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Ikonomova K.,National Multiprofile Transport Hospital
Revmatologiia (Bulgaria) | Year: 2012

Osteoarthrosis (OA) is the most common chronic joint disease which is the main reason for disability in the elderly. There are many unsolved problems concerning the diagnosis, progression of the disease and treatment. These attract the attention of the scientists and make OA one of the most investigated fields in rheumatology. Biomechanical factors and genetic predisposition participate in the development of OA, as well as the subhondral bone, cytokines and protein kinases. Searching for genetic markers that may predict the onset and development of OA is the main goal of laboratory investigations. The scientists study the role of biomechanical factors that change cartilage metabolism and expression of cytokines and chondrolytic factors. They look for reliable laboratory markers, which are positive before the radiological signs of OA. The introduction of new biomarkers will facilitate the diagnosis, as well as the evaluation of OA activity and progression. It will contribute to more effective therapy directed to the main causes for the onset of pathological processes.

McConnon A.,University of Surrey | Raats M.,University of Surrey | Astrup A.,Copenhagen University | Bajzova M.,Charles University | And 8 more authors.
Appetite | Year: 2012

Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), this study investigates weight control in overweight and obese participants (27kg/m 2≤BMI<45kg/m 2) taking part in a dietary intervention trial targeted at weight loss maintenance (n=932). Respondents completed TPB measures investigating " weight gain prevention" at three time points. Correlation and regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between TPB variables and weight regain. The TPB explained up to 27% variance in expectation, 14% in intention and 20% in desire scores. No relationship was established between intention, expectation or desire and behaviour at Time 1 or Time 2. Perceived need and subjective norm were found to be significantly related to weight regain, however, the model explained a maximum of 11% of the variation in weight regain. Better understanding of overweight individuals' trajectories of weight control is needed to help inform studies investigating people's weight regain behaviours. Future research using the TPB model to explain weight control should consider the likely behaviours being sought by individuals. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Handjieva-Darlenska T.,National Multiprofile Transport Hospital | Handjieva-Darlenska T.,Copenhagen University | Handjieva-Darlenska T.,Medical University-Sofia | Holst C.,Copenhagen University | And 8 more authors.
Obesity Facts | Year: 2012

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight loss changes as determinants of weight loss and attrition during a 10-week dietary intervention study. Methods: A total of 771 obese subjects (BMI 35.6 kg/m2) of both genders were included from 8 clinical centres in 7 European countries, who underwent a 10-week dietary intervention study comparing two hypo-energetic (-600 kcal/day) diets varying in fat content. Results: The multiple regression model showed that weight loss at week 10 was predicted by: 6.55 + 1.27 × early weight loss (kg) at week 1 + 1.35 × gender (R2 = 0.28, p < 0.001). When performing the corresponding model with half-way weight loss (week 5) as covariate, the regression equation was: weight loss (kg) at week 10 = 1.88 + 1.38 × half-way weight loss (kg) (week 5) + 0.42 × gender (R2 = 0.77, p < 0.001). A cut-off target of ≥ 4 kg weight loss at week 5 emerged as an optimal predictor for reaching at least 10% weight loss at week 10. Greater attrition likelihood was predicted by high-fat diet, decreased early and half-way weight losses. Conclusion: Early and half-way weight losses are associated with and could contribute to prediction of the final weight loss and attrition. © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

Ikonomova K.,National Multiprofile Transport Hospital | Toncheva A.,National Multiprofile Transport Hospital
Revmatologiia (Bulgaria) | Year: 2012

The main bone unit is made up of osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts. The osteoblasts produce osteoid, consisted of collagen and non-collagen matrix proteins. These cells express variety of receptors and adhesion molecules that are coupled with signaling pathways, responsible for cell activation, proliferation and apoptosis. Osteoblasts produce hormones, growth factors and cytokines. Osteocytes represent 90% of all bone cells in adults. They are terminally differentiated cells and possess a lot of dendrits, through which the communications with other bone cells is realized. Osteoclasts descend from the monocyte stem cells, possess phagocyte properties and are responsible for bone resorption. The organic bone matrix consists of collagen type 1 and non-collagen proteins. The non-organic matrix is made up of calcium salts in the form of hydroxiapatite. The bone cells participate not only in bone structure and remodeling processes but also in energy metabolism, mineral homeostasis and immune function. The considerable progress in the knowledge of cell and molecular structure of the bone provides the medical specialists with a number of reliable laboratory markers of bone formation and resorption. Parallel with the examination of bone markers, a variety of biochemical hematological and hormonal tests are performed.

Larsen T.M.,Copenhagen University | Dalskov S.,Copenhagen University | Van Baak M.,Maastricht University | Jebb S.,Human Nutrition Research | And 8 more authors.
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2010

Diogenes is a Pan-European, randomized, controlled dietary intervention study investigating the effects of dietary protein and glycaemic index on weight (re)gain, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in obese and overweight families in eight European centres. The article is methodological in character, and the presentation of 'results' will be limited to baseline characteristics of the study populations included. A total of 891 families with at least one overweight/obese parent underwent screening. The parents started an initial 8-week low-calorie diet and families with minimum one parent attaining a weight loss of ≥8%, were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum, low-fat (25-30 E%) diets for 6 or 12 months: low protein/low glycaemic index, low protein/high glycaemic index, high protein/low glycaemic index, high protein/high glycaemic index or control (national dietary guidelines). At two centres the families were provided dietary instruction plus free foods for 6 months followed by 6-month dietary instruction only. At the remaining six centres the families received dietary instruction only for 6 months. The median weight loss during the low-calorie diet was 10.3 kg (inter-quartile range: 8.7-12.8 kg, n = 775). A total of 773 adults and 784 children were randomized to the 6-month weight (re)gain prevention phase. Despite major cultural and dietary regional differences in Europe, interventions addressing effects of dietary factors are feasible with a reasonable attrition. © 2009 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

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