Cardiff, United Kingdom
Cardiff, United Kingdom

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Specimens of Mytilopsis leucophaeata, the Dark False Mussel, have been found in a shell collection dating from the early 19 century. The four shells are attributed to William Lyons (1766-1849) with the locality 'Tenby' (Pembrokeshire, South Wales). Evidence from the Lyons collection in the Tenby Museum suggests that the majority was acquired around 1800-1830, which indicates that Lyons had shells before Conrad described the species in 1831 and some 150 years before it was first recorded in the British Isles. This paper reaffirms the relevance of early museum collections to contemporary environmental agendas.


Three dimensional tubular structures of the ctenidium of some thyasirid bivalves are described for the first time. The classification of the thyasirid gill is modified accordingly into five types based on the number of demibranchs, reflection of the filaments and shape of the filaments, either rod, laminar or tubular. The tubular structure is seen in its most modified form in a chemosymbiotic abyssal species from the south-east Atlantic, which is described here as Ochetoctena tomasi gen et sp. nov.


Cope J.C.W.,National Museum of Wales
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association | Year: 2014

An account is given of a Geologists' Association meeting in the Isle of Purbeck held on 28th-30th September 2012 and the stratigraphy and structures of the rocks examined during the weekend are described. Uppermost Jurassic Stage nomenclature and recent changes to stratigraphical nomenclature in the uppermost part of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation are discussed and the conclusion reached that the long-established divisions (Members) of this Formation are both readily recognisable and have nomenclatorial priority. The recent change to the position of Pallasioides-Rotunda zonal boundary ignores the ammonite fauna and is inappropriate. For the Lulworth district the stratigraphy of the uppermost Jurassic (Portlandian) through Lower and Upper Cretaceous formations are described and their associated structures discussed. The coastal evolution of the Lulworth coast is briefly discussed. © 2013 The Geologists' Association.


Cope J.C.W.,National Museum of Wales
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association | Year: 2015

The higher parts of the cores of the Swanworth Boreholes, Dorset, allow detailed investigation of parts of the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation that are difficult to sample on the coastal type-section. The member-level divisions set up by Buckman and Arkell are confirmed as readily recognisable. Body-fossils have been found throughout the beds examined and are recorded and confirm the ammonite zonal boundaries as proposed by Cope (1978). The extensive bioturbation of the sediments in the highest beds was primarily caused by decapod crustaceans whose remains are preserved in the borehole cores. Detailed examination of the cores has failed to confirm the existence of the so-called Chapman's Pool Pebble Bed, nor can its existence at nearby Gad Cliff be confirmed. © 2014 The Geologists' Association.


Plant A.R.,National Museum of Wales
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2011

A cladistic analysis of adult morphological characters was used to hypothesize phylogenetic and zoogeographical relationships in Hemerodromiinae (Diptera: Empididae). Afrodromia Smith, Drymodromia Becker and an undescribed Chilean genus subtended a sister-group relationship between the tribes Chelipodini and Hemerodromiini. Chelipodozus Smith and an undescribed Australian genus were supported only weakly in Hemerodromiini, and are regarded as incertae sedis within Hemerodromiinae. In Chelipodini, Anaclastoctedon Plant and an undescribed Australian genus subtended all others that form two sister-group clades. (i) A widespread Chelipoda-like group comprising Achelipoda Yang, Zhang & Zhang, Ptilophyllodromia Bezzi, Chelipoda Macquarts.s. and Phyllodromia Zetterstedt s.s. has a worldwide distribution, excepting the Afrotropical, considered to date from before or during the early phase of Gondwanan fragmentation. Phyllodromia s.s. is an exclusively Palaearctic genus of doubtful validity, to which Southern Hemisphere forms have been assigned incorrectly. Ptilophyllodromia Bezzi syn.n. is regarded as a junior synonym of Chelipoda, with the included species relegated to a species group. (ii) An austral Chelipoda-like group confined to New Zealand, New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island and Vanuatu, includes Monodromia Collin and species currently incorrectly assigned to Chelipoda and Phyllodromia. The group is hypothesized as a relictual Gondwanan element that has survived Oligocene drowning as metapopulations persisting in situ on ephemeral islands along arcs, ridges and buoyant crustal blocks overlying hot spots in New Zealand and the Southwest Pacific. In the tribe Hemerodromiini, many Southern Hemisphere species assigned currently to Hemerodromia Meigen, Cladodromia Bezzi and Neoplasta Coquillett require reassignment. The sister-group relationship between the southern African endemic Afrodromia and other Hemerodromiinae is viewed as evidence of early divergence of Hemerodromiinae and Empidinae by the early Cretaceous, pre-dating major Gondwanan fragmentation. An assessment of fossil forms indicated that Chelifera detestata (Meunier) from Eocene/Oligocene Baltic amber is the only genuine described fossil representative of Hemerodromiinae. © 2010 The Author. Systematic Entomology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.


Plant A.R.,National Museum of Wales
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

The genus Hybos Meigen in Thailand is revised and full descriptions and keys provided for all 41 species. Thirty-four new species are recognized: H. aceriformis sp. nov., H. ancyclochiles sp. nov., H. anisoserratus sp. nov., H. bispinatus sp. nov., H. chaweewani sp. nov., H. daugeroni sp. nov., H. divisus sp. nov., H. grootaerti sp. nov., H. hylobates sp. nov., H. inthanonensis sp. nov., H. kaluang sp. nov., H. khamfui sp. nov., H. konkaogwang sp. nov., H. lannaensis sp. nov., H. mangraii sp. nov., H. meeamnat sp. nov., H. men sp. nov., H. merzi sp. nov., H. ngachang sp. nov., H. paknok sp. nov., H. phahompokensis sp. nov., H. pisadaanus sp. nov., H. saenmueangmai sp. nov., H. shamshevi sp. nov., H. sinclairi sp. nov., H. songbai sp. nov., H. steatopygus sp. nov., H. stigmaticus sp. nov., H. subapicalis sp. nov., H. tetricus sp. nov., H. thaosaeo sp. nov., H. thepkaisoni sp. nov., H. tilokarati sp. nov., H. yungyak sp. nov. Seven species known previously from China are recognized: H. ancistroides Yang &Yang, H. apicihamatus Yang &Yang, H. longus Yang &Yang, H. particularis Yang, Yang &Hu, H. serratus Yang &Yang, H. xishuangbannaensis Yang &Yang, and H. zhejiangensis Yang &Yang. Eight informal species-groups are tentatively proposed based on characters of male and female terminalia and attention is drawn to the many previously overlooked taxonomically useful characters of the female terminalia. Distribution maps of all species are presented and distributions categorised as 'widespread', 'eastern', 'southern', north-eastern' or 'northern and western'. Species richness and endemicity are greatest in mid to high elevation evergreen forest biotopes of the northern mountains and areas of endemism are identified on the Luang Prabang, Daen Lao, Thanon Thongchai ranges and on the Isaan Plateau at least. Adult phenology is correlated with the rainy season in many species and preliminary analyses reveal that many high-elevation species have short emergence periods and restricted distributions, whereas some lowland species have longer emergence periods and wider distributions. © 2013 Magnolia Press.


Verrucaria nodosa sp. nov. and V. rosula sp. nov. each have a thallus composed of initially discrete units which coalesce and overlap with age, forming an uneven crust. They are related species and similar in appearance, but the thallus units are coarser in Verrucaria nodosa, and the involucrellum is typically more regularly thickened than in V. rosula. Verrucaria placida sp. nov. has a smooth, subgelatinous thallus; it is related to V. hydrophila sp. nov. but differs in the larger ascospores and perithecia. It is not closely related to V. andesiatica but is morphologically similar, differing mainly in the narrower ascospores. Verrucaria hydrophila has been widely known as V. hydrela auct., non Ach. or V. denudata Zsch. nom. illeg. Verrucaria laevata Ach. is considered to be a nomen dubium. © 2013 British Lichen Society.


Two new semi-cryptic species from the marine littoral zone of NW Europe, Hydropunctaria oceanica and H. orae, are described. Both differ from H. maura in their ITS and mtSSU sequences and in their thinner thalli and H. orae also differs in its green rather than brown cortical pigment. Hydropunctaria aractina comb. nov. is reinstated as an accepted species, but is difficult to distinguish from H. orae by morphology alone. Lectotypes and epitypes are proposed for H. aractina and H. maura. © 2012 British Lichen Society.


In the past, the morphology of adult males of Coccoidea has provided strong support for diagnosing the higher taxon status of scale insects (Coccoidea). In particular, studies on adult male morphology have produced some of the strongest evidence for considering the Putoidae and Eriococcidae (as then defined) as separate families from the Pseudococcidae. This paper uses adult male morphology to assess the relationships of the Pseudococcidae and the hypogaeic and myrmecophilous mealybugs. The latter most often are classified as a subfamily (Rhizoecinae) of the Pseudococcidae. In order to diagnose the latter taxa, the adult males of fifteen named species of hypogaeic rhizoecine mealybugs (Kissrhizoecus hungaricus Kozár &Konczné Benedicty, Rhizoecus cacticans (Hambleton), Rh. coffeae Laing, Rh. dianthi Green, Rh. falcifer Künckel d'Herculais, Rh. kazachstanus Matesova, Ripersiella cryphia (Williams), Ri. hibisci (Kawai &Takagi), Ri. kondonis (Kuwana), Ri. malschae (Williams), Ri. puhiensis (Hambleton), Capitisetella migrans (Green) and Pseudorhizoecus proximus Green) plus two unidentified Ripersiella species are described. In addition, the adult males of a Xenococcus sp., three Eumyrmococcus spp. and two Neochavesia spp. are illustrated from previously published papers and the adult male of another Neochavesia sp. is described and illustrated. In order to compare the diagnoses of the above taxa with that of adult males of Pseudococcidae (minus the Rhizoecinae), the adult males of two apterous pseudococcid mealybugs are described or redescribed: Asaphococcus agninus Cox and the myrmecophilous Promyrmococcus dilli Williams, both belonging to the Pseudococcinae. In addition, three macropterous Pseudococcidae, namely Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Phenacoccinae), Planococcus glaucus (Maskell) and Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Pseudococcinae) are also described and/or illustrated. Prior to this study, the hypogaeic and myrmecophilous mealybugs generally were included in the subfamily Rhizoecinae of the Pseudococcidae, with the hypogaeic mealybugs in tribe Rhizoecini and the myrmecophilous mealybugs in Xenococcini. Based on the present study and on phylogenetic data, it is concluded that the rhizoecine mealybugs form a separate family from the Pseudococcidae-Rhizoecidae Williams. This family is considered here to include two subfamilies, Rhizoecinae Williams and Xenococcinae Tang. Based on adult male characters, there is little support for the present generic divisions of the Rhizoecinae. Keys are given for separating the adult males of Rhizoecidae from those of Pseudococcidae, and for separating the known adult males within each subfamily. © 2012 Magnolia Press.


Oliver P.G.,National Museum of Wales | Taylor J.D.,Natural History Museum in London
Journal of Molluscan Studies | Year: 2012

Nucinellidae are a family of small, monomyarian, nuculoid marine bivalves that live at depths from 63,500 m. Related to the Solemyidae, they are suspected of chemosymbiosis with sulphur-oxidizing bacteria, but hitherto without morphological or molecular confirmation. Two new species, Nucinella owenensis and Huxleyia habooba, were collected at depths of 3,400 and 84 m, respectively, during a survey of the oxygen-minimum zone associated with the seasonal upwelling area in the Arabian Sea, off southern Oman. Sections of the relatively large ctenidia revealed large thickened leaflets with abundant rod-shaped bacteria housed in bacteriocytes. This is the first morphological confirmation of likely chemosymbiosis in the family. Both species have a complete alimentary system and in N. owenensis the hindgut contained sediment, suggesting particulate feeding. Relationships of Nucinellidae and Solemyidae and the timing of acquisition of the chemosymbiosis are briefly discussed. Descriptions of the two new species are accompanied by a critical review of familial and generic characters, with rejection of previous reports of posterior adductor muscle scars in Huxleyia. © 2011 The Author.

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