National Museum in Cracow

Maja, Poland

National Museum in Cracow

Maja, Poland
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Rafalska-Lasocha A.,Jagiellonian University | Grzesiak-Nowak M.,Jagiellonian University | Grzesiak-Nowak M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Sarkowicz D.,National Museum in Cracow | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2015

Precise knowledge of the chemical composition of the pigments used by Henryk Siemiradzki, one of the greatest Polish artists, is important for the enrichment of knowledge concerning his workshop and is essential in choosing the right strategies for the conservation and preservation of his works. An examination of powdered pigments inherited from Siemiradzki, along with an examination of samples taken from his paintings, was part of a research project carried out in the National Museum in Krakow. The aim of the project is to identify the artist's painting methods and the palette he used. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) technique, along with other methods of examination, supplemented non-invasive XRF spectroscopy, the starting point of the analyses. None of the applied methods identifies pigments as unequivocally as XRPD analysis, provided the studied material is crystalline. In this article we will present the results of the application of XRPD to investigations of powdered pigments from the collection of historic pigments inherited from Henryk Siemiradzki. We will also present the results of XRPD investigations of paint from several of Siemiradzki's paintings. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Zmuda-Trzebiatowska I.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Wachowiak M.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Klisinska-Kopacz A.,National Museum in Cracow | Trykowski G.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | liwinski G.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2015

The Raman and complementary spectroscopic analyses were performed using the exceptional possibility of research on the XIX c. original paint materials of the artist palette of J. Matejko stored in the National Museum in Cracow. The yellow and ochre-based paints characteristic for Matejko's workshop and selected from the ensemble of 273 labelled tubes (brand of R. Ainé/Paris) supplied during the period of 1880-1893 were investigated. Highly specific Raman spectra were obtained for paints containing mixtures of the Zn- and Sn-modified Pb-Sb pigment, and also for the ochre-based ones. A clear pigment discrimination of the mixture of cadmium yellow (CdS), cinnabar (HgS) and lead white (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2) was possible by means of Raman data collected under different excitations at 514 nm and 785 nm. It was shown that the Raman spectra complemented by the XRF, SEM-EDX and in some cases also by the LIPS and FTIR data ensure reliable pigment identification in multi-component paints containing secondary species and impurities. The reported spectral signatures will be used for non-destructive investigation of the collection of about 300 oil paintings of J. Matejko. In view of the comparative research on polish painting which point out that richness of modified Naples yellows clearly distinguish Matejko's artworks from other ones painted in the period of 1850-1883, the Raman data of these paints can provide support in the authentication studies. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Klisinska-Kopacz A.,National Museum in Cracow | Tilova R.,University of Pardubice
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012

Hydrophobization agents are commonly used in conservation practice to enhance the water-repellent properties of stone and masonry structures such as bricks and restoration mortars. In this project, we have tested and analyzed the effects of various commercially-used water repellents on the hydration process of Roman cement mortars. The necessity to investigate the progress of hydration of these materials in the presence of water-proofing agents arises from the well known fact that Roman cement mortars require adequate times and conditions for curing, which gives the restoration material compatibility with the original substrates. The effects of hydrophobic treatment on the pore size distribution and some physical features, such as water absorption and capillary rise, were investigated on Roman cement mortars treated with polymer-based coatings and inner waterproofing agents. The behavior of mortars in terms of their freeze resistance was also evaluated. The surface treatment using a hydrophobization agent completely prevented water absorption and thereby interrupted the hydration process. In the case of inner water-repellent admixtures, the hydration process progressed in spite of the decrease in water capillary transportation. In such circumstances, unimodal distribution of pore sizes was observed along with a decrease in threshold pore width with increased curing time. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bratasz L.,National Museum in Cracow | Lukomski M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Klisinska-Kopacz A.,National Museum in Cracow | Zawadzki W.,Jagiellonian University | And 5 more authors.
Strain | Year: 2015

Eleven wool and silk historic textiles and two modern artist's canvases were examined to determine their water vapour adsorption, moisture dimensional response and tensile behaviour. All the textiles showed a similar general pattern of moisture response. A rise in ambient relative humidity (RH) from dry conditions produced expansion of a textile until a certain critical RH level after which a contraction occurred to a greater or lesser degree depending on the yarn crimp and the weave geometry. The largest expansion recorded between the dry state and 80% RH was 1.2 and 0.9% for wool and silk textiles, respectively. The largest shrinkage of 0.8% at high RH range was experienced by a modern linen canvas. Two potential damage mechanisms related to the moisture response of the textiles - stress building as a result of shrinkage of the textile restrained in its dimensional response and the fretting fatigue when yarns move with friction one against another - were found insignificant in typical textile display environments unless the textiles are severely degraded or excessively strained in their mounting. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Ltd.

Klisinska-Kopacz A.,National Museum in Cracow | Tislova R.,University of Pardubice
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2013

Crystallization of soluble salts in porous networks is a major source of decay for mortars used in historical buildings. The optimum formulation and application of Roman cement mortars which could produce compatible and durable repairs of the original substrates was studied. Measurements were performed with the aim of determining the pore size distribution, the hydric parameters as well as the salt crystallization resistance of the mortars. The adhesive strength of the repair materials laid on historic substrates was also determined. The results of the crystallization tests show that repair Roman cement mortars with hydric parameters close to those of the historic substrates, though different pore size distributions, have related salt crystallization resistance. © 2013 The Authors.

Zawadzki W.,Jagiellonian University | Bartosik M.,Jagiellonian University | Dzierzega K.,Jagiellonian University | Bratasz L.,National Museum in Cracow | And 3 more authors.
Optica Applicata | Year: 2012

The aim of this work was to evaluate the applicability of optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors to the monitoring of deformation in historical textiles and paintings on canvas. Fibers with a ceramic coating were selected for strain investigation in textiles due to both their almost perfect strain transfer and much shorter relaxation times compared to fibers with an acrylate coating. FBG sensors were attached to fabrics in a non-destructive manner using specially designed magnetic clamps. Local strain measurements using these sensors were consistent with general strains measured using either a universal testing machine (UTM) or a laser triangulator when varying external load or relative humidity. However, strain magnitudes measured by the different methods were comparable only after correction for the influence of the fiber on the textile under study. Strain measurements in model paintings on canvas were carried out using uncoated fibers embedded in the gesso layers on the canvas. Despite some drawbacks, the FBG sensors were found to be useful in monitoring strain in historic textiles and consequently, for the assessment of environmental risk of these works-of-art.

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