National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium

Pingtung, Taiwan

National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium

Pingtung, Taiwan
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Tsai S.,MingDao University | Lin C.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Lin C.,National Dong Hwa University
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology | Year: 2012

Cryopreservation is a long-term storage technique to preserve the biological material without deterioration for extended period of time at least several thousands of years. The ability to preserve and store both maternal and paternal gametes provides a reliable source of fish genetic material for scientific and aquaculture purposes as well as for conservation of biodiversity. Successful cryopreservation of fish sperm have been achieved for more than 200 fish species and many fish species have been adequated for the purpose of cryobanking. Cryopreservation of fish embryo is not viable, mainly because of the same limitations as in fish oocytes, i.e., high chilling sensitivity and low membrane permeability. However, cryopreservation of isolated embryonic cells is another option for preserving both maternal and paternal genome. In this paper, an overview of the current state of aquatic species is followed by a discussion on the sperm, embryos, oocytes and embryonic cells - blastomeres.

Su J.-H.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Su J.-H.,National Dong Hwa University | Wen Z.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University
Marine Drugs | Year: 2011

Chemical examination of the Taiwanese soft coral Sinularia triangular led to the isolation of five cembrane-based diterpenoids 1-5, including two new metabolites, triangulenes A (1) and B (2). The structures of the new metabolites were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, particularly mass spectroscopy and 2D NMR (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) spectroscopy. Metabolites 3 and 5 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity to human tumor cell lines CCRF-CEM and DLD-1. Furthermore, 3-5 displayed significant in vitro anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells by inhibiting the expression of the iNOS protein. Metabolites 4 and 5 also effectively reduced the expression of the COX-2 protein in the macrophages. © 2011 by the authors.

Lee N.-L.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Lee N.-L.,National Dong Hwa University | Su J.-H.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Su J.-H.,National Dong Hwa University
Marine Drugs | Year: 2011

Three new cembranoids, culobophylins A-C (1-3), along with two known compounds (4 and 5) were isolated from the cultured soft coral Lobophytum crassum. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data and comparison of the NMR data with those of known analogues. Among these metabolites, 2 is rarely found in cembranoids possessing an isopropyl moiety with an epoxide group. Compound 1 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against HL60 and DLD-1 cancer cell lines. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

Dufault A.M.,Northridge | Cumbo V.R.,Northridge | Fan T.-Y.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Fan T.-Y.,National Dong Hwa University | Edmunds P.J.,Northridge
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Manipulative studies have demonstrated that ocean acidification (OA) is a threat to coral reefs, yet no experiments have employed diurnal variations in pCO2 that are ecologically relevant to many shallow reefs. Two experiments were conducted to test the response of coral recruits (less than 6 days old) to diurnally oscillating pCO2; one exposing recruits for 3 days to ambient (440 μatm), high (663 μatm) and diurnally oscillating pCO2 on a natural phase (420-596 μatm), and another exposing recruits for 6 days to ambient (456 μatm), high (837 μatm) and diurnally oscillating pCO2 on either a natural or a reverse phase (448-845 μatm). In experiment I, recruits exposed to natural-phased diurnally oscillating pCO2 grew 6-19% larger than those in ambient or high pCO2. In experiment II, recruits in both high and natural-phased diurnally oscillating pCO2 grew 16 per cent larger than those at ambient pCO2, and this was accompanied by 13-18% higher survivorship; the stimulatory effect on growth of oscillatory pCO2 was diminished by administering high pCO2 during the day (i.e. reverse-phased). These results demonstrate that coral recruits can benefit from ecologically relevant fluctuations in pCO2 and we hypothesize that the mechanism underlying this response is highly pCO2-mediated, night-time storage of dissolved inorganic carbon that fuels daytime calcification. © 2012 The Royal Society.

Cumbo V.R.,Northridge | Fan T.Y.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Fan T.Y.,National Dong Hwa University | Edmunds P.J.,Northridge
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology | Year: 2013

Efforts to evaluate the response of coral larvae to global climate change (GCC) and ocean acidification (OA) typically employ short experiments of fixed length, yet it is unknown how the response is affected by exposure duration. In this study, we exposed larvae from the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis to contrasts of temperature (24.00°C [ambient] versus 30.49°C) and pCO2 (49.4Pa versus 86.2Pa) for varying periods (1-5days) to test the hypothesis that exposure duration had no effect on larval response as assessed by protein content, respiration, Symbiodinium density, and survivorship; exposure times were ecologically relevant compared to representative pelagic larval durations (PLD) for corals. Larvae differed among days for all response variables, and the effects of the treatment were relatively consistent regardless of exposure duration for three of the four response variables. Protein content and Symbiodinium density were unaffected by temperature and pCO2, but respiration increased with temperature (but not pCO2) with the effect intensifying as incubations lengthened. Survival, however, differed significantly among treatments at the end of the study, and by the 5th day, 78% of the larvae were alive and swimming under ambient temperature and ambient pCO2, but only 55-59% were alive in the other treatments. These results demonstrate that the physiological effects of temperature and pCO2 on coral larvae can reliably be detected within days, but effects on survival require ≥5days to detect. The detection of time-dependent effects on larval survivorship suggests that the influence of GCC and OA will be stronger for corals having long PLDs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Lin C.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Lin C.,National Dong Hwa University | Tsai S.,MingDao University
Theriogenology | Year: 2012

Understanding chilling sensitivity and chilling injury of coral oocytes, in the presence and absence of a cryoprotectant, is important in developing cryopreservation protocols, as well as for short-term storage and transport (e.g., for species conservation). The objective of this study was to investigate the chilling sensitivity of hard coral (Echinopora spp.) oocytes and the effectiveness of methanol (as a cryoprotectant) in protecting these oocytes during short-term, low temperature preservation. Oocytes were exposed to 0.5, 1, or 2 m methanol at 5, 0, or -5 °C for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, or 32 h, and their quality determined based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. Methanol at 0.5 m was the most effective means to reduce chilling-induced reduction in ATP concentrations. Coral oocytes can be stored at room temperature for 4 h in filtered nature seawater with no detrimental effect on oocyte quality; however, in the present study, oocyte survival was extended for 8 h by addition of methanol in low concentrations (0.5 or 1 m) at low temperatures (5 and 0 °C). These findings should enhance conservation efforts and facilitate low-temperature transport of endangered and threatened coral species. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Chen T.-H.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Chen T.-H.,National Dong Hwa University | Lin C.-Y.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Tseng M.-C.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2011

In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs at 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10mg/L or control) from fertilization to free swimming stage. Hatchability, survival, and malformation rate were not affected by TiO2 NPs at these exposure levels. However, larval swimming parameters, including average and maximum velocity and activity level were significantly affected by TiO2 NPs. Co-exposure to either the glutathione precursor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), or the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), did not significantly alter the behavioral effects resulting from TiO2 NPs, suggesting that other factor(s) besides oxidative stress may contribute to the behavioral toxicity of TiO2 NPs. Our study also demonstrated that the behavioral endpoints were more sensitive than the others (e.g., hatchability and survival) to detect toxicity of TiO2 NPs on developing fish. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Ho H.-C.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Shao K.-T.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Zootaxa | Year: 2010

Parapercis randalli sp. nov. is described on the basis of four specimens collected in southern Taiwan by angling at a depth of 5-150 m. It differs from its congeners in having five broad reddish brown saddles on the dorsal surface; both jaws and anterior portion of snout reddish orange; a yellow bar with red margin on cheek; a series of 8 red bars below body axis; configuration of spots on head, dorsal and caudal fins; and a combination of morphological characters: three pairs of canine teeth anteriorly in lower jaw; no palatine teeth; vomerine teeth stout, in a single curved row; lateral-line scales 53; margin of preopercle smooth; 4th dorsal spine longest; caudal fin slightly rounded on ventral half, truncate on dorsal half, with a prolonged upper lobe; appressed pelvic fin extends beyond anus. A total of 21 valid pinguipedid species are now recorded from Taiwanese waters. Copyright © 2010.

Chen T.-H.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium | Chen T.-H.,National Dong Hwa University | Wang Y.-H.,National Dong Hwa University | Wu Y.-H.,University of California at Davis
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2011

Ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are commonly used as carrier solvents for lipophilic chemicals in aquatic toxicity bioassays. However, very little information has been reported on the behavioral effects of these solvents. In this study, we examined the effects of ethanol and DMSO on development and locomotor activity by a zebrafish embryo-larval bioassay. The zebrafish were exposed to different concentrations (control, 0.01, 0.1, and 1%) of ethanol or DMSO from blastula stage to 144. hour-post-fertilization (hpf). Hatchability, survival, and abnormalities were monitored every 12. h, and locomotor activity of the larvae was analyzed at 144. hpf. Hatchability was not affected by the ethanol or DMSO treatments. No effect on survival was observed except the 1% ethanol group suffered 89% mortality during 108-120. hpf. No developmental defects were observed in any of the solvents at the 0.01 and 0.1% concentrations, but significantly higher deformity rates occurred with 1% ethanol and DMSO groups. Hyperactivity and less tortuous swimming paths were observed in all ethanol and DMSO concentrations. Based on this study, we suggest that data of behavioral toxicity bioassays using ethanol or DMSO as carrier solvents should be interpreted cautiously, because the solvents at low concentrations could alter locomotor activity of larval zebrafish without causing any observable developmental defects. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Ko F.-C.,National Dong Hwa University | Chang C.-W.,National Dong Hwa University | Cheng J.-O.,National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2014

Surface sediments and corals (Acropora sp. and Montipora sp.) from the coastline of Kenting were analyzed in 2009 and 2010 for content levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total PAH concentrations (t-PAH) in corasls (143-1715 ng g-1 dw) were significantly higher than in the ambient sediments (2-59 ng g-1 dw) indicating the bioaccumulation of PAHs in corals. The spatial and seasonal variation in PAH levels suggested that land-loaded contaminants may be the main source of PAHs in the Kenting coral reefs. Based on molecular indices, PAHs were substantially of petroleum origin. The major PAH components were phenanthrene, pyrene and fluorine, but PAH congeners in corals and sediments still have characteristic composition patterns which would be altered by the bio/accumulation mechanisms. Further study is essential to assess and understand the impacts of these chemicals on coral reefs.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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