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Hidaka H.,Hiroshima University | Yoneda S.,National Museum of Nature and Science
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2011

Barium isotopic compositions of chemical leachates from six carbonaceous chondrites, Orgueil (CI), Mighei (CM2), Murray (CM2), Efremovka (CV3), Kainsaz (CO3), and Karoonda (CK4), were determined using thermal ionization mass spectrometry in order to assess the chemical evolution in the early solar system. The Ba isotopic data from most of the leachates show variable 135Ba excesses correlated with 137Ba excesses, suggesting the presence and heterogeneity of additional nucleosynthetic components for s- and r-processes in the solar system. The isotopic deviations observed in this study were generally small (-1<ε<+1) except in the case of the acid residues of CI and CM meteorites. Large deviations of 135Ba (ε=-13.5 to -5.0) and 137Ba (ε=-6.2∼-1.2) observed in the acid residues from one CI and two CM meteorites show significant evidence for the enrichment of s-process isotopes derived from presolar grains. Two models were proposed to estimate the 135Cs isotopic abundances by subtraction of the s- and r-isotopic components from the total Ba isotopic abundances in the three CM meteorites, Mighei, Murchison (measured in a previous study), and Murray. The data points show individual linear trends between 135Cs/136Ba ratios and 135Ba isotopic deviations for the three samples. Considering the different trends observed in the three CM meteorites, the Ba isotopic composition of the CM meteorite parent body was heterogeneous at its formation. Chronological information is unclear in the data for Murchison and Murray because of large analytical uncertainties imposed by error propagation. Only the Mighei meteorite data indicate the possible existence of presently extinct 135Cs (135Cs/133Cs=(2.7±1.6)×10-4) in the early solar system. Another explanation of the data for the three CM meteorite is mixing of at least three components with different Ba isotopic compositions, although this is model-dependent. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Shiino Y.,National Museum of Nature and Science | Kuwazuru O.,University of Fukui
Journal of Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2010

It has been suggested that spiriferide morphologies have evolved to adapt to a variety of environmental conditions. Through a computational fluid dynamics approach, we examined how the spiriferide original form was optimized for a lotic condition, specifically addressing the functionalization of the Devonian spiriferide brachiopod Paraspirifer bownockeri to generate passive feeding flows. The results using four models, each of which differed in the development of the spiriferide shell depression, i.e. sulcus, showed that a deeper sulcus functions to create strong spiral flows so as to align on the feeding organ inside the shell. Among the sulcus-developed models, only the mimic of the natural form could generate comparative slow flows with a stable inflow area. The fossil record of spiriferides shows a morphological trade-off between the development of the sulcus and wing form. We concluded that spiriferide shells with such a morphological combination evolved to produce various feeding strategies, resulting in diversification. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

Hayashi T.,National Museum of Nature and Science
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2011

The almost monospecific assemblages of planktonic diatoms that occurred in ancient lakes during the middle Brunhes Chron are an important research issue for lake ecosystems because their existence implies that the famous paradox of the plankton was no paradox at that time. To investigate their cause, I examined the assemblage structure and diversity of planktonic diatoms in the Paleo-Kathmandu Lake at Nepal Himalaya over the past 600. kyr. The assemblage structure changes frequently after 300. ka but remains nearly stable before then. Additionally, planktonic species show a relatively high average diversity after 300. ka but show an extremely low average before then. Those abnormal ecological conditions before 300. ka reflect the formation of almost monospecific planktonic diatom assemblages of Cyclotella kathmanduensis and Puncticulata versiformis. The assemblage structure and species diversity of the planktonic diatoms were controlled by lake-level fluctuations (especially lake-level declines) as ecological disturbances. After 300. ka, fluctuations in lake levels occur in about 20. ka intervals, which probably helped to sustain diverse planktonic diatom assemblages. In contrast, much longer intervals occurred between lake-level fluctuations before 300. ka, and these were of a frequency that was too low to sustain diverse planktonic diatom assemblages. This may have allowed C. kathmanduensis and P. versiformis to form monospecific assemblages. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Gross A.,ETH Zurich | Hosoya T.,National Museum of Nature and Science | Queloz V.,ETH Zurich
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2014

Understanding the genetic diversity and structure of invasive pathogens in source and in introduced areas is crucial to the revelation of hidden biological features of an organism, to the reconstruction of the course of invasions and to the establishment of effective control measures. Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (anamorph: Chalara fraxinea) is an invasive and highly destructive fungal pathogen found on common ash Fraxinus excelsior in Europe and is native to East Asia. To gain insights into its dispersal mechanisms and history of invasion, we used microsatellite markers and characterized the genetic structure and diversity of H. pseudoalbidus populations at three spatial levels: (i) between Europe and Japan, (ii) in Europe and (iii) at the epidemic's front in Switzerland. Phylogenetic and network analysis demonstrated that individuals from both regions are conspecific. However, populations from Japan harboured a higher genetic diversity and were genetically differentiated from European ones. No evident population structure was found among the 1208 European strains using Bayesian and multivariate clustering analysis. Only the distribution of genetic diversity in space, pairwise population differentiation (GST) and the spatial analysis of principal components revealed a faint geographical pattern around Europe. A significant allele deficiency in most European populations pointed to a recent genetic bottleneck, whereas no pattern of isolation by distance was found. Our data suggest that H. pseudoalbidus was introduced just once by at least two individuals. The potential source region of H. pseudoalbidus is vast, and further investigations are required for a more accurate localization of the source population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Momma K.,National Museum of Nature and Science
Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal | Year: 2014

A review on silica clathrate compounds, which are variants of pure silica zeolites with relatively small voids, is presented. Zeolites have found many uses in industrial and domestic settings as materials for catalysis, separations, adsorption, ion exchange, drug delivery, and other applications. Zeolites with pure silica frameworks have attracted particular interest because of their high thermal stability, well-characterized framework structures, and simple chemical compositions. Recent advances in new synthetic routes have extended the structural diversity of pure silica zeolite frameworks. Thermochemical analyses and computational simulations have provided a basis for applications of these materials and the syntheses of new types of pure silica zeolites. High-pressure and high-temperature experiments have also revealed diverse responses of these framework structures to pressure, temperature, and various guest species. This paper summarizes the framework topologies, synthetic processes, energetics, physical properties, and some applications of silica clathrate compounds.

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