National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN
National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN
Mustofa S.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN |
Rizaldy R.,H+ Technology |
Adi W.A.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2017
Aluminum-substituted barium hexaferrite (BaM) that have the general formula of BaFe12-xAlxO19 (x: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) was obtained through the process of solid state reaction. The samples of Aluminum-substituted barium hexaferrite (BaM) were characterized using XRD to determine the phase structure, and by Raman Spectroscopy to know the chemical composition and structure. The single phase was obtained for the samples x = 0 - 4 from the weight percentage of the phase, and the other phase i.e. Al2O3 and BaO have been achieved for the sample x = 5. The characterization of Raman spectrum on Aluminum-substituted barium hexaferrite (BaM) has been carried out using Bruker SENTERRA instrument. The presence of sharp peaks corresponded to A1g mode shows the possibility of Al substitution in the barium hexaferrite system without any distortion in crystal symmetry. It is also observed that the substitution of Al in the BaFe12O19 system leads to an increase in the intensity of resonance band when compared with the parent compound, which indicates a large polarizability variation during the vibrations in the Aluminum-substituted BaFe12-xAlxO19 compounds. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.
Sunarko,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN |
Suud Z.,Bandung Institute of Technology
Kerntechnik | Year: 2017
Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Method (LPDM) is applied to model atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material in a meso-scale of a few tens of kilometers for site study purpose. Empirical relationships are used to determine the dispersion coefficient for various atmospheric stabilities. Diagnostic 3-D wind-field is solved based on data from one meteorological station using mass-conservation principle. Particles representing radioactive pollutant are dispersed in the wind-field as a point source. Time-integrated air concentration is calculated using kernel density estimator (KDE) in the lowest layer of the atmosphere. Parallel code is developed for GTX-660Ti GPU with a total of 1 344 scalar processors using CUDA. A test of 1-hour release discovers that linear speedup is achieved starting at 28 800 particles-per-hour (pph) up to about 20×at 14 4000 pph. Another test simulating 6-hour release with 36 000 pph resulted in a speedup of about 60×. Statistical analysis reveals that resulting grid doses are nearly identical in both CPU and GPU versions of the code. © 2017 Carl Hanser Verlag, München.
Kusumastuti R.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN |
Pramana R.I.,Indonesian Institute of Sciences |
Soedarsono J.W.,University of Indonesia
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2017
The effect and mechanism of green corrosion inhibitor of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) toward low carbon steel material has been researched. The general background is to develop the cheap and eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor based on components taken from tropical plants that grow +in Indonesia. This research aims to determine the effectiveness of the use of the extracts of noni as green corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel material in aggressive environment. The medium applied for this experiment is 3.5% natrium chloride solution. The variation of the concentration and immersion time duration has been applied as the experimental parameters. All the work was done at room temperature. The corrosion rate was measured by electrochemical polarization method with CMS 600-Gamry instruments and weight loss. The adsorption of inhibitor into the metal surface, which induced bonding formation after immersion was observed by using FTIR method. Inhibition mechanism was observed by polarization curves and fitted by the Langmuir adsorption models. The experimental results show that the higher concentration of inhibitor increasing the inhibition effect. The optimum inhibition is obtained at 3 ppm noni fruit extract, after immersion for about 288 hours. The corrosion rates obtained was 1.385 mpy, with the inhibitor efficiency of 76.92%. The monolayer film is formed coating the surface material as a result of mixed type corrosion inhibitor behavior of Noni. It can be concluded that this green inhibitor is effective to be used for low carbon steel material. © 2017 Author(s).
Purwanto P.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN |
Adi W.A.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN |
Yunasfi,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2017
The Composite of Ba1,5Sr0,5Fe2O5 has been synthesized by using powder metallurgy technique. The Ba1.5Sr0.5Fe2O5 were prepared from BaCO3, SrCO3 and Fe2O3 raw materials with a specific weight ratio. The three materials were synthesized by powder metallurgy under heat treatment at 800 °C, 900 °C, and 1000 °C for 5 hours. All the three samples were characterized by using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) to determine the crystal structure and crystal size, LCR meter to determine the conductivity, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to observe the morphological of the composites. The phase analysis result showed that the composite consists of several minor phases such as BaO2, SrO2, and Fe2O3. The Crystal size of composite Ba1.5Sr0.5Fe2O5 decreased while increases the strain of crystal with increasing of sintering temperature. The crystal size of the Ba1.5Sr0.5Fe2O5 composite is 3.55 nm to 7.23 nm and value of strain is 8.47% until 3.90%. Based on the conductivity measurement, it was obtained that the conductivity of the Ba1.5Sr0.5Fe2O5 composite decreased with increasing sintering temperature. It was also noticed that the conductivity increased with increasing of frequency. The conductivity ranged from 6.619×10-7 S/cm to 65.659×10-7 S/cm. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis showed that several dominant elements were a good agreement with the phase analysis. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.
Purba J.H.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN |
Sony Tjahyani D.T.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN |
Widodo S.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN |
Tjahjono H.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN
Annals of Nuclear Energy | Year: 2017
Fuzzy probability – based fault tree analysis (FPFTA) has been recently developed and proposed to deal with the limitations of conventional fault tree analysis. In FPFTA, reliabilities of basic events, intermediate events and top event are characterized by fuzzy probabilities. Furthermore, the quantification of the FPFTA is based on fuzzy multiplication rule and fuzzy complementation rule to propagate uncertainties from basic event to the top event. Since the objective of the fault tree analysis is to improve the reliability of the system being evaluated, it is necessary to find the weakest path in the system. For this purpose, criticality analysis can be implemented. Various importance measures, which are based on conventional probabilities, have been developed and proposed for criticality analysis in fault tree analysis. However, not one of those importance measures can be applied for criticality analysis in FPFTA, which is based on fuzzy probability. To be fully applied in nuclear power plant probabilistic safety assessment, FPFTA needs to have its corresponding importance measure. The objective of this study is to develop an α-cut method based importance measure to evaluate and rank the importance of basic events for criticality analysis in FPFTA. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed measure, a case study is performed and its results are then benchmarked to the results generated by the four well known importance measures in conventional fault tree analysis. The results confirm that the proposed α-cut method based importance measure is feasible to evaluate critical basic events in FPFTA. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
Ilman M.N.,Gadjah Mada University |
Triwibowo N.A.,Gadjah Mada University |
Wahyudianto A.,Gadjah Mada University |
Muslih M.R.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN
International Journal of Fatigue | Year: 2017
Environmentally assisted fatigue crack propagation behaviour of metal inert gas (MIG) welded AA5083 joints under stress relieving treatment has been investigated. In this study, ‘in-process’ stress relieving treatment, namely static thermal tensioning was applied during MIG welding process. Subsequently, fatigue crack propagation tests were performed in 3.5% NaCl solutions with and without a chromate inhibitor. A sinusoidal loading wave form was used in these fatigue tests with stress ratio, R and frequency, f of 0.1 and 8 Hz respectively. For complementary tests, residual stress measurements were conducted using neutron diffraction method whereas effect of corrosive environments was assessed using potentiodynamic polarisation technique. Results showed that electrochemical corrosion characteristics of the weld metals under stress relieving treatment were improved marked by the presence of anodic passivation regions in potentiodynamic polarisation curves with reduced corrosion rates. Moreover, synergistic effect of compressive residual stress and repassivation of the weld joints seemed to inhibit environment fatigue crack propagation. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
Sugiawan Y.,Kyushu University |
Sugiawan Y.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN |
Managi S.,Kyushu University |
Managi S.,Queensland University of Technology
Energy Policy | Year: 2016
There is an increasing interest in investigating the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis because it suggests the existence of a turning point in the economy that will lead to a sustainable development path. Although many studies have focused on the EKC, only a few empirical studies have focused on analyzing the EKC with specific reference to Indonesia, and none of them have examined the potential of renewable energy sources within the EKC framework. This study attempts to estimate the EKC in the case of Indonesia for the period of 1971–2010 by considering the role of renewable energy in electricity production, using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration as the estimation method. We found an inverted U-shaped EKC relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions in the long run. The estimated turning point was found to be 7729 USD per capita, which lies outside of our sample period. The beneficial impacts of renewable energy on CO2 emission reduction are observable both in the short run and in the long run. Our work has important implications both for policymakers and for the future development of renewable energy in Indonesia. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Wurdiyanto G.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN |
Candra H.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2016
The standardization of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F) to calibrate the nuclear medicine equipment had been carried out in PTKMR-BATAN. This is necessary because the radioactive sources used in the field of nuclear medicine has a very short half-life in other that to obtain a quality measurement results require special treatment. Besides that, the use of nuclear medicine techniques in Indonesia develop rapidly. All the radioactive sources were prepared by gravimetric methods. Standardization of 125I has been carried out by photon- photon coincidence methods, while the others have been carried out by gamma spectrometry methods. The standar sources are used to calibrate a Capintec CRC-7BT radionuclide calibrator. The results shows that calibration factor for Capintec CRC-7BT dose calibrator is 1,03; 1,02; 1,06; and 1,04 for 125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F respectively, by about 5 to 6% of the expanded uncertainties. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.
Purba J.H.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN
Progress in Nuclear Energy | Year: 2014
Fault tree analysis (FTA) is a graphical model which has been widely used as a deductive tool for nuclear power plant (NPP) probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The conventional one assumes that basic events of fault trees always have precise failure probabilities or failure rates. However, in real-world applications, this assumption is still arguable. For example, there is a case where an extremely hazardous accident has never happened or occurs infrequently. Therefore, reasonable historical failure data are unavailable or insufficient to be used for statistically estimating the reliability characteristics of their components. To deal with this problem, fuzzy probability approaches have been proposed and implemented. However, those existing approaches still have limitations, such as lack of fuzzy gate representations and incapability to generate probabilities greater than 1.0E-3. Therefore, a review on the current implementations of fuzzy probabilities in the NPP PSA is necessary. This study has categorized two types of fuzzy probability approaches, i.e. fuzzy based FTA and fuzzy hybrid FTA. This study also confirms that the fuzzy based FTA should be used when the uncertainties are the main focus of the FTA. Meanwhile, the fuzzy hybrid FTA should be used when the reliability of basic events of fault trees can only be expressed by qualitative linguistic terms rather than numerical values. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bharoto,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN |
Putra E.G.R.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010
The original main control system of the 36 meter small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) BATAN Spectrometer (SMARTer) has been replaced with the new ones due to the malfunction of the main computer. For that reason, a new control system software for handling all the control systems was also developed in order to put the spectrometer back in operation. The developed software is able to control the system such as rotation movement of six pinholes system, vertical movement of four neutron guide system with the total length of 16.5 m, two-directional movement of a neutron beam stopper, forward-backward movement of a 2D position sensitive detector (2D-PSD) along 16.7 m, etc. A Visual Basic language program running on Windows operating system was employed to develop the software and it can be operated by other remote computers in the local area network. All device positions and command menu are displayed graphically in the main monitor or window and each device control can be executed by clicking the control button. Those advantages are necessary required for developing a new user-friendly control system software. Finally, the new software has been tested for handling a complete SANS experiment and it works properly. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.