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Edinburgh, United Kingdom
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Marcos-Garcia M.A.,University of Alicante | Vujic A.,University of Novi Sad | Ricarte A.,National Museums Collection Center | Stahls G.,University of Helsinki
Canadian Entomologist | Year: 2011

Study of specimens of Merodon Meigen collected in southwestern Europe resulted in new data and taxonomic changes for this genus. The cryptic species Merodon confusus sp. nov. (Merodon equestris species group) is described based on specimens collected in Cabaeros National Park, central Spain. Morphological and molecular diagnostic characters are provided to separate members of the species group. Merodon aeneus fulvus Gil Collado is proposed as a junior synonym of Merodon pumilus Macquart. The first Iberian record of Merodon rufus Meigen is reported and updates of the revision of Iberian Merodon are provided. © 2011 Entomological Society of Canada.

Ricarte A.,University of Alicante | Ricarte A.,National Museums Collection Center | Marcos-Garcia M.A.,University of Alicante | Moreno C.E.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo
Journal of Insect Conservation | Year: 2011

Understanding the responses of insects to ecological variables provides information that is fundamental for their conservation. The present study took place in three different landscapes (three plots of 10 × 10 km each) in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem of a Spanish national park. Each landscape included three vegetation types, grasslands, scrublands, and woodlands, and was characterised by a dominant vegetation type. Our objectives were: (1) to assess how important the influence of the dominant vegetation type and the vegetation type of sites are on hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) diversity at landscape scale; (2) to assess whether scrublands are contributing to the loss of hoverfly diversity in an ecosystem with a long history of human use. In order to achieve these goals, we compared hoverfly diversity among sampling sites by prospecting all three diversity levels, alpha, beta and gamma, at each landscape. We sampled adult hoverflies at 18 sites located in different vegetation types within the three landscapes. No evidence was found that demonstrated an effect of the dominant vegetation type on alpha or beta diversity of sites, but the vegetation type of sites did have an affect. The highest species richness was found in woodland sites, particularly in the grassland-dominated landscape. At each landscape, beta diversity among sampling sites contributed more to gamma diversity than alpha diversity did. Our results highlight the need to focus on the conservation of woodland remnants of grassland-dominated landscape and scrubland-dominated landscape in order to preserve a large proportion of the biodiversity of Cabañeros hoverflies, as well as on the maintenance of the mosaic landscape, which is linked to high beta diversity, typical in many Mediterranean ecosystems. We emphasise the importance of open clearings in the vast mass of scrubland in the scrubland-dominated landscape in order to provide extra resources for the hoverflies. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Candela Y.,National Museums Collection Center
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology | Year: 2011

The revised Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, partH: Brachiopoda regards Chonetoidea Jones and Sericoidea Lindström synonymic, on the basis of characters that were considered common to both genera (e.g. ornament type, number of septules). However, some features (e.g. number of septules) discriminate specimens at species level, rather than at generic level as previously thought. Other morphological features, never taken into account or described before, e.g. The position of the ventral diductor scars or the presence of a pair of septules developed anterolaterally to the socket ridges (named praeculmen septules) in Chonetoidea solely, permit a confident separation of the two genera. The ornament is not useful for diagnosing the genera. A review of all species belonging to each genus is made in light of the emended diagnoses of both Chonetoidea and Sericoidea. Based on the internal morphologies of their lophophoral supporting structures and on sedimentological data, Chonetoidea and Sericoidea are interpreted as living in different bathymetric conditions. Chonetoidea was adapted to a more dynamic environment, with higher nutrient levels. Sericoidea needed a wider area for trapping food, in an environment (open water) with three to six times less nutrients than mid to inner shelf environments. The palaeogeographic and stratigraphic distributions of Chonetoidea and Sericoidea indicate the progressive disappearance of Sericoidea and adaptative radiation of Chonetoidea in a palaeoworld where epicontinental seas were shallowing, prior to the end of Ordovician glaciation events which coincided with the extinction of Chonetoidea. Copyright ©2011 The Natural History Museum.

Candela Y.,National Museums Scotland | Crighton W.R.B.,National Museums Collection Center
Scottish Journal of Geology | Year: 2015

Disarticulated sclerites of plumulitid machaeridians were collected from the Wether Law Linn Formation (Telychian) in the Pentland Hills, Scotland. The specimens are described and compared to specimens collected earlier from the same horizon and locality. Other specimens from the same horizon, assigned in previous works to Turrilepas haswelli then to Plumulites sp., are figured here for the first time. The micro-ornament on plumulitid machaeridians is also documented for the first time. Seven sclerite types are identified and tentatively associated into scleritomes. The collection from the Pentland Hills is compared with other Ordovician and Silurian taxa from various Scottish localities, and this comparative study indicates that the present collection may constitute a new taxon. Nevertheless, complete individuals have to be collected to warrant a confident taxonomic identification. © 2015 Scottish Journal of Geology.

Candela Y.,National Museums Collection Center
Alcheringa | Year: 2011

The relationships among the diverse genera comprising the family Leptellinidae (Brachiopoda) are reviewed in the light of the revised edition of the Treatise on Invertebrate Palaeontology. Taxonomic work reassessed all the genera identified as Leptellinidae in the most current classification. Four genera were discarded, namely Bekkerella, Benignites, Leptastichidia and Nikitinamena. Cladistic analysis reveals the paraphyly of these genera; their abandonment leading to more morphologically coherent subdivisions of the family. Two subfamilies, Leptellininae and Palaeostrophomeninae, are emended and taxonomically restructured. The palaeogeographical history of the Leptellinidae is complicated. The Leptellinidae are first recorded in Baltica in the late Floian (Early Ordovician) and rapidly dispersed to circum-Iapetus palaeocontinents by the Dapingian, thence to most terranes composing Gondwana by the Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician). © 2011 Association of Australasian Palaeontologists.

Rotheray G.E.,National Museums Collection Center | Horsfield D.,National Museums Collection Center
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

Two hundred and ninety-six rearing records of 11 clusiid species (Diptera, Clusiidae) were obtained from 8 tree species in England, Finland, France, Norway, Russia and Scotland, mainly during the period 1994 to 2004. Larvae and puparia were found between annual layers of whitewood (sapwood and heartwood) of wet, decay-softened, dead wood. Levels of host tree specificity were low, most species were reared from 2-4 host trees, maximum 6. The clusiid larva is distinguished by: a small, translucent head skeleton with an obliquely-shaped apex to the artium; a pseudocephalon fixed in an inverted position except for an external, flattened section bearing the antennomaxillary organs; a spherical prothorax with a truncate rim embedded with sensilla and, a wedge-shaped anal segment bearing a pair of conspicuous, sclerotised, red-brown hooks on the inner margins of which are the posterior spiracular plates. Many of these features support a distinctive feeding mechanism, spot-sucking of biofilm coating wet, decaying whitewood. Early stage characters support the results of recent supraspecific taxonomic and systematic investigations, such as the synonymy of Paraclusia Czerny under Clusia Haliday and the recognition of species groups in Clusiodes Coquillett. Based on early stages, supraspecific clusiid taxa are easily recognised but at species level, differences are relatively fine-grained and minor. A key is provided to identify puparia of species reared in this study. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Candela Y.,National Museums Collection Center | Hansen T.,Copenhagen University
Palaeontology | Year: 2010

Abstract: The marine upper Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) Elnes Formation of southern Norway contains very rich and diverse invertebrate faunas. Stratigraphically detailed recent collections of these well-preserved faunas have permitted a more thorough description of the various faunal groups and their preferences in the late Middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, southern Norway, than ever before. The brachiopod faunas are described in the present article, which include a new genus and a new species respectively Wandaasella modheimrensis and Cyclomyonia vikersundi. The brachiopod fauna is largely dominated by linguliformeans although some sections of the formation are dominated by the plectambonitoids Alwynella ildjernensis Spjeldnæs or Cathrynia aequistriata (Hadding) or by orthid brachiopods. Statistical analysis of the brachiopod fauna reveals that the general depositional trend of the Elnes Formation is that of a regressive event from the lower part of the Sjøstrand Member to the Håkavik Member. Three main brachiopod associations are recognised: a deep-water, lingulid dominated association associated with quiet and dysoxic bottom conditions, a sowerbyellid dominated association (e.g. Cathrynia and Alwynella) found in muddy to marly deposits formed around maximal storm wave base and an orthid-dominated association representing an environment characterised by a fairly coarse or hard bottom substrate formed well above storm wave base but below fair weather wave base. © The Palaeontological Association.

Ross A.J.,National Museums Collection Center
Scottish Journal of Geology | Year: 2010

The known fossil insects of Carboniferous age from Scotland are reviewed. Of the seven recorded, one record is highly dubious and rejected, and another is herein identified as a crustacean. The remaining five insects belong to three orders: The extinct order Protodonata (giant dragonflies) is represented by the holotype of Truemania multiplicata (Bolton 1922). The extinct order Palaeodictyoptera is represented by the holotypes of Lithomantis carbonarius Woodward 1876 and the nymph Idoptilus peachii (Woodward 1887b) comb. nov. The order Blattodea (cockroaches) is represented by the lost holotype of 'Lithomylacris' kirkbyi Woodward 1887a and a nearly complete cockroach, herein identified as Archimylacris? sp. The localities and ages are reviewed and the five insect specimens came from the Coal Measures (Westphalian) of Ayrshire and Fife. © 2010 Scottish Journal of Geology.

Kotonski V.,National Museums Collection Center
Journal of the Institute of Conservation | Year: 2012

An unusual feature of nineteenth-century leather-covered baskets from Franconia (Bavaria) is the combination of materials used in their manufacture: willow skein basketry, leather and coloured parchment together with decoration, such as metal thread embroidery, thin leather straps and quills. This article presents the results of the detailed investigation into the technology and materials of four baskets from the folk art collection of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg. The inseparable nature of this combination of materials, once constructed, makes the conservation of this type of basketry especially challenging. The range of treatment options evaluated is discussed in detail as well as the constraints imposed by the composite nature of the baskets and by conflicting ethical considerations. The treatment strategy that was eventually decided upon reflected a constructive compromise between opposing needs. © 2012 Icon, The Institute of Conservation.

Ricarte A.,National Museums Collection Center | Marcos-Garcia M.A.,University of Alicante | Hancock E.G.,University of Glasgow | Rotheray G.E.,National Museums Collection Center
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2012

The species of the New World syrphid genus, Quichuana Knab, 1913 (Diptera: Syrphidae: Eristalini), are revised and the genus is re-diagnosed. Twenty-four new species are described, bringing the total number considered valid to 48. New species were mostly reared from Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad, and Venezuela. The male of Quichuana picadoi is described for the first time. Quichuana championi is proposed as a synonym of Quichuana cincta, Quichuana aurata as a synonym of Quichuana angustiventris, and Quichuana sepiapennis as a synonym of Quichuana calathea. Quichuana inca var. brevicera is raised to specific status. Lectotypes are designated for Helophilus auratus, Quichuana bezzii, Quichuana fasciata, and Quichuana parisii. A species-level identification key for both males and females is provided. Male genitalia of 18 species are illustrated. © 2012 The Linnean Society of London.

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