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Tandian N.P.,Bandung Institute of Technology | Alkharboushi A.A.K.,Al Zawiya University | Kamajaya K.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering

Natural convection heat transfer in vertical triangular sub-channel has important role in cooling mechanism of the APWR and the PHWR nuclear reactors. Unfortunately, natural convection correlation equations for such geometry are scarcely available. Recent studies showed that ZrO2-water nanofluid has a good prospect to be used in the nuclear reactor technology due to its low neutron absorption cross section. Although several papers have reported transport properties of ZrO2-water nanofluids, practically there is no correlation equation for predicting natural convection heat transfer in a vertical triangular sub-channel in ZrO2-water nanofluid. Therefore, a study for finding such heat transfer correlation equation has been done by utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics software and reported in this paper. In the study, natural convection heat transfer in a vertical triangular sub-channel has been simulated at several values of heat transfer flux within 9.1 to 30.9 kW/m2 range and ZrO2concentrations of 0 (pure water), 0.27, and 3 volume-% of ZrO2. The study shows that the ZrO2 concentration has no significant influence to the natural convection heat transfer at those concentration levels. The obtained theoretical heat transfer correlation equations were verified through experiment, and they showed very similar results. The correlation equations are reported in this paper. Source

Mahdi H.J.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Andayani R.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Aziz I.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia
Tropical Life Sciences Research

Three Malaysian ginger cultivars (Bukit Tinggi, Tanjung Sepat and Sabah) were collected and examined for genetic polymorphisms using microsatellite DNA primers. The single microsatellite oligonucleotide primers (CATA)5, (GATA)5 and (GAC)6 were used in polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). These PCR reactions produced 7 polymorphic bands with an average of 2.334 polymorphic bands per primer, leading to an average polymorphism rate of 17.9%. Cluster analysis revealed 87.50% similarity between Bukit Tinggi and Tanjung Sepat, 64.27% similarity between Bukit Tinggi and Sabah and 56.25% similarity between Tanjung Sepat and Sabah. DNA sequencing of the polymorphic PCR products of Tanjung Sepat ginger revealed the characteristic features of a putative new gene: a core promoter sequence, an enhancer and a transcription start site. Cluster analysis using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) was used to construct a phylogenetic tree, which indicated that Bukit Tinggi ginger is genetically more closely related to Tanjung Sepat ginger than to Sabah ginger. Based on the results of this study, we concluded that there is genotypic variation among ginger cultivars, and the microsatellite DNA primers described here are useful for detecting polymorphic DNA in Malaysian ginger cultivars. Additionally, these microsatellite DNA primers may be used as molecular markers for discriminating among select Malaysian ginger cultivars. © Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2013. Source

Sembiring T.M.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia | Liem P.H.,NAIS Co. Inc.
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

An optimum fuel composition is a very important parameter in the operation of a pebble bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). In the present scoping study, the optimum ranges of heavy metal (HM) loading per pebble and the uranium enrichment are investigated. The HM loading range covers 4 to 10 g per pebble, while the uranium enrichment covers 5 to 20 w/o. Two fuel loading schemes typical to pebble-bed HTGRs are also investigated, i.e. the OTTO and multi-pass schemes. All calculations are carried out using BATAN-MPASS, a general in-core fuel management code dedicated for pebble-bed type HTGRs. The reference reactor design case is adopted from the German 200 MWth HTR-Module but with core height of half of the original design. Other design parameters follow the original HTR-Module design. The results of the scoping study show that, for both once-through-then-out (OTTO) and multi-pass fueling schemes, the optimal HM loading per pebble is around 7 g HM/ball. Increasing the uranium enrichment minimizes the fissile loading however higher enrichment than 15 w/o is not effective anymore. The multi-pass fueling scheme shows lower fissile loading requirement and a significantly lower axial power peaking than the OTTO scheme. It can be concluded that the optimum range of HM loading and uranium enrichment are found to be around 7 g per pebble and 15 w/o. In addition the multi-pass fueling scheme shows superior BURNUP and safety characteristics than the OTTO fueling scheme. © 2006-2016 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). Source

Susmikanti M.,Energy Informatics | Dewayatna W.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia
AIP Conference Proceedings

One of the research activities to support the commercial radioisotope production program is a safety research target irradiation FPM (Fission Product Molybdenum). FPM targets form a tube made of stainless steel in which the nuclear degrees of superimposed high-enriched uranium. FPM irradiation tube is intended to obtain fission. The fission material widely used in the form of kits in the world of nuclear medicine. Irradiation FPM tube reactor core would interfere with performance. One of the disorders comes from changes in flux or reactivity. It is necessary to study a method for calculating safety terrace ongoing configuration changes during the life of the reactor, making the code faster became an absolute necessity. Neutron safety margin for the research reactor can be reused without modification to the calculation of the reactivity of the reactor, so that is an advantage of using perturbation method. The criticality and flux in multigroup diffusion model was calculate at various irradiation positions in some uranium content. This model has a complex computation. Several parallel algorithms with iterative method have been developed for the sparse and big matrix solution. The Black-Red Gauss Seidel Iteration and the power iteration parallel method can be used to solve multigroup diffusion equation system and calculated the criticality and reactivity coeficient. This research was developed code for reactivity calculation which used one of safety analysis with parallel processing. It can be done more quickly and efficiently by utilizing the parallel processing in the multicore computer. This code was applied for the safety limits calculation of irradiated targets FPM with increment Uranium. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC. Source

Kuperkar K.,Veer Narmad South Gujarat University | Patriati A.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia | Putra E.G.R.,National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia | Singh K.,St. Francis Xavier University | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Chemistry

Interaction of 1-butanol (BuOH) with a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) aggregate, in water and salt solution has been studied by viscometry, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and 2D-NMR techniques. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of a possible micellar growth occurring in the presence of added alcohol and salt. It was observed that the addition of BuOH strongly influences the viscosity of the CTAB/salt micellar system, reaching a peak viscosity at about 0.5% w/v of BuOH over a range of salt concentrations. Scattering measurements support the idea of a structural transformation by the observation of a spectral shift (broadening) as the total concentration of surfactant varies, indicating a decrease in the intermicellar distance and narrow size distribution. The chemical shift from 1H NMR measurements gave complementary data on the solubilization of BuOH in CTAB micelles, whereas the expected locus (site) of the additive added to the surfactant including the dynamics of the molecules in micellar aggregates were successfully correlated by significant and positive cross peaks obtained from two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (2D-NOESY). © 2012 Published by NRC Research Press. Source

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