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Cumbo V.R.,Northridge | Fan T.Y.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Fan T.Y.,National Dong Hwa University | Edmunds P.J.,Northridge
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology | Year: 2013

Efforts to evaluate the response of coral larvae to global climate change (GCC) and ocean acidification (OA) typically employ short experiments of fixed length, yet it is unknown how the response is affected by exposure duration. In this study, we exposed larvae from the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis to contrasts of temperature (24.00°C [ambient] versus 30.49°C) and pCO2 (49.4Pa versus 86.2Pa) for varying periods (1-5days) to test the hypothesis that exposure duration had no effect on larval response as assessed by protein content, respiration, Symbiodinium density, and survivorship; exposure times were ecologically relevant compared to representative pelagic larval durations (PLD) for corals. Larvae differed among days for all response variables, and the effects of the treatment were relatively consistent regardless of exposure duration for three of the four response variables. Protein content and Symbiodinium density were unaffected by temperature and pCO2, but respiration increased with temperature (but not pCO2) with the effect intensifying as incubations lengthened. Survival, however, differed significantly among treatments at the end of the study, and by the 5th day, 78% of the larvae were alive and swimming under ambient temperature and ambient pCO2, but only 55-59% were alive in the other treatments. These results demonstrate that the physiological effects of temperature and pCO2 on coral larvae can reliably be detected within days, but effects on survival require ≥5days to detect. The detection of time-dependent effects on larval survivorship suggests that the influence of GCC and OA will be stronger for corals having long PLDs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Ho H.-C.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Shao K.-T.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Zootaxa | Year: 2010

Parapercis randalli sp. nov. is described on the basis of four specimens collected in southern Taiwan by angling at a depth of 5-150 m. It differs from its congeners in having five broad reddish brown saddles on the dorsal surface; both jaws and anterior portion of snout reddish orange; a yellow bar with red margin on cheek; a series of 8 red bars below body axis; configuration of spots on head, dorsal and caudal fins; and a combination of morphological characters: three pairs of canine teeth anteriorly in lower jaw; no palatine teeth; vomerine teeth stout, in a single curved row; lateral-line scales 53; margin of preopercle smooth; 4th dorsal spine longest; caudal fin slightly rounded on ventral half, truncate on dorsal half, with a prolonged upper lobe; appressed pelvic fin extends beyond anus. A total of 21 valid pinguipedid species are now recorded from Taiwanese waters. Copyright © 2010.

Lin C.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Lin C.,National Dong Hwa University | Tsai S.,MingDao University
Theriogenology | Year: 2012

Understanding chilling sensitivity and chilling injury of coral oocytes, in the presence and absence of a cryoprotectant, is important in developing cryopreservation protocols, as well as for short-term storage and transport (e.g., for species conservation). The objective of this study was to investigate the chilling sensitivity of hard coral (Echinopora spp.) oocytes and the effectiveness of methanol (as a cryoprotectant) in protecting these oocytes during short-term, low temperature preservation. Oocytes were exposed to 0.5, 1, or 2 m methanol at 5, 0, or -5 °C for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, or 32 h, and their quality determined based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. Methanol at 0.5 m was the most effective means to reduce chilling-induced reduction in ATP concentrations. Coral oocytes can be stored at room temperature for 4 h in filtered nature seawater with no detrimental effect on oocyte quality; however, in the present study, oocyte survival was extended for 8 h by addition of methanol in low concentrations (0.5 or 1 m) at low temperatures (5 and 0 °C). These findings should enhance conservation efforts and facilitate low-temperature transport of endangered and threatened coral species. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Edmunds P.J.,Northridge | Cumbo V.,Northridge | Fan T.-Y.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Fan T.-Y.,National Dong Hwa University
Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2011

This study describes the effects of temperature on the respiration of brooded larvae of scleractinian corals, and evaluates the implications of these effects relative to seawater temperature when peak larval release occurs. Respiration rates of larvae from Pocillopora damicornis, Seriatopora hystrix and Stylophora pistillata were quantified in darkness as oxygen uptake during 1-3h exposures to five temperatures between 26. 4 and 29. 6 C. To assess the biological significance of these experiments, the temperature of the seawater into which larvae of P. damicornis and S. hystrix were released was measured for 32-34 months over 5years between 2003 and 2008. Mean respiration varied from 0. 029 to 0. 116nmol O 2 larva -1 min -1, and was related parabolically to temperature with a positive threshold at 28. 0°C. The temperature coefficients (Q 10) for the ascending portion of these relationships (Q 10=15-76) indicate that the temperature dependency is stronger than can be explained by kinetics alone, and probably reflects behavioral and developmental effects. Larval release occurred year-round in synchrony with the lunar periodicity when seawater temperature ranged from 21. 8 to 30. 7°C, and more than half of the sampled larvae were released at 27. 5-28. 9°C. The coincidence on the temperature scale of peak larval release with the thermal threshold for respiration suggests that high metabolic rates have selective value for pelagic coral larvae. The large and rapid effects of temperature on larval respiration have implications for studies of the effects of climate change on coral reproduction, particularly when seawater temperature exceeds ∼28°C, when our results predict that larval respiration will be greatly reduced. © 2011. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

Chen T.-H.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Chen T.-H.,National Dong Hwa University | Lin C.-Y.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Tseng M.-C.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2011

In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs at 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10mg/L or control) from fertilization to free swimming stage. Hatchability, survival, and malformation rate were not affected by TiO2 NPs at these exposure levels. However, larval swimming parameters, including average and maximum velocity and activity level were significantly affected by TiO2 NPs. Co-exposure to either the glutathione precursor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), or the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), did not significantly alter the behavioral effects resulting from TiO2 NPs, suggesting that other factor(s) besides oxidative stress may contribute to the behavioral toxicity of TiO2 NPs. Our study also demonstrated that the behavioral endpoints were more sensitive than the others (e.g., hatchability and survival) to detect toxicity of TiO2 NPs on developing fish. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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