplitude of wavelet coefficients of solar wind parameters and geomagnetic field data is well-correlated with the arrival of the shock and sheath regions, and the sudden storm commencement and main phase, respectively. As an auxiliary tool to verify the disturbed magnetic fields identified by the DWT, we developed a new approach called effectiveness wavelet coefficient (EWC) methodology. The first interpretation of the results suggests that DWT and EWC can be effectively used to characterize the fluctuations on the solar wind parameters and their contributions to the geomagnetic field. Further, this kind of technique could be implemented in quasi real-time to facilitate the identification of the shock and the passage of the sheath region which sometimes can be followed by geoeffective magnetic clouds. Also, the technique shows to be very useful for the identification of time intervals in the dataset during geomagnetic storms which are associated to interplanetary parameters under very well defined conditions. It allows selecting ideal events for investigation of magnetic reconnection in order to highlight in a more precise manner the mechanisms existing in the electrodynamical coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Klausner V.,University of Paraíba Valley | Klausner V.,National Institute for Space Research | Klausner V.,National Observatory ON | Papa A.R.R.,National Observatory ON | And 4 more authors.
Annales Geophysicae | Year: 2016

This paper proposes a new method to evaluate geomagnetic activity based on wavelet analysis during the solar minimum activity (2007). In order to accomplish this task, a newly developed algorithm called effectiveness wavelet coefficient (EWC) was applied. Furthermore, a comparison between the 5 geomagnetically quiet days determined by the Kp-based method and by wavelet-based method was performed. This paper provides a new insight since the geomagnetic activity indexes are mostly designed to quantify the extent of disturbance rather than the quietness. The results suggest that the EWC can be used as an alternative tool to accurately detect quiet days, and consequently, it can also be used as an alternative to determine the Sq baseline to the current Kp-based 5 quietest days method. Another important aspect of this paper is that most of the quietest local wavelet candidate days occurred in an interval 2 days prior to the high-speed-stream-driven storm events. In other words, the EWC algorithm may potentially be used to detect the quietest magnetic activity that tends to occur just before the arrival of high-speed-stream-driven storms. © Author(s) 2016.

Klausner V.,University of Paraíba Valley | Domingues M.O.,National Institute for Space Research | Mendes O.,National Institute for Space Research | da Costa A.M.,National Institute for Space Research | And 2 more authors.
Advances in Space Research | Year: 2016

Coronal mass ejections are the primary cause of the highly disturbed conditions observed in the magnetosphere. Momentum and energy from the solar wind are transferred to the Earth's magnetosphere mainly via magnetic reconnection which produces open field lines connecting the Earth magnetic field to the solar wind. Magnetospheric currents are coupled to the ionosphere through field-aligned currents. This particular characteristic of the magnetosphere-ionosphere interconnection is discussed here on the basis of the energy transfer from high (auroral currents) to low-latitudes (ring current). The objective of this work is to examine how the conditions during a magnetic storm can affect the global space and time configuration of the ring current, and, how these processes can affect the region of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. The H- or X-components of the Earth's magnetic field were examined using a set of six magnetometers approximately aligned around the geographic longitude at about 10°,140° and 295° from latitudes of 70°N to 70°S and aligned throughout the equatorial region, for the event of October 18-22, 1998. The investigation of simultaneous observations of data measured at different locations makes it possible to determine the effects of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, and, it tries to establish some relationships among them. This work also compares the responses of the aligned magnetic observatories to the responses in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly region. The major contribution of this paper is related to the applied methodology of the discrete wavelet transform. The wavelet coefficients are used as a filter to extract the information in high frequencies of the analyzed magnetogram. They also better represent information about the injections of energy and, consequently, the disturbances of the geomagnetic field measured on the ground. As a result, we present a better way to visualize the correlation between the X- or H-components. In the latitude range from ∼40°S to ∼60°N, the wavelet signatures do not show remarkable differences, except for the amplitudes of the wavelet coefficients. The sequence of transient field variations detected at auroral latitudes is probably associated to occurrences of substorms, while at lower latitudes, these variations are associated to the enhancement of the ring current. © 2016 COSPAR.

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