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Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Candela Y.,National Museums Scotland | Crighton W.R.B.,National Museums Collection Center
Scottish Journal of Geology

Disarticulated sclerites of plumulitid machaeridians were collected from the Wether Law Linn Formation (Telychian) in the Pentland Hills, Scotland. The specimens are described and compared to specimens collected earlier from the same horizon and locality. Other specimens from the same horizon, assigned in previous works to Turrilepas haswelli then to Plumulites sp., are figured here for the first time. The micro-ornament on plumulitid machaeridians is also documented for the first time. Seven sclerite types are identified and tentatively associated into scleritomes. The collection from the Pentland Hills is compared with other Ordovician and Silurian taxa from various Scottish localities, and this comparative study indicates that the present collection may constitute a new taxon. Nevertheless, complete individuals have to be collected to warrant a confident taxonomic identification. © 2015 Scottish Journal of Geology. Source

Ricarte A.,University of Alicante | Ricarte A.,National Museums Collection Center | Marcos-Garcia M.A.,University of Alicante | Moreno C.E.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo
Journal of Insect Conservation

Understanding the responses of insects to ecological variables provides information that is fundamental for their conservation. The present study took place in three different landscapes (three plots of 10 × 10 km each) in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem of a Spanish national park. Each landscape included three vegetation types, grasslands, scrublands, and woodlands, and was characterised by a dominant vegetation type. Our objectives were: (1) to assess how important the influence of the dominant vegetation type and the vegetation type of sites are on hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) diversity at landscape scale; (2) to assess whether scrublands are contributing to the loss of hoverfly diversity in an ecosystem with a long history of human use. In order to achieve these goals, we compared hoverfly diversity among sampling sites by prospecting all three diversity levels, alpha, beta and gamma, at each landscape. We sampled adult hoverflies at 18 sites located in different vegetation types within the three landscapes. No evidence was found that demonstrated an effect of the dominant vegetation type on alpha or beta diversity of sites, but the vegetation type of sites did have an affect. The highest species richness was found in woodland sites, particularly in the grassland-dominated landscape. At each landscape, beta diversity among sampling sites contributed more to gamma diversity than alpha diversity did. Our results highlight the need to focus on the conservation of woodland remnants of grassland-dominated landscape and scrubland-dominated landscape in order to preserve a large proportion of the biodiversity of Cabañeros hoverflies, as well as on the maintenance of the mosaic landscape, which is linked to high beta diversity, typical in many Mediterranean ecosystems. We emphasise the importance of open clearings in the vast mass of scrubland in the scrubland-dominated landscape in order to provide extra resources for the hoverflies. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Candela Y.,National Museums Collection Center
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology

The revised Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, partH: Brachiopoda regards Chonetoidea Jones and Sericoidea Lindström synonymic, on the basis of characters that were considered common to both genera (e.g. ornament type, number of septules). However, some features (e.g. number of septules) discriminate specimens at species level, rather than at generic level as previously thought. Other morphological features, never taken into account or described before, e.g. The position of the ventral diductor scars or the presence of a pair of septules developed anterolaterally to the socket ridges (named praeculmen septules) in Chonetoidea solely, permit a confident separation of the two genera. The ornament is not useful for diagnosing the genera. A review of all species belonging to each genus is made in light of the emended diagnoses of both Chonetoidea and Sericoidea. Based on the internal morphologies of their lophophoral supporting structures and on sedimentological data, Chonetoidea and Sericoidea are interpreted as living in different bathymetric conditions. Chonetoidea was adapted to a more dynamic environment, with higher nutrient levels. Sericoidea needed a wider area for trapping food, in an environment (open water) with three to six times less nutrients than mid to inner shelf environments. The palaeogeographic and stratigraphic distributions of Chonetoidea and Sericoidea indicate the progressive disappearance of Sericoidea and adaptative radiation of Chonetoidea in a palaeoworld where epicontinental seas were shallowing, prior to the end of Ordovician glaciation events which coincided with the extinction of Chonetoidea. Copyright ©2011 The Natural History Museum. Source

Marcos-Garcia M.A.,University of Alicante | Vujic A.,University of Novi Sad | Ricarte A.,National Museums Collection Center | Stahls G.,University of Helsinki
Canadian Entomologist

Study of specimens of Merodon Meigen collected in southwestern Europe resulted in new data and taxonomic changes for this genus. The cryptic species Merodon confusus sp. nov. (Merodon equestris species group) is described based on specimens collected in Cabaeros National Park, central Spain. Morphological and molecular diagnostic characters are provided to separate members of the species group. Merodon aeneus fulvus Gil Collado is proposed as a junior synonym of Merodon pumilus Macquart. The first Iberian record of Merodon rufus Meigen is reported and updates of the revision of Iberian Merodon are provided. © 2011 Entomological Society of Canada. Source

Candela Y.,National Museums Collection Center

The relationships among the diverse genera comprising the family Leptellinidae (Brachiopoda) are reviewed in the light of the revised edition of the Treatise on Invertebrate Palaeontology. Taxonomic work reassessed all the genera identified as Leptellinidae in the most current classification. Four genera were discarded, namely Bekkerella, Benignites, Leptastichidia and Nikitinamena. Cladistic analysis reveals the paraphyly of these genera; their abandonment leading to more morphologically coherent subdivisions of the family. Two subfamilies, Leptellininae and Palaeostrophomeninae, are emended and taxonomically restructured. The palaeogeographical history of the Leptellinidae is complicated. The Leptellinidae are first recorded in Baltica in the late Floian (Early Ordovician) and rapidly dispersed to circum-Iapetus palaeocontinents by the Dapingian, thence to most terranes composing Gondwana by the Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician). © 2011 Association of Australasian Palaeontologists. Source

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