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Prayoga B.T.,Gadjah Mada University | Suyitno,Gadjah Mada University | Dharmastiti R.,Gadjah Mada University | Akbar F.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN | Juliani,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2017

Rotational velocity in the centrifugal casting is one of the factors that affect to the porosity of the femoral knee cast. The objective of this research is to investigate the internal porosity of as-cast femoral knee prostheses. CP-titanium femoral knee was cast using vertical centrifugal investment casting. The three rotational velocities parameter utilized in the vertical centrifugal casting were 45, 55 and 65 rpm. Neutron computed tomography characterization was conducted to investigate the size, percentage, and location of pores. The maximum size of pores in casting with the rotational velocity of 45, 55, and 65 rpm are 14.78 mm3, 14.98 mm3, and, 14.65 mm3, respectively. The percentage of pores in the casting with the rotational velocity of 45, 55, and 65 rpm are 1.78%, 2.78% and, 1.78% respectively. The size and percentage of the pores for casting at the rotational velocity of 65 rpm are smaller than the size and percentage of the casting at 45 and 55 rpm. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Pinem S.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN | Sembiring T.M.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN | Liem P.H.,Advanced Info Service
Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations | Year: 2016

This paper reports the results of sensitivity analysis of the multidimension, multigroup neutron diffusion NODAL3 code for the NEACRP 3D LWR core transient benchmarks (PWR). The code input parameters covered in the sensitivity analysis are the radial and axial node sizes (the number of radial node per fuel assembly and the number of axial layers), heat conduction node size in the fuel pellet and cladding, and the maximum time step. The output parameters considered in this analysis followed the above-mentioned core transient benchmarks, that is, power peak, time of power peak, power, averaged Doppler temperature, maximum fuel centerline temperature, and coolant outlet temperature at the end of simulation (5 s). The sensitivity analysis results showed that the radial node size and maximum time step give a significant effect on the transient parameters, especially the time of power peak, for the HZP and HFP conditions. The number of ring divisions for fuel pellet and cladding gives negligible effect on the transient solutions. For productive work of the PWR transient analysis, based on the present sensitivity analysis results, we recommend NODAL3 users to use 2 × 2 radial nodes per assembly, 1 × 18 axial layers per assembly, the maximum time step of 10 ms, and 9 and 1 ring divisions for fuel pellet and cladding, respectively. © 2016 Surian Pinem et al.


PubMed | National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN, Federal office for Radiation Protection, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and P.T. BATAN Technology
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental radioactivity | Year: 2015

BATAN Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies (99m)Tc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of (133)Xe in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the radionuclide network of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The major xenon isotopes released from BaTek are also produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide if a specific measurement result could have originated from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84 10(13) Bq of (133)Xe. Concentrations of (133)Xe in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88 10(13) Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70 10(13) Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10% of each other. Unpublished production data and the release estimate from June 2013 yield a rough annual release estimate of 8 10(14) Bq of (133)Xe in 2014. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates based on atmospheric samplers.


Sugiawan Y.,Kyushu University | Sugiawan Y.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN | Managi S.,Kyushu University | Managi S.,Queensland University of Technology
Energy Policy | Year: 2016

There is an increasing interest in investigating the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis because it suggests the existence of a turning point in the economy that will lead to a sustainable development path. Although many studies have focused on the EKC, only a few empirical studies have focused on analyzing the EKC with specific reference to Indonesia, and none of them have examined the potential of renewable energy sources within the EKC framework. This study attempts to estimate the EKC in the case of Indonesia for the period of 1971–2010 by considering the role of renewable energy in electricity production, using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration as the estimation method. We found an inverted U-shaped EKC relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions in the long run. The estimated turning point was found to be 7729 USD per capita, which lies outside of our sample period. The beneficial impacts of renewable energy on CO2 emission reduction are observable both in the short run and in the long run. Our work has important implications both for policymakers and for the future development of renewable energy in Indonesia. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Ilman M.N.,Gadjah Mada University | Kusmono,Gadjah Mada University | Muslih M.R.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN | Subeki N.,Gadjah Mada University | Wibowo H.,Gadjah Mada University
Materials and Design | Year: 2016

The demand for lightweight structures in ship fabrication to improve performance and fuel savings has led to increasing use of thin-section structures. However, welding such structures often produces problems such as distortion and residual stress. The present investigation is aimed to mitigate distortion and residual stress using static thermal tensioning (STT) to improve fatigue performance in AA 5083 metal inert gas (MIG) welded joints. The STT treatments were performed by cooling the weld zone and its adjacent area during welding whereas both sides away from the weld were heated at various temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C to generate thermal gradient. Subsequent experiments including distortion measurements, microscopical examination, hardness and tensile tests, measurements of residual stresses using neutron diffraction method and fatigue crack growth tests combined with SEM fractography were conducted. Results showed that an increase in heating temperature reduced convex longitudinal out of plane distortion. The minimum longitudinal out of plane distortion was achieved at a heating temperature of 200 °C owing to the balance between buckling distortion induced by welding and that generated by static differential heating which opposed the weld distortion. Under such condition, fatigue crack growth performance was improved. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Ariani M.,Bandung Institute of Technology | Su'ud Z.,Bandung Institute of Technology | Monado F.,Bandung Institute of Technology | Waris A.,Bandung Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

In this study gas cooled reactor system are combined with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme to create small long life fast reactors with natural circulation as fuel cycle input. Such system can utilize natural Uranium resources efficiently without the necessity of enrichment plant or reprocessing plant. Therefore using this type of nuclear power plants optimum nuclear energy utilization including in developing countries can be easily conducted without the problem of nuclear proliferation. In this paper, optimization of Small and Medium Long-life Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input has been performed. The optimization processes include adjustment of fuel region movement scheme, volume fraction adjustment, core dimension, etc. Due to the limitation of thermal hydraulic aspects, the average power density of the proposed design is selected about 75 W/cc. With such condition we investigated small and medium sized cores from 300 MWt to 600 MWt with all being operated for 10 years without refueling and fuel shuffling and just need natural Uranium as fuel cycle input. The average discharge burn-up is about in the range of 23-30% HM. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Purba J.H.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN | Sony Tjahyani D.T.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN | Ekariansyah A.S.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN | Tjahjono H.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN
Annals of Nuclear Energy | Year: 2015

A number of fuzzy fault tree analysis approaches, which integrate fuzzy concepts into the quantitative phase of conventional fault tree analysis, have been proposed to study reliabilities of engineering systems. Those new approaches apply expert judgments to overcome the limitation of the conventional fault tree analysis when basic events do not have probability distributions. Since expert judgments might come with epistemic uncertainty, it is important to quantify the overall uncertainties of the fuzzy fault tree analysis. Monte Carlo simulation is commonly used to quantify the overall uncertainties of conventional fault tree analysis. However, since Monte Carlo simulation is based on probability distribution, this technique is not appropriate for fuzzy fault tree analysis, which is based on fuzzy probabilities. The objective of this study is to develop a fuzzy probability based fault tree analysis to overcome the limitation of fuzzy fault tree analysis. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach, a case study is performed and its results are then compared to the results analyzed by a conventional fault tree analysis. The results confirm that the proposed fuzzy probability based fault tree analysis is feasible to propagate and quantify epistemic uncertainties in fault tree analysis. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Wurdiyanto G.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN | Candra H.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2016

The standardization of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F) to calibrate the nuclear medicine equipment had been carried out in PTKMR-BATAN. This is necessary because the radioactive sources used in the field of nuclear medicine has a very short half-life in other that to obtain a quality measurement results require special treatment. Besides that, the use of nuclear medicine techniques in Indonesia develop rapidly. All the radioactive sources were prepared by gravimetric methods. Standardization of 125I has been carried out by photon- photon coincidence methods, while the others have been carried out by gamma spectrometry methods. The standar sources are used to calibrate a Capintec CRC-7BT radionuclide calibrator. The results shows that calibration factor for Capintec CRC-7BT dose calibrator is 1,03; 1,02; 1,06; and 1,04 for 125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F respectively, by about 5 to 6% of the expanded uncertainties. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Purba J.H.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN
Progress in Nuclear Energy | Year: 2014

Fault tree analysis (FTA) is a graphical model which has been widely used as a deductive tool for nuclear power plant (NPP) probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The conventional one assumes that basic events of fault trees always have precise failure probabilities or failure rates. However, in real-world applications, this assumption is still arguable. For example, there is a case where an extremely hazardous accident has never happened or occurs infrequently. Therefore, reasonable historical failure data are unavailable or insufficient to be used for statistically estimating the reliability characteristics of their components. To deal with this problem, fuzzy probability approaches have been proposed and implemented. However, those existing approaches still have limitations, such as lack of fuzzy gate representations and incapability to generate probabilities greater than 1.0E-3. Therefore, a review on the current implementations of fuzzy probabilities in the NPP PSA is necessary. This study has categorized two types of fuzzy probability approaches, i.e. fuzzy based FTA and fuzzy hybrid FTA. This study also confirms that the fuzzy based FTA should be used when the uncertainties are the main focus of the FTA. Meanwhile, the fuzzy hybrid FTA should be used when the reliability of basic events of fault trees can only be expressed by qualitative linguistic terms rather than numerical values. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bharoto,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN | Putra E.G.R.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia BATAN
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010

The original main control system of the 36 meter small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) BATAN Spectrometer (SMARTer) has been replaced with the new ones due to the malfunction of the main computer. For that reason, a new control system software for handling all the control systems was also developed in order to put the spectrometer back in operation. The developed software is able to control the system such as rotation movement of six pinholes system, vertical movement of four neutron guide system with the total length of 16.5 m, two-directional movement of a neutron beam stopper, forward-backward movement of a 2D position sensitive detector (2D-PSD) along 16.7 m, etc. A Visual Basic language program running on Windows operating system was employed to develop the software and it can be operated by other remote computers in the local area network. All device positions and command menu are displayed graphically in the main monitor or window and each device control can be executed by clicking the control button. Those advantages are necessary required for developing a new user-friendly control system software. Finally, the new software has been tested for handling a complete SANS experiment and it works properly. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

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