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Vogt F.,Medecins Sans Frontieres | Van Den Bergh R.,Medecins Sans Frontieres | Bernasconi A.,Medecins Sans Frontieres | Moyo B.,Medecins Sans Frontieres | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Blood collected in conventional EDTA tubes requires laboratory analysis within 48 hours to provide valid CD4 cell count results. This restricts access to HIV care for patients from rural areas in resource-constraint settings due to sample transportation problems. Stabilization Tubes with extended storage duration have been developed but not yet evaluated comprehensively. Objective To investigate stability of absolute CD4 cell count measurement of samples in BD Vacutai-ner CD4 Stabilization Tubes over the course of 30 days. Methods This was a laboratory-based method comparison study conducted at a rural district hospital in Beitbridge, Zimbabwe. Whole peripheral blood from 88 HIV positive adults was drawn into BD Vacutainer CD4 Stabilization Tubes and re-tested 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 30 days after collection on BD FacsCount and Partec Cyflow cytometers in parallel. Absolute CD4 cell levels were compared to results from paired samples in EDTA tubes analysed on BD Facs-Count at the day of sample collection (references methodology). Bland-Altman analysis based on ratios of the median CD4 counts was used, with acceptable variation ranges for Limits of Agreements of +/-20%. Results Differences in ratios of the medians remained below 10% until day 21 on BD FacsCount and until day 5 on Partec Cyflow. Variations of Limits of Agreement were beyond 20% after day 1 on both cytometers. Specimen quality decreased steadily after day 5, with only 68% and 40% of samples yielding results on BD FacsCount and Partec Cyflow at day 21, respectively. Conclusions We do not recommend the use of BD Vacutainer CD4 Stabilization Tubes for absolute CD4 cell count measurement on BD FacsCount or Partec Cyflow due to large variation of results and decay of specimen quality. Alternative technologies for enhanced CD4 testing in settings with limited laboratory and sample transportation capacity still need to be developed. © 2015 Vogt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Midzi N.,National Health Research Institute | Midzi N.,P.A. College | Mtapuri-Zinyowera S.,P.A. College | Mapingure M.P.,University of Zimbabwe | And 6 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2010

The effect of concomitant infection with schistosomes, Plasmodium falciparum and soil transmitted helminths (STHs) on anaemia was determined in 609 Zimbabwean primary school children. P. falciparum, haemoglobin levels and serum ferritin were determined from venous blood. Kato Katz, formal ether concentration and urine filtration techniques were used to assess prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni, STHs and Schistosoma haematobium infections. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, P. falciparum, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were 52.3%, 22.7%, 27.9%, 23.7%, 2.3% and 2.1%, respectively. The overall prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) were 48.4% (277/572) and 38.1% (181/475). Haemoglobin levels among children who had P. falciparum, S. haematobium and hookworm were lower than negative individuals, p<0.001, p<0.001 and p = 0.030, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia and IDA in co-infections was almost double that in single infection. Children with P. falciparum/STHs/schistosome and schistosomes/. P. falciparum co-infections recorded higher prevalence of anaemia and IDA (80.8% and 57.4%, respectively) than other combinations, p<0.001. Logistic regression revealed that, age group. ≥ 14years,P. falciparum,S.haematobium light and heavy infections, and S.mansoni moderate and heavy infection, hookworm light infection were predictors of anaemia. This study suggests that integrated school based de-worming and malaria control have the potential to reduce the burden of anaemia. © 2010. Source


Gonese E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Mapako T.,National Blood Service Zimbabwe | Mapako T.,University of Groningen | Dzangare J.,Ministry of Health and Child Welfare | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Introduction. Zimbabwe has reported significant declines in HIV prevalence between 2005/06 and 2010/11 Demography and Health Surveys; a within-gender analysis to identify the magnitude and factors associated with this change, which can be masked, is critical for targeting interventions. Methods. We analyzed change in HIV prevalence for 6,947 women and 5,848 men in the 2005/06 survey and 7,313 women and 6,250 men in 2010/11 surveys using 2005/06 as referent. The data was analyzed taking into consideration the survey design and therefore the svy, mean command in Stata was used in both linear and logistic regression. Results. There were similar proportional declines in prevalence at national level for males (15% p=0.011) and females (16%,p=0.008). However, there were variations in decline by provincial setting, demographic variables of age, educational level and some sexual risk behaviours. In logistic regression analysis, statistically significant declines were observed among men in Manicaland, Mashonaland East and Harare (p<0.01) and for women in Manicaland, Mashonaland Central and Harare (p<0.01). Although not statistically significant, numerical increases were observed among men in Matebeleland North, Matebeleland South, Midlands and for both men and women in Bulawayo. Young women in the age range 15-34 experienced a decline in prevalence (p<0.01) while older men 30-44 had a statistically significant decline (p<0.01). Having a secondary and above education, regardless of employment status for both men and women recorded a significant decline. For sexual risk behaviours, currently in union for men and women and not in union for women there was a significant decline in prevalence. Conclusion. Zimbabwe has reported a significant decline among both men and women but there are important differentials across provinces, demographic characteristics and sexual risk behaviours that suggest that the epidemic in Zimbabwe is heterogeneous and therefore interventions must be targeted in order to achieve epidemic control. © 2015 PLOS. Source


Mtapuri-Zinyowera S.,National Microbiology Reference Laboratory | Ruhanya V.,University of Zimbabwe | Midzi N.,University of Zimbabwe | Berejena C.,University of Zimbabwe | And 4 more authors.
GERMS | Year: 2014

Objective We aimed to perform a risk assessment in a rural setting, where drinking water is obtained from both protected and unprotected deep or shallow wells, boreholes and springs. Water is consumed untreated and this poses a risk of acquiring waterborne infections that may cause diarrhea.Methods The study included 113 study participants who volunteered in Chiweshe rural community (Musarara village) in Mashonaland Central Province in Zimbabwe. There were 34 (30%) males and 79 (70%) females with ages ranging from 2 to 89 years. HIV counseling was carried out at the communal meeting and testing was done at home visits. Stool and drinking water samples were collected from 104 subjects. Routine laboratory methods were used to examine for parasitic infections.Results Only 29 (25.7%) of participants were confirmed HIV positive using 2 rapid serology tests; eighty-four (74.3%) were negative. Diarrheic stool samples were observed in 17 (16.3%) participants and of these 5 (29.4%) were HIV seropositive. Several parasites were isolated from stool samples: G. duodenalis 6 (5.7%), E. histolytica/dispar 19 (18.2%), C. parvum, 8 (7.6%) and C. cayetanensis 23 (22.1%). Eleven out of 30 (36.6%) water bodies had protozoan parasites: G. duodenalis 2 (6.6%), E. histolytica 4 (13.3%), C. parvum 1 (3.3%), C. cayetanensis 3 (10%), E. coli 1 (3.3%).Conclusion The water sources were being used without treatment and were shown to pose a risk for acquiring diarrheagenic protozoan parasites. © GERMS 2014 Source


Midzi N.,National Health Research Institute | Mtapuri-Zinyowera S.,P.A. College | Paul N.H.,University of Zimbabwe | Makware G.,Central Statistical Office | And 7 more authors.
BMC International Health and Human Rights | Year: 2011

Background: The geographical congruency in distribution of helminths and Plasmodium falciparum makes polyparasitism a common phenomenon in Sub Saharan Africa. The devastating effects of helminths-Plasmodium co-infections on primary school health have raised global interest for integrated control. However little is known on the feasibility, timing and efficacy of integrated helminths-Plasmodium control strategies. A study was conducted in Zimbabwe to evaluate the efficacy of repeated combined school based antihelminthic and prompt malaria treatment. Methods. A cohort of primary schoolchildren (5-17 years) received combined Praziquantel, albendazole treatment at baseline, and again during 6, 12 and 33 months follow up surveys and sustained prompt malaria treatment. Sustained prompt malaria treatment was carried out throughout the study period. Children's infection status with helminths, Plasmodium and helminths-Plasmodium co-infections was determined by parasitological examinations at baseline and at each treatment point. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, STH, malaria, helminths-Plasmodium co-infections and helminths infection intensities before and after treatment were analysed. Results: Longitudinal data showed that two rounds of combined Praziquantel and albendazole treatment for schistosomiasis and STHs at 6 monthly intervals and sustained prompt malaria treatment significantly reduced the overall prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, hookworms and P. falciparum infection in primary schoolchildren by 73.5%, 70.8%, 67.3% and 58.8% respectively (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively). More importantly, the prevalence of STH + schistosomes, P. f + schistosomes, and P. f + STHs + schistosomes co-infections were reduced by 68.0%, 84.2%, and 90.7%, respectively. The absence of anti-helminthic treatment between the 12 mth and 33 mth follow-up surveys resulted in the sharp increase in STHs + schistosomes co-infection from 3.3% at 12 months follow up survey to 10.7%, slightly more than the baseline level (10.3%) while other co-infection combinations remained significantly low. The overall prevalence of heavy S. haematobium, S. mansoni and hookworms infection intensities were significantly reduced from: 17.9-22.4% to 2.6-5.1%, 1.6-3.3% to 0.0% and 0.0-0.7% to 0.0% respectively. Conclusion: Biannual Integrated school based antihelminthic and sustained prompt malaria treatment has a potential to reduce the burden of helminths-plasmodium co-infections in primary school children. In areas of stable malaria transmission, active case finding is recommended to track and treat asymptomatic malaria cases as these may sustain transmission in the community. © 2011 Midzi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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