National Museum of Slovenia

Ljubljana, Slovenia

National Museum of Slovenia

Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Lazar T.,National Museum of Slovenia | Mrvar P.,University of Ljubljana | Fajfar P.,University of Ljubljana
Materiali in Tehnologije | Year: 2016

During archaeological excavations of the fortifications on Kozlov rob, two perforated steel plates were discovered, the purposes of which had never been explained satisfactorily. Detailed examinations and scientific analyses confirmed that in one case at least we were dealing with fragments of armour from the late Middle Ages or the early Modern Period that had later been reworked into an entirely unrelated object having, in all possibility, a non-warlike function.


Fajfar H.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Smita Z.,University of Ljubljana | Kosc M.,National Museum of Slovenia | Kosc M.,University of Maribor
Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A | Year: 2013

Coloured glass, produced in the late 19th and early 20th century and pigmented by addition of heavy metals, such as uranium was studied. The glass objects (vessels, vases and goblets) held by the National Museum of Slovenia were analysed by proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE), proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) and in some cases by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The aim was to classify the glass objects according to their composition and to explain specific production details of this type of glass. According to the results obtained we checked the authenticity of several objects of doubtful provenance. The red glasses were pigmented by copper; contrary to our expectations, rare Egermann examples pigmented by gold were not found.


Fajfar P.,University of Ljubljana | Medved J.,University of Ljubljana | Klancnik G.,University of Ljubljana | Lazar T.,National Museum of Slovenia | And 2 more authors.
Materials Characterization | Year: 2013

Metallurgical characterization of a sword blade fragments dating from the second half of the 15th century found in central Slovenia was performed in order to determine its chemical composition, microstructure, microhardness, and to obtain insight into the methods of manufacture of a late-medieval Messer sword. As the artefact was broken, examinations were limited to six very small fragments that were allowed to be removed from the cutting edge, core and the back of the blade. Light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, thermodynamics approach and Vickers micro-hardness tests were employed to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties. The results show that the sword was manufactured from a single wrought iron billet. The surface of the sword was carburized. No evidence of quenching was found. The ferritic microstructure is concentrated in the core, and the pearlitic in the outer layer of the blade. All metal fragments contained non-metallic inclusions that were derived mostly from slag and some from hammer scale. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Necemer M.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Kump P.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Zvanut M.,National Museum of Slovenia
X-Ray Spectrometry | Year: 2012

Plastic artifacts archived in museums deteriorate with time and require proper care by conservators to prevent their degradation and to maintain the objects in good condition. Degradation processes depend on the type of plastic and conditions of storage. Knowledge of the chemical composition of plastic artifacts is thus very important and facilitates conservation work. The capabilities of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with monochromatic excitation were investigated for possible characterization of the plastic materials used in artifacts from museum collections. For this purpose, a simple and suitable nondestructive analytical protocol was developed on the basis of the intensity of the coherent and the incoherent scattered excitation radiation from artifacts, compared with scattering from typical plastic materials such as polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and polypropylene. Fifteen plastic artifacts, such as souvenirs, household wares, and toys, were characterized in this way according to their chemical composition. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Smit Z.,University of Ljubljana | Smit Z.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Tartari F.,Institute of Archaeology | Stamati F.,Institute of Folk Culture | And 2 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2013

A series of 31 Roman glasses dated to the 1st-4th c. AD from the present Albania was analyzed by the combined PIXE-PIGE method. The analysis shows typical natron-based glass of the Roman period, though statistical treatment using principal component analysis and bivariate plots reveals four distinct groups, which are qualified by increased levels of potassium, magnesium and titanium-manganese-iron oxides, respectively. MgO content may exceed 2% and reach the level commonly accepted for halophytic plant-ash glass. The groups are formed on account of mineral impurities in the sand, which gives support to the thesis of multiple production centers of raw glass in the imperial age. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Smit Z.,University of Ljubljana | Smit Z.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Knific T.,National Museum of Slovenia | Jezersek D.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Istenic J.,National Museum of Slovenia
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2012

Glass beads from graves excavated in Slovenia and dated archaeologically to the 7th-10th century AD were analysed by the combined PIXE-PIGE method. The results indicate two groups of glass; natron glass made in the Roman tradition and glass made with alkalis from the ash of halophytic plants, which gradually replaced natron glass after c. 800 AD. The alkalis used in the second group of glass seem to be in close relation to a variant of the Venetian white glass that appeared several centuries later. The origin of this glass may be traced to glass production in Mesopotamia and around the Aral Sea. All the mosaic beads with eye decoration, as well as most of the drawn-segmented and drawn-cut beads analysed, are of plant-ash glass, which confirms their supposed oriental origin. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Necemer M.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Lazar T.,National Museum of Slovenia | Smit Z.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Smit Z.,University of Ljubljana | And 2 more authors.
Acta Chimica Slovenica | Year: 2013

Museum objects, such as the daggers presented in this study, contain a wealth of information regarding their role in certain historic periods, their potential users, the art of manufacture, the type of material used etc. Utilization of various modern instrumental techniques facilitates compositional information about the unknown artifact under investigation. In this study, a set of traditional Asian daggers called kris or keris, with scarce information about their entry into museum collections, their origin, the type of material used, the date of production, etc., were analysed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF), Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and hardness measurements. In this way, the traditional procedure of historian inspection was supplemented by the scientific approach to obtain information about the artifacts.


Smit Z.,University of Ljubljana | Smit Z.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Fajfar H.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Jersek M.,Slovenian Museum of National History | And 2 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2014

Garnets (62 individual stones) originating from the Migration Period cemeteries and hilltop settlements in Slovenia were analyzed by the combined PIXE/PIGE method for their chemical composition. Typologically, the analyzed stones may be classified as almandines originating from the sites in India, belonging to types I and II according to Calligaro. A smaller group of pyraldines intermediate between almandines and pyropes was also determined; identified as type III, their source is most likely in Sri Lanka. No garnets from Bohemia (Czech Republic) have been discovered, which may be related to important political changes in the 7th c. AD, induced by Slavic and Avaric migrations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Necemer M.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Kump P.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Sket P.,Slovenian National Institute of Chemistry | Plavec J.,Slovenian National Institute of Chemistry | And 3 more authors.
Acta Chimica Slovenica | Year: 2013

The enormous development and production of plastic materials in the last century resulted in increasing numbers of such kinds of objects. Development of a simple and fast technique to classify different types of plastics could be used in many activities dealing with plastic materials such as packaging of food, sorting of used plastic materials, and also, if technique would be non-destructive, for conservation of plastic artifacts in museum collections, a relatively new field of interest since 1990. In our previous paper we introduced a non-destructive technique for fast identification of unknown plastics based on EDXRF spectrometry,1 using as a case study some plastic artifacts archived in the Museum in order to show the advantages of the nondestructive identification of plastic material. In order to validate our technique it was necessary to apply for this purpose the comparison of analyses with some of the analytical techniques, which are more suitable and so far rather widely applied in identifying some most common sorts of plastic materials.


Podpecnik J.,National Museum of Slovenia
Science of Gymnastics Journal | Year: 2014

The public appearances of Sokol companies in uniform at first awakened and later strengthened Slovenian national consciousness and united the Slovenians in Carniola and later across all Slovenian ethnic territory. The provincial government in Ljubljana and its German majority were largely opposed to the Slovenian gymnastics clubs. They blamed the Sokol clubs for encouraging ethnic intolerance with their excursions in uniform. In principle, practicing gymnastics was the first objective of the Slovenian gymnasts, followed in second place by various forms of social ‘entertainment,’ where they could demonstrate dignity, good manners, and moderation. Unform consisted of »surka« (jacket), red shirt, black shoes and »čikoš« (hat). The Southern Sokol Club chose for its headwear a low, round, wide-brimmed hat, to which a tricolor ‘national’ cockade and a Sokol feather were attached. The Sokol uniform with its red shirt became the symbol of a self-confident and nationally conscious Slovenian, a fighter for national emancipation, and a supporter of Slavic solidarity. © 2014, University of Ljubljana. All rights reserved.

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