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Novo Mesto, Slovenia

Fajfar P.,University of Ljubljana | Medved J.,University of Ljubljana | Klancnik G.,University of Ljubljana | Lazar T.,National Museum of Slovenia | And 2 more authors.
Materials Characterization | Year: 2013

Metallurgical characterization of a sword blade fragments dating from the second half of the 15th century found in central Slovenia was performed in order to determine its chemical composition, microstructure, microhardness, and to obtain insight into the methods of manufacture of a late-medieval Messer sword. As the artefact was broken, examinations were limited to six very small fragments that were allowed to be removed from the cutting edge, core and the back of the blade. Light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, thermodynamics approach and Vickers micro-hardness tests were employed to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties. The results show that the sword was manufactured from a single wrought iron billet. The surface of the sword was carburized. No evidence of quenching was found. The ferritic microstructure is concentrated in the core, and the pearlitic in the outer layer of the blade. All metal fragments contained non-metallic inclusions that were derived mostly from slag and some from hammer scale. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Fajfar H.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Smita Z.,University of Ljubljana | Kosc M.,National Museum of Slovenia | Kosc M.,University of Maribor
Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A | Year: 2013

Coloured glass, produced in the late 19th and early 20th century and pigmented by addition of heavy metals, such as uranium was studied. The glass objects (vessels, vases and goblets) held by the National Museum of Slovenia were analysed by proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE), proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) and in some cases by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The aim was to classify the glass objects according to their composition and to explain specific production details of this type of glass. According to the results obtained we checked the authenticity of several objects of doubtful provenance. The red glasses were pigmented by copper; contrary to our expectations, rare Egermann examples pigmented by gold were not found.

Necemer M.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Kump P.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Zvanut M.,National Museum of Slovenia
X-Ray Spectrometry | Year: 2012

Plastic artifacts archived in museums deteriorate with time and require proper care by conservators to prevent their degradation and to maintain the objects in good condition. Degradation processes depend on the type of plastic and conditions of storage. Knowledge of the chemical composition of plastic artifacts is thus very important and facilitates conservation work. The capabilities of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with monochromatic excitation were investigated for possible characterization of the plastic materials used in artifacts from museum collections. For this purpose, a simple and suitable nondestructive analytical protocol was developed on the basis of the intensity of the coherent and the incoherent scattered excitation radiation from artifacts, compared with scattering from typical plastic materials such as polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and polypropylene. Fifteen plastic artifacts, such as souvenirs, household wares, and toys, were characterized in this way according to their chemical composition. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Podpecnik J.,National Museum of Slovenia
Science of Gymnastics Journal | Year: 2014

The public appearances of Sokol companies in uniform at first awakened and later strengthened Slovenian national consciousness and united the Slovenians in Carniola and later across all Slovenian ethnic territory. The provincial government in Ljubljana and its German majority were largely opposed to the Slovenian gymnastics clubs. They blamed the Sokol clubs for encouraging ethnic intolerance with their excursions in uniform. In principle, practicing gymnastics was the first objective of the Slovenian gymnasts, followed in second place by various forms of social ‘entertainment,’ where they could demonstrate dignity, good manners, and moderation. Unform consisted of »surka« (jacket), red shirt, black shoes and »čikoš« (hat). The Southern Sokol Club chose for its headwear a low, round, wide-brimmed hat, to which a tricolor ‘national’ cockade and a Sokol feather were attached. The Sokol uniform with its red shirt became the symbol of a self-confident and nationally conscious Slovenian, a fighter for national emancipation, and a supporter of Slavic solidarity. © 2014, University of Ljubljana. All rights reserved.

Necemer M.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Lazar T.,National Museum of Slovenia | Smit Z.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Smit Z.,University of Ljubljana | And 2 more authors.
Acta Chimica Slovenica | Year: 2013

Museum objects, such as the daggers presented in this study, contain a wealth of information regarding their role in certain historic periods, their potential users, the art of manufacture, the type of material used etc. Utilization of various modern instrumental techniques facilitates compositional information about the unknown artifact under investigation. In this study, a set of traditional Asian daggers called kris or keris, with scarce information about their entry into museum collections, their origin, the type of material used, the date of production, etc., were analysed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF), Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and hardness measurements. In this way, the traditional procedure of historian inspection was supplemented by the scientific approach to obtain information about the artifacts.

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