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Seoul, South Korea

Park M.S.,National Museum of Korea | Kim H.-J.,Kookmin University
Palpu Chongi Gisul/Journal of Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry

Artists have been used animal glues for a long time as binding and sizing materials of paintings in many countries including Korea. Since animal glues as a binding material lose their own adhesive strength by aging, pigment particles or pigment layers are easily detached from painting surface. Restaurators prefer to use animal glues for consolidation of pigment particles or pigment layers because artists use animal glues as a binder for their painting works. It is widely known that animal glues have different characteristics such as viscosity, stability on water etc. But there are still a few requirements to consider their stabilities for the restoration of paintings. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate of stability and efficiency of animal glue applications. The efficiency of animal glue application was decreased with increasing the concentration of animal glue solution. This result means the simple tendency, but does not representative data for other animal glues made from same raw materials. In most cases, the surface and mechanical characteristics of animal glues are dependent on some factors, like viscosity and concentration of animal glue solution. Source

Jeong H.-W.,National Palace Museum of Korea | Lee S.-H.,Chungbuk National University | Cheon J.-H.,National Museum of Korea | Choi T.-H.,Chungbuk National University
Palpu Chongi Gisul/Journal of Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry

This study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of the lining papers which had been separated from six pieces of paintings and calligraphic works of the 18th and the 20th century. A total 20 kinds of lining papers were examined on the physical properties, colors, fiber morphology, and color reactions. The grammage and thickness of lining papers which had been used hanging-scroll type works were higher than those of folder types. On the other hand, the grammage and thickness of the first layer lining papers which had been separated from silk ground works were lower than those of paper ground works. All kinds of lining papers were colored from yellow to yellowish red because of unbleaching and deterioration. Through the examination on fiber morphology and color reactions, lining papers were verified that all of those were made from paper mulberry bast fiber but the first layer of the Mukjukdo. The lining paper which of the first layer of the Mukjukdo was verified that it was made from mixture of paper mulberry, hemp, and spruce pulps. Source

Park J.,Heritage Institute of Technology | Yun E.,National Museum of Korea | Kang H.,National Museum of Korea | Ahn J.,National Museum of Korean Contemporary History | Kim G.,Kongju National University
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy

Relics of amber were excavated from King Muryeong's tomb constructed in the 6th century on the Korean peninsula. To estimate the provenance, FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and py/GC/MS (pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) analysis were utilized. The reference Baltic amber sample was also analyzed with the same method for comparison. The relics were confirmed to be amber from the FTIR analysis where an absorption band near 1150 cm- 1, characteristic one in Baltic amber, was also observed. In py/GC/MS analysis, pyrolyzed products like butanedioic acid and dehydroabietic acid, known constituents of amber, were observed. In addition, d-fenchyl alcohol, camphor, borneol and butanedioic acid, typical constituents of Baltic amber, were observed in some samples. From this, it appears that some of relics were made from Baltic amber and that Baltic amber was transported to the Korean peninsula in the time of tomb construction. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Kim K.,Chung - Ang University | Brenner C.H.,DNAVIEW | Brenner C.H.,University of California at Berkeley | Mair V.H.,University of Pennsylvania | And 19 more authors.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology

We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP), and autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) of three skeletons found in a 2,000-year-old Xiongnu elite cemetery in Duurlig Nars of Northeast Mongolia. This study is one of the first reports of the detailed genetic analysis of ancient human remains using the three types of genetic markers. The DNA analyses revealed that one subject was an ancient male skeleton with maternal U2e1 and paternal R1a1 haplogroups. This is the first genetic evidence that a male of distinctive Indo-European lineages (R1a1) was present in the Xiongnu of Mongolia. This might indicate an Indo-European migration into Northeast Asia 2,000 years ago. Other specimens are a female with mtDNA haplogroup D4 and a male with Y-SNP haplogroup C3 and mtDNA haplogroup D4. Those haplogroups are common in Northeast Asia. There was no close kinship among them. The genetic evidence of U2e1 and R1a1 may help to clarify the migration patterns of Indo-Europeans and ancient East-West contacts of the Xiongnu Empire. Artifacts in the tombs suggested that the Xiongnu had a system of the social stratification. The West Eurasian male might show the racial tolerance of the Xiongnu Empire and some insight into the Xiongnu society. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

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