National Nuclear Energy Agency

Banten, Indonesia

National Nuclear Energy Agency

Banten, Indonesia
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Kartini E.,National Nuclear Energy Agency
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2015

Development of lithium ion batteries will play an important role in achieving innovative sustainable energy. To reduce the production cost of such batteries, the Indonesian government has instituted a strategy to use local resources. Therefore, this technology is now part of the National Industrial Strategic Plan. One of the most important scientific challenges is to improve performance of lithium batteries. Neutron scattering is a very important technique to investigate crystal structure of electrode materials. The unique properties of neutrons, which allow detection of light elements such as lithium ions, are indispensable. The utilization of neutron scattering facilities at the Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency will provide significant contributions to the development of improved lithium ion battery technologies. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.


Sunarko,National Nuclear Energy Agency | Zakisu'Ud,Bandung Institute of Technology
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2016

A deterministic model is developed for radioactive dispersion analysis based on random-walk Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Method (LPDM). A diagnostic 3dimensional mass-consistent wind-field with a capability to handle complex topography can be used to provide input for particle advection. Turbulent diffusion process of particles is determined based on empirical lateral and linear vertical relationships. Surface-level concentration is calculated for constant unit release from elevated point source. A series of 60-second segmented groups of particles are released in 3600 seconds total duration. Averaged surface-level concentration within a 5 meter surface layer is obtained and compared with available analytical solution. Results from LPDM shows good agreement with the analytical result for vertically constant and varying wind field with the same atmospheric stability.


Kartini E.,National Nuclear Energy Agency | Manawan M.,University of Indonesia
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2016

With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes, promise the potential to replace organic liquid electrolytes and thereby improve the safety of next-generation high-energy batteries. Li3PO4 has been proved to be a good candidate for solid electrolyte, due to its easy in preparation, low cost, high melting temperature and good compatibility with the electrode materials. In the present work, Li3PO4 has been prepared by wet chemical reaction, a simple method with the advantage of recycling a waste product H3PO4. The crystal structure has been characterized by both neutron and x-ray diffraction. The use of neutron scattering plays important role on observing the light atoms such as lithium ion. The x-ray diffraction results showed the crystal structure of orthorhombic phase P m n 21 (31), that belongs to the β-Li3PO4, with the lattice parameters are a = 6.123872, b = 5.250211, c = 4.876378. The conductivity of β-Li3PO4 was around 10-8 S/cm. Furthermore, the future application of the solid electrolyte layer in lithium ion battery will also be considered. It is concluded that the used of local resources on producing the solid electrolyte Li3PO4 for lithium ion battery will give more added values to the researches and national industry. © 2016 AIP Publishing LLC.


Darsono,National Nuclear Energy Agency
Macromolecular Symposia | Year: 2015

Summary An experiment on surface coating of sengon wood (Paraserianthes falcataria L. Nielsen) using ultra violet (UV) irradiation has been conducted. Epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins were used as coating materials after addition of tripropylene glycol diacrylate and a photoinisiator, Darocure 1173. Irradiation was conducted using UV light at the conveyor speed of 2, 3, 4, and 5 m/min. Parameters observed were glossyness, adhesion, hardness, abrasion resistance and chemical, solvent and stain resistance. The superior results of the epoxy acrylate films were obtained to show excellent adhesion on the surface of wood meeting with the standard because of greater remaining values than 50% (ASTM 2571-71), together with the high degrees of abrasion, hardness, glossyness and torelance against chemicals, solvent, and stain except against 10% NaOH solution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


to develop an assay system of a radioisotope (32P)-based PCR dot-blot hybridization technique and evaluation of the assay directly for TB sputum samples to detect mutation at codon 306 of embB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis related with ethambutol (EMB) resistance. one hundred and sixteen of sputum samples were used in this study. Bacterial genome in sputum samples was extracted and tested for mutation at codon 306 of embB gene by the developed PCR dot blot assay using a radioisotope (32P)-labeled oligonucleotide. The positive results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. all 116 sputum samples were PCR positive for M. tuberculosis. Of 116 samples, three (2.59%) were EMB resistant-M. tuberculosis (MTB) and showed a substitution mutation (ATG/Met'-->GTG/Val) at codon 306 of embB gene. None of mutation was detected at codon 299 of embB gene. we successfully developed a radioisotope (32P)-based PCR dot blot hybridization technique for detection of mutation at codon 306 of embB gene related with EMB resistant M. tuberculosis. The assay can detect a large number of samples that is suitable for monitoring, surveillance, and epidemiology studies.


Sudjadi U.,National Nuclear Energy Agency
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

Surface hardening on local disc brakes with DC-plasma nitrocarburizing apparatus has been carried out. Local disc brake was nitrocarburized at temperatures of 700 °C, 800°C, and 900°C for 3 hours, respectively. The results show that the hardness of sample of local disc brake before nitrocarburization was 167.86 Kgf/mm2, after the sample was nitrocarburized at temperature 900 °C for 3 hours, the hardness increased up to 649.38 Kgf/mm2. Matrixes on the base material were austenite, ferrite, and perlite. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Suwarno H.,National Nuclear Energy Agency
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

The RERTR Program (Reduced Enrichment in Research and Test Reactors) is an attempt to utilize uranium fuel enriched below 20% for nuclear research reactors. Since the program was launched by the United States in 1978, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has recommended that UxSiy alloys, particularly U3Si2 and U3Si compounds, be used to fuel nuclear research reactors with uranium loading rate up to 4.8 gU/cm3. Unfortunately, there are difficulties in reprocessing U3Si2 and U3Si compounds due to the Si content. To overcome this problem, the IAEA initiated international cooperation to find the best solution in the development of new nuclear fuels to substitute the UxSiy alloys. In order to synthesize nuclear fuel containing high loading of uranium, research in developing uranium nitride (UN) from uranium metal has been conducted by reacting the massive uranium metal with hydrogen gas at a temperature of 573 K followed by dehydriding at a temperature of 773 K under vacuum pressure and nitriding at a temperature of 1073 K by introducing nitrogen gas in the reaction chamber. The X-ray diffraction analysis results showed that the hydriding process caused the uranium metal to turn into a stable compound, UH3, which was identified by the changes of the massive shapes into fine metal powders. Dehydriding process at a temperature of 773 K caused the UH3 compound to decompose into U metal powders, and when the metal powders were reacted with N2 gas at 1073 K a stable phase identified as UN was formed. The results showed that it is possible to produce UN powders by hydriding, dehydriding, and nitriding process, although special handling of UH3 and UN powders is required due to their pyrophoric nature. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Suwarno H.,National Nuclear Energy Agency
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

The synthesis and characterizations of Fe-Ti and Mg-Ti-Fe alloys with the atomic ratio of Fe:Ti = 2:1 and Mg:Ti:Fe = 2:5:6 prepared by mechanical alloying technique in toluene solution and measurement the hydrogen absorption properties of the yields have been performed. The Fe-Ti and Mg-Ti-Fe elemental powders are milled with the milling time of 30 h, in a Mixer Mill, type PW 700i high energy ball mill. The milled specimens are analyzed with an X-ray diffractometer, Philip, type PW 1710, using Cu as the anode tube and λ = 1.5406 Å. Qualitative and quantitative analyses are determined using Rietveld method developed by Fuji Izumi. The microstructure of the specimens after milling and hydriding are identified with a scanning electron microscope, Philip type 550. The refinement analysis of the x-ray diffractions results for Fe-Ti alloy shows that before milling the specimen consists of Ti and Fe phases, and after 30 h of milling new phases identified as FeTi and Fe2Ti are formed. In case of Mg-Ti-Fe alloy after 30 h of milling new phases identified as Fe2Ti and FeTi compounds are formed with the absence of Mg-Ti and Mg-Fe. Quantitative analysis of the milled powders shows that the mass fractions of FeTi and Fe2Ti phases are correspondingly 22.5 wt% and is 21.1 wt%, and the rest is Fe. The disappearance of Mg peaks after milling is suggested from the transformation of the crystallite into amorphous state. On hydriding at room temperature, the milled Fe-Ti and Mg-Fe-Ti powders are transformed into β-Ti4FeH8.5, Fe and TiH2. Considering the high hydrogen capacity and the low hydriding temperature of the Mg-Ti-Fe alloy compared to those of Fe-Ti alloy, the Mg-Ti-Fe alloy could be promoted as a new hydrogen storage material. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Hadi Y.S.,Bogor Agricultural University | Rahayu I.S.,Bogor Agricultural University | Danu S.,National Nuclear Energy Agency
Journal of Tropical Forest Science | Year: 2015

Termite resistance of jabon wood impregnated with methyl methacrylate. Jabon ( Anthocephalus cadamba) wood specimens were impregnated for 10, 20 and 30 min with monomer methyl methacrylate (MMA) and then polymerised by 60Co gamma radiation (10 and 30 kGy). After the polymerisation process, polymer loadings were calculated. For comparison, control specimen was prepared using untreated wood. All wood specimens were tested for resistance to subterranean termite (Coptotermes curvignathus) in the laboratory for 4 weeks according to the Indonesian standard. At the end of the test period, wood specimen weight loss, resistance class, termite mortality and feeding rate were determined. Results showed that the average polymer loading reached 69% and the MMA wood had better resistance to subterranean termite than untreated wood. The untreated wood belonged to resistance class V (very poor resistance) but MMA wood was rated as class II (resistant). Compared with untreated wood, MMA wood also had less weight loss (77.7%), a lower termite feeding rate (73%) and increased termite mortality (20.9%). Impregnation period, radiation dose and interaction of both of these factors affected wood weight loss and termite feeding rate. The best combination treatment was 30 min of MMA impregnation and 30 kGy of radiation. © Forest Research Institute Malaysia


Suseno H.,National Nuclear Energy Agency | Wahono I.B.,Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2015

As data on anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations (i.e., 134Cs and 137Cs) in Indonesian marine environments including the Indian Ocean are scarce, offshore monitoring has been performed in the West Sumatra and South Java Seas. The activity concentration of 137Cs ranges from below minimum detectable activity (MDA) to 0.13Bqm-3 in the surface seawater of the South Java Sea and from lower than MDA to 0.28Bqm-3 in the surface seawater of the West Sumatra Sea. The concentrations of 137Cs in the surface seawater of the West Sumatra and South Java Seas are lower than the estimation of 137Cs concentration in the subsurface waters owing to the input of the North Pacific Ocean via the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). The concentrations of 134Cs in the sampling locations were lower than MDA. These results have indicated that these Indonesian marine waters have not yet been influenced by the Fukushima radioactive release. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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