National Museum of Ethnology

Suita, Japan

National Museum of Ethnology

Suita, Japan
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Nakajima S.,Akita University | Okochi N.,Tokyo University of Science | Iizumi N.,National Museum of Ethnology | Tsuru M.,Social Welfare Corporation | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics | Year: 2017

In recent times, the use of subtitles and audio descriptions in movies for individuals with either hearing or visual impairment and the need to develop systems to provide these have been realized. However, even the need and possibility for deaf-blind individuals to enjoy movies have not been discussed yet. This study created an environment for deaf-blind individuals to "watch" a film, and conducted a screening of feature-length films with subtitles and audio descriptions. Interviews of 26 deaf-blind individuals indicated that 56% had watched films in a theater after becoming deaf-blind and before the screening session. When watching the films, 26.9% of participants used individual monitoring devices, headphones, or other conventional video or audio equipment. Furthermore, 50% were able to use either subtitles or audio descriptions. Regardless of their impairment conditions, participants responded positively towards watching the film in the screening session. Among the deaf-blind, 42.1% of the partially sighted and deaf, blind and hard of hearing, and partially sighted and hard of hearing individuals appreciated a special aspect of the theater, i.e., "sharing an opportunity and communication with others.".

Storey A.A.,University of New England of Australia | Athens J.S.,International Archaeological Research Institute Inc. | Bryant D.,University of Otago | Carson M.,University of Guam | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Data from morphology, linguistics, history, and archaeology have all been used to trace the dispersal of chickens from Asian domestication centers to their current global distribution. Each provides a unique perspective which can aid in the reconstruction of prehistory. This study expands on previous investigations by adding a temporal component from ancient DNA and, in some cases, direct dating of bones of individual chickens from a variety of sites in Europe, the Pacific, and the Americas. The results from the ancient DNA analyses of forty-eight archaeologically derived chicken bones provide support for archaeological hypotheses about the prehistoric human transport of chickens. Haplogroup E mtDNA signatures have been amplified from directly dated samples originating in Europe at 1000 B.P. and in the Pacific at 3000 B.P. indicating multiple prehistoric dispersals from a single Asian centre. These two dispersal pathways converged in the Americas where chickens were introduced both by Polynesians and later by Europeans. The results of this study also highlight the inappropriate application of the small stretch of D-loop, traditionally amplified for use in phylogenetic studies, to understanding discrete episodes of chicken translocation in the past. The results of this study lead to the proposal of four hypotheses which will require further scrutiny and rigorous future testing. © 2012 Storey et al.

Penailillo J.,University of Chile | Olivares G.,University of Chile | Payacan C.,University of Chile | Chang C.-S.,National Museum of Prehistory | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent) is a dioecious tree native to East Asia and mainland Southeast-Asia, introduced prehistorically to Polynesia as a source of bark fiber by Austronesian-speaking voyagers. In Oceania, trees are coppiced and harvested for production of bark-cloth, so flowering is generally unknown. A survey of botanical records of paper mulberry revealed a distributional disjunction: The tree is apparently absent in Borneo and the Philippines. A subsequent study of chloroplast haplotypes linked paper mulberry of Remote Oceania directly to a population in southern Taiwan, distinct from known populations in mainland Southeast-Asia. Methodology We describe the optimization and use of a DNA marker designed to identify sex in paper mulberry. We used this marker to determine the sex distribution in selected localities across Asia, Near and Remote Oceania. We also characterized all samples using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence (ITS) in order to relate results to a previous survey of ITS diversity. Results In Near and Remote Oceania, contemporary paper mulberry plants are all female with the exception of Hawaii, where plants of both sexes are found. In its natural range in Asia, male and female plants are found, as expected. Male plants in Hawaii display an East Asian ITS genotype, consistent with modern introduction, while females in Remote Oceania share a distinctive variant. Conclusions Most paper mulberry plants now present in the Pacific appear to be descended from female clones introduced prehistorically. In Hawaii, the presence of male and female plants is thought to reflect a dual origin, one a prehistoric female introduction and the other a modern male introduction by Japanese/Chinese immigrants. If only female clones were dispersed from a source-region in Taiwan, this may explain the absence of botanical records and breeding populations in the Philippines and Borneo, and Remote Oceania. © 2016 Adel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Kikusawa R.,National Museum of Ethnology | Kikusawa R.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies | Okumoto M.,Kyoto University | Kubo T.,Hiroshima University | Rodrigo L.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

Lecture materials for deaf and hard-of-hearing scholars with sign language (SL) interpretation inevitably include multiple-video content.Ausability assessment of such a program was conducted, contrasting presentations with 3 media and 6 media views. The preference of Deaf researchers for SL interpretation to subtitles was confirmed, and the need for different arrangements depending on the needs of users was discovered. A prototype system was developed based on the results. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

Nagaoka T.,St. Marianna University School of Medicine | Seki Y.,National Museum of Ethnology | Morita W.,National Museum of Ethnology | Uzawa K.,Kyoto University | And 2 more authors.
Anatomical Science International | Year: 2012

The Pacopampa site is located in the northern highlands of Peru and is an archaeological site belonging to the Formative Period (2500-1 BC). The excavation of the Pacopampa site yielded unusual human skeletons from the main platform of a ceremonial center of the site during the 2009 field season. The skeletal remains were associated with a pair of gold earplugs, a pair of gold earrings, and shell objects. This specimen is possibly a female aged 20-39 years. Detailed examination of the neurocranium revealed the presence of artificial cranial deformation with decreased cranial length, increased cranial breadth, and lateral bulging of the parietal bones. The estimated stature of this individual was 162 cm, which is about 15 cm higher than that of contemporary females of Pacopampa and about 20-25 cm higher than that of other Formative Period sites in northern Peru. The peculiarity of this individual, detected not only in the cultural artifacts but also in the physical features, is possible evidence for social stratification in the Formative Period. © Japanese Association of Anatomists 2011.

Ahmed I.,Massey University | Ahmed I.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Biggs P.J.,Massey University | Matthews P.J.,National Museum of Ethnology | And 3 more authors.
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2012

A characteristic feature of eukaryote and prokaryote genomes is the co-occurrence of nucleotide substitution and insertion/deletion (indel) mutations. Although similar observations have also been made for chloroplast DNA, genome-wide associations have not been reported.We determined the chloroplast genome sequences for two morphotypes of taro (Colocasia esculenta; family Araceae) and compared these with four publicly available aroid chloroplast genomes. Here, we report the extent of genome-wide association between direct and inverted repeats, indels, and substitutions in these aroid chloroplast genomes. We suggest that alternative but not mutually exclusive hypotheses explain the mutational dynamics of chloroplast genome evolution. © The Author(s) 2012.

Lentfer C.,University of Queensland | Matthews P.J.,National Museum of Ethnology | Gosden C.,University of Oxford | Lindsay S.,Australian Museum Sydney | Specht J.,University of Sydney
Archaeology in Oceania | Year: 2013

Organic residue on a stone artefact recovered from the Makekur Lapita site (FOH) on Arawe Island in West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea, was sampled and dated. The residue is identified as endocarp fragments of a Canarium species nutshell, most likely Canarium indicum L. The artefact, which is made from coralline limestone, is interpreted as a nut-cracking anvil. AMS dating places its use at approximately 2800 calBP, in Middle-Late Lapita times, and provides the first direct confirmation of Lapita-age use of nut-cracking tools. The careful shaping of the tool, combined with ethnographic comparisons, suggests that it was made and used for preparation of special food, possibly for feasting associated with ritual or other ceremonial activities. © 2013 Oceania Publications.

Hunt H.V.,University of Cambridge | Moots H.M.,University of Cambridge | Matthews P.J.,National Museum of Ethnology
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2013

Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is a vegetatively propagated, starchy root crop cultivated in tropical to temperate regions of the world. Wild forms of taro are distributed from India to southern China, Australia and Melanesia. They are widely known wild food or fodder sources, including in Aboriginal Australia, so it is unclear to what extent wild populations have been dispersed by humans, or naturally via insect-borne pollen and seed dispersal by birds or other animals. In Australia, pollinators and seedlings of taro have not been reported, and a key question is whether or not the wild taro there can breed naturally. Here we report field observations of flowering, fruit set, and an insect pollinator (Colocasiomyia, pupal stage), in a historically significant wild taro population at Hopevale in northern Queensland. The observed pupa is congeneric with two pollinating fly species that have a highly specialised, probably coevolutionary, relationship with taro in neighbouring Papua New Guinea. The field observations suggested the possibility of natural breeding at Hopevale. By analyzing microsatellite diversity within the Hopevale taro population, we found high genetic variation overall, indicative of multiple founding individuals. Two sublocations showed low genetic diversity and strongly negative inbreeding coefficients, consistent with predominantly clonal (vegetative) reproduction. A third sublocation showed high genetic diversity and a weakly negative inbreeding coefficient, indicative of sexual reproduction. This difference between sublocations may relate to microenvironmental conditions that favour seedling establishment in some parts of the site. The data constitute the first demonstration that natural breeding and population spread occurs in Australian wild taro. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Ono R.,Tokai University | Intoh M.,National Museum of Ethnology
Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology | Year: 2011

This article presents an analysis of fish bones and prehistoric fishing on Fais in the western Caroline Islands, Micronesia. In total 18 marine fish families (26 taxa) were identified including two families of sharks (Carcharhinidae and Lamnidae). Our analysis with use of vertebrae for identification reveals that the total MNI (Minimum Number of Individuals) of inshore and offshore (outer-reef to pelagic zone) fish species is almost constant in Fais from initial settlement to early prehistoric times (AD 400 to 800) due to a drastic increase in the tuna catch. However, the number of tuna dramatically decreased after AD 1200. Although the exact reason(s) for such increase and decrease in tuna capture is uncertain, the increase could be related to changes in fishing technology, population increase, and possible climatic changes, while the drastic decrease seems directly related to accessibility of marine resources due to climatic change, particularly betweenAD1200 and 1500. Based on these results, we further discuss the character of Fais fishing by comparing it with fishing on islands in other parts of Oceania. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Shinoda M.,Tottori University | Nachinshonhor G.U.,National Museum of Ethnology | Nemoto M.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center
Journal of Arid Environments | Year: 2010

Drought has become widespread in the Northern Hemisphere and has affected the specific Mongolian steppes both quantitatively and qualitatively. To simulate vegetation responses to drought, we conducted a drought experiment in the Mongolian steppe during a rainy summer growing season. A 30 × 30 m rain shelter excluded natural precipitation during the 2005-growing season, simulating a drought with a return interval of 60-80 years. We examined the effects of the drought on aboveground phytomass (AGP) of each species, total belowground phytomass (BGP), and soil water. The drought drastically reduced AGP and soil water but did not substantially affect BGP. AGP recovered quickly in the late summer of 2006, likely because BGP (which was several times AGP) was not severely damaged by the drought. However, the poorly resilient species did not recover to pre-drought levels, suggesting that the response time scales differed among species. Despite the intense drought, the large root system provided a basis for quick recovery of AGP to pre-drought levels without a shift to a drier equilibrium community. We propose new drought sensitivity and resiliency indices to measure the ecosystem's sustainability and identify species with low sensitivity (i.e., high drought tolerance) that form the baseline of AGP. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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