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Kudo Y.,National Museum of Japanese History | Kumon F.,Shinshu University
Quaternary International | Year: 2012

The pattern of latest Pleistocene climate changes reconstructed on the basis of sediment cores from Lake Nojiri is one of the most detailed and reliable reconstructions in Japan. The climate changes over the last 72ka can be compared directly with those recorded at Upper Paleolithic and Incipient Jomon sites on the basis of a revised age model for the Lake Nojiri sediment cores and the revised 14C dates, calibrated after IntCal09. Fossil bones of megafauna from the Tategahana site beside the lake have been placed ca. 53-37ka cal BP, in the relatively warm, temperate climate of the early MIS 3. Part of the Tategahana site was interpreted as a kill and butchery site, although the presence of the "big game hunters" is still uncertain, as so far there is no reliable archaeological evidence in the Japanese archipelago dating back to the Middle Paleolithic. The number of Paleolithic sites increased suddenly after 38ka cal BP around Lake Nojiri. This seems to coincide with the timing of the migration of Homo sapiens into the Japanese archipelago. The climate had been gradually cooling toward the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). However, the area around Lake Nojiri in the late MIS 3 seems to have been a suitable place for the subsistence of hunter-gatherers. Backed blade industries (ca. 29-20ka cal BP), point-tool industries (ca. 22-19ka cal BP), and microblade industries (20-16ka cal BP) were characteristic of the Late Upper Paleolithic. The number of sites around Lake Nojiri decreased significantly during the LGM. At the end of the LGM, an abrupt change of vegetation, from subarctic conifer forest to deciduous broadleaf forest, had occurred around 14ka, and human activities became prominent around Lake Nojiri, as shown by the linear-relief pottery group (ca. 15-13ka cal BP). The number of sites seems to have decreased slightly during the Younger Dyras cooling event. Patterns of human occupation around Lake Nojiri show the influence of global and local climate changes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Hamagami T.,Yokohama National University | Sawada K.,National Museum of Japanese History
IEEJ Transactions on Electronics, Information and Systems | Year: 2014

Study of heritage database and historical archive become an active area in multidisciplinary fields. The huge and high dimensional content is a sort of big data consisting of various kinds of information elements, and has valuable knowledge and the wisdom of mankind. This study focuses on Kosode Byobu collection which is antique fine art in Edo era. By analyzing high-resolution digital images of them and extracting knowledge structure by machine learning, we apply it for intelligent display and research of the art. This article introduces the background of the project and shows fundamental approach for tackling to retrieving intelligent structure and developing effective display technique. © 2014 The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan.

Miyata K.,National Museum of Japanese History | Tsumura N.,Chiba University
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

In this paper, we introduce a concept of the image quality metamerism as an expanded version of the metamerism defined in the color science. The concept is used to unify different image quality attributes, and applied to introduce a metric showing the degree of image quality metamerism to analyze a cultural property. Our global goal is to build a metric to evaluate total quality of images acquired by different imaging systems and observed under different viewing conditions. As the basic step to the global goal, the metric is consisted of color, spectral and texture information in this research, and applied to detect image quality metamers to investigate the cultural property. The property investigated is the oldest extant version of folding screen paintings that depict the thriving city of Kyoto designated as a nationally important cultural property in Japan. Gold colored areas painted by using high granularity colorants compared with other color areas in the property are evaluated based on the metric, then the metric is visualized as a map showing the possibility of the image quality metamer to the reference pixel. © 2012 SPIE-IS&T.

Miyata K.,National Museum of Japanese History | Shiroishi R.,Ochanomizu University | Inoue Y.,Bunkyo University
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2011

In this research, an AR (augmented reality) technology with projector-camera system is proposed for a history museum to provide user-friendly interface and pseudo hands-on exhibition. The proposed system is a desktop application and designed for old Japanese coins to enhance the visitors' interests and motivation to investigate them. The size of the old coins are small to recognize their features and the surface of the coins has fine structures on both sides, so it is meaningful to show the reverse side and enlarged image of the coins to the visitors for enhancing their interest and motivation. The image of the reverse side of the coins is displayed based on the AR technology to reverse the AR marker by the user. The information to augment the coins is projected by using a data projector, and the information is placed nearby the coins. The proposed system contributes to develop an exhibition method based on the combinations of the real artifacts and the AR technology, and demonstrated the flexibility and capability to offer background information relating to the old Japanese coins. However, the accuracy of the detection and tracking of the markers and visitor evaluation survey are required to improve the effectiveness of the system. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.

Yoshida A.,Meiji University | Kudo Y.,National Museum of Japanese History | Shimada K.,Meiji University | Hashizume J.,Meiji University | Ono A.,Meiji University
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2016

We have reconstructed landscape changes at a known obsidian source area in the central highland, Japan, using well dated pollen and micro-charcoal records, in order to better understand the difference in obsidian procurement between gathering in the Palaeolithic period (>30–16 ka cal bp) and mining in the Jomon period (16–2.9 ka cal bp). The pollen record at the site shows that alpine vegetation, such as patches of Pinus pumila (dwarf Siberian pine) and alpine meadows with rocky areas surrounded the area during the period 30–17 ka cal bp. The reconstructed Palaeolithic landscape implies that there was a favourable situation for gathering obsidian on the ground surface in the area. Subsequently, growth of woodland started at 17 ka cal bp due to a rise of the tree line elevation corresponding to the deglacial warming. The pollen record at the site shows that mixed woodland consisting of Betula (birch) and boreal conifers covered the area during the period 17–11.2 ka cal bp, and dense mixed oak woodlands flourished during the period 11.2–2.9 ka cal bp. From 17 ka cal bp, local conditions were unfavourable for gathering obsidian, and this probably caused the Jomon people to develop obsidian mining. We can suggest that the landscape changes between the Palaeolithic and Jomon periods strongly influenced the prehistoric exploitation of obsidian in the area. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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