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Sanyal J.,University of Delhi | Banerjee T.K.,National Neurosciences Center | Rao V.R.,University of Delhi
American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias | Year: 2014

Depression and cognitive impairment are frequent manifestations in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although a few longitudinal studies have reported on depression and dementia in PD, there is a yet a lack of such studies in India. This 7-year longitudinal study is a hospital-based prospective case (n = 250)-control (n = 280) study. In all, 36.8% had PD with no cognitive impairment (PD-Normal), 27.2% of the patients with PD were affected by dementia (PDD), and 36% of the remaining patients with PD had mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) at baseline. After 7 years of evaluation, 32 new patients, 12 patients from the PD-MCI group and 9 patients from the PD-Normal group, were diagnosed with dementia. The 7-year prevalence rate for dementia was estimated to be 49.28%. In the Indian population, an early onset of dementia is noted among patients with PD, with the age of onset being less than 55 years. Patients with early-onset PDD showed depression symptoms that differed significantly from the controls of the same age-group. There was a major difference in verbal fluency, word list recall, constructional praxis and recall, word list recognition, abridged Boston Naming Test, word list memory with repetition, and Mini-Mental State Examination between PD-MCI and PDD groups. Hallucinations before baseline (odds ratio [OR] = 4.427, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.122-9.373), akinetic/tremor dominancy (OR = 0.380, 95%CI = 0.149-0.953), and asymmetrical disease onset (OR = 0.3285, 95%CI = 0.1576-0.685) can be considered as risk factors for patients with dementia. Patients with early-onset PD might be more prone to complex depression and dementia. As the disease progresses, akinetic-dominant PD, early hallucinations, and asymmetrical disease onset are the potential risk factors for the development of dementia in patients with PD. © The Author(s) 2014. Source

Das S.K.,Bangur Institute of Neuroscience | Misra A.K.,Bangur Institute of Neuroscience | Ray B.K.,Bangur Institute of Neuroscience | Hazra A.,Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research | And 5 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2010

Objective:: No well-designed longitudinal study on Parkinson disease (PD) has been conducted in India. Therefore, we planned to determine the prevalence, incidence, and mortality rates of PD in the city of Kolkata, India, on a stratified random sample through a door-to-door survey. Method:: This study was undertaken between 2003 to 2007 with a validated questionnaire by a team consisting of 4 trained field workers in 3 stages. Field workers screened the cases, later confirmed by a specialist doctor. In the third stage, a movement disorders specialist undertook home visits and reviewed all surviving cases after 1 year from last screening. Information on death was collected through verbal autopsy. A nested case-control study (1:3) was also undertaken to determine putative risk factors. The rates were age adjusted to the World Standard Population. Result:: A total population of 100,802 was screened. The age-adjusted prevalence rate (PR) and average annual incidence rate were 52.85/100,000 and 5.71/100,000 per year, respectively. The slum population showed significantly decreased PR with age compared with the nonslum population. The adjusted average annual mortality rate was 2.89/100,000 per year. The relative risk of death was 8.98. The case-control study showed that tobacco chewing protected and hypertension increased PD occurrence. Conclusion:: This study documented lower prevalence and incidence of PD as compared with Caucasian and a few Oriental populations. The mortality rates were comparable. The decreased age-specific PR among slum populations and higher relative risk of death need further probing. Copyright © 2010 by AAN Enterprises, Inc. Source

Banerjee T.K.,National Neurosciences Center | Ray B.K.,Bangur Institute of Neuroscience | Das S.K.,Bangur Institute of Neuroscience | Hazra A.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | And 4 more authors.
Epilepsia | Year: 2010

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the prevalence, incidence, and mortality rates of epilepsy in the city of Kolkata, India. This is the first such longitudinal study in a heterogeneous urban Indian population. Methods: A two-stage door-to-door survey of a stratified random sample was undertaken within the municipal limits of Kolkata. Trained field workers detected and interviewed the cases using a simple screening questionnaire, and the detailed follow-up was done by neurologists. The survey was conducted annually for five consecutive years from March 2003 through February 2008. Results: A total of 52,377 (52.74% men) individuals were screened. There were 309 prevalent and 66 incident cases of active epilepsy. The prevalence and average annual incidence rate (AAIR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), age-standardized to World Standard Population, were 572.8 (509.79-641.54) per 100,000 and 27.27 (21.03-34.80) per 100,000 per year, respectively. The age-specific incidence rates of epilepsy showed bimodal distribution. During the 5-year period, 20 cases of active epilepsy died. The average annual mortality rate (AAMR) was 7.63 (95% CI 4.45-11.26) per 100,000 population per year. Compared to the general population of Kolkata, the all-cause standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for persons with epilepsy was 2.58 overall (men 3.67; women 1.77). There was no significant difference between slum and nonslum dwellers in epidemiologic parameters. Conclusions: The AAIR of epilepsy is comparable to that observed in developed countries, but AAMR is higher. The all-cause SMR for epilepsy relative to the general population is, however, similar to that of developed nations. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy. Source

Krishnan P.,National Neurosciences Center | Roy Chowdhury S.,National Neurosciences Center
British Journal of Neurosurgery | Year: 2015

Subdural effusions following decompressive craniotomy for trauma are usually benign, ipsilateral to the craniotomy and resolve spontaneously. Far less common and more dangerous are contralateral subdural effusions causing external cerebral herniation. We report a case of recurrent contralateral effusion and highlight the management dilemmas.Arachnoid tear is probably the cause of these collections. Contralateral subdural effusions should be suspected in patients who have delayed neurological deterioration after an initial improvement particularly in the setting of increased "flap bulge" though they may also be found in patients who remain moribund after initial surgery. There are no clear-cut guidelines on their management due to their rarity. A variety of options like subduro-peritoneal shunt and drainage with simultaneous cranioplasty may be tried. In situations where resources or patient compliance is an issue, tapping the effusion followed by cranial strapping may be tried as was done in our case. © 2015 The Neurosurgical Foundation. Source

Kirkman M.A.,National Neurosciences Center | Sridhar K.,National Neurosciences Center
European Spine Journal | Year: 2011

[Figure not available: see fulltext.]The management of spinal tuberculosis, especially in children, is controversial. In children, vertebral destruction is more severe than adults because of the cartilaginous nature of their bone. Modern chemotherapy has significantly decreased mortality in spinal tuberculosis, but morbidity remains high. Without early surgery, patients can develop severe kyphosis leading to respiratory insufficiency, painful costopelvic impingement and paraplegia. Lumbar kyphosis results in early degenerative lumbar canal stenosis and is cosmetically unacceptable. We report a paediatric case of atypical spinal tuberculosis demonstrating the need for early surgical intervention to prevent significant spinal instability and neurologic deficit. A 12-year-old girl presented with increasing ambulatory difficulty and double incontinence 4 months after initiating treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. There was no history of traumatic injury. Examination revealed severe lower limb neurologic deficit, with hypotonia, areflexia, marked sensory loss, and grade 0/5 power in both lower limbs. Plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated grade IV posterior listhesis of the L2 vertebral body over L3, cauda equina compression and bilateral psoas abscesses. Erosion of both the body and pedicle of L2 was observed. Both serology and pus drained from the psoas abscesses were negative for microorganisms. The patient underwent an L2 vertebrectomy via a left retroperitoneal approach. A titanium cage packed with autologous bone graft was inserted, and the spine was stabilized by fixation with screw and rods. Histopathology confirmed a diagnosis of tuberculosis. Eighteen months following the procedure, the patient has regained some power in her right leg and has completed her course of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy, but remains wheelchair-bound. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of posterior listhesis secondary to spinal tuberculosis. Here, we discuss the possible management options in such a case, and the indications for surgery. As the global HIV/AIDS epidemic causes a resurgence in tuberculosis, increased awareness among the medical community regarding the atypical presentations of spinal tuberculosis is necessitated; both in the developing world where advanced clinical presentations are common, and in the developed world where spinal tuberculosis is an often-neglected diagnosis. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

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