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Ibrahim M.A.,National Metrology Laboratory
Proceedings - 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics: Bridging the Knowledge between Academic, Industry, and Community, ICEEI 2015 | Year: 2015

Embedded systems (ES) become available anywhere and anytime as an established part of our daily routine. Developers of these systems face significant challenges in code and information security. Whereas, software tampering is one of these challenges, code integrity detection is one of the main approaches used to defeat it. Checking code integrity achieves tamper proofing by method of identification of unauthorized alteration to recognize any tampered code is executed or tampered data are used. Our research objective is to propose an applicable framework for tampering detection in ES and this paper introduces the exploratory outcomes so far. © 2015 IEEE.


Taher M.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Susanti D.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Rezali M.F.,National Metrology Laboratory | Zohri F.S.A.,International Islamic University Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To study the chemical constituents of stembark of Garcinia malaccensis (G. malaccensis) together with apoptotic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Methods: Purification and structure elucidation were carried out by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques, respectively. MTT and trypan blue exclusion methods were performed to study the cytotoxic activity. Antibacterial activity was conducted by disc diffusion and microdilution methods, whereas antioxidant activities were done by ferric thiocyanate method and DPPH radical scavenging. Results: The phytochemical study led to the isolation of α,β-mangostin and cycloart-24-en-3β-ol. α-Mangostin exhibited cytotoxic activity against HSC-3 cells with an IC 50 of 0.33 μM. β- and α-mangostin showed activity against K562 cells with IC 50 of 0.40 μM and 0.48 μM, respectively. α-Mangostin was active against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Bacilus anthracis (B. anthracis) with inhibition zone and MIC value of (19 mm; 0.025 mg/mL) and (20 mm; 0.013 mg/mL), respectively. In antioxidant assay, α-mangostin exhibited activity as an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation. Conclusions: G. malaccensis presence α- and β-mangostin and cycloart-24-en-3β-ol. β-Mangostin was found very active against HSC-3 cells and K562. The results suggest that mangostins derivatives have the potential to inhibit the growth of cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. In addition, α-and β-mangostin was found inhibit the growth of Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria and also showed the activity as an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation. © 2012 Hainan Medical College.


Hussain F.,National Metrology Laboratory | Othman M.Y.H.,National University of Malaysia | Sopian K.,National University of Malaysia | Yatim B.,National University of Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Abstract Recently, photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collectors are popular technologies towards harvesting solar energy. A PV/T collector is a combination of photovoltaic and solar thermal components integrated into one system that capable of producing both electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. The concept and design of a PV/T collector are being developed in order to improve the electrical efficiency of a photovoltaic module at high temperature. This paper elaborates literatures of the design developed and the performances of a PV/T air base collector. Early research works in this area until recently are focusing on their design characteristics and results. This report also covers research works on future development of a PV/T collector as a building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPVT) system. It clearly shows that, by appropriate architectural design and configuration, the future of a PV/T collector can be encouraging as an alternative application in the residential, industrial and commercial buildings. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Hussain F.,National Metrology Laboratory | Othman M.Y.H.,National University of Malaysia | Yatim B.,National University of Malaysia | Ruslan H.,National University of Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

This paper present a study of a single pass photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collector combined with honeycomb heat exchanger. A PV/T system is a combination of photovoltaic panel and solar thermal components in one integrated system. In order to enhance the performance of the system, a honeycomb heat exchanger is installed horizontally into the channel located under the PV module. Air is used as the heat remover medium. The system is tested with and without the honeycomb at irradiance of 828 W/m2 and mass flow rate spanning from 0.02 kg/s to 0.13 kg/s. It is observed that the aluminum honeycomb is capable of enhancing the thermal efficiency of the system efficiently. At mass flow rate of 0.11 kg/s, the thermal efficiency of the system without honeycomb is 27% and with honeycomb is 87 %. Throughout the range of the mass flow rate, the electrical efficiency of the PV module improved by 0.1 %. The improved design is suitable to be further investigated as solar drying system and space heating. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.


Abdullah M.N.,National University of Malaysia | Abdullah M.N.,National Metrology Laboratory | Shaari S.,National Metrology Laboratory | Ehsan A.A.,National Metrology Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Physics Procedia | Year: 2011

Four wave mixing (FWM) is one of the non linear optical phenomena in optical fibre, in the presence of high optical field. Even though FWM has negative impact towards dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system, nevertheless, this phenomenon is also one of the alternative resources in deriving new signals to be adapted in the current and future telecommunication network. The main objective of this research is to study the generation FWM through photonic crystal fibre (PCF) at telecommunication operating wavelength. It covers the structure and manipulation of instrument's configuration to generate FWM through PCF, by applying Fibre Ring Laser (FRL) approach. However, the PCF has zero dispersion at 1040 nm, while the range of signals is around 1550 nm. A system which combines FRL locked with few units of fibre Bragg grating (FBG) and a PCF are used to facilitate the generation of the harmonic signals. Suitable FBGs specifications were identified to match with the output spectrum. Experiments were performed to further analyse the dynamics in generating FWM, including the generated wavelength formations. The results obtained, shows that the agreement between theory and experiments results on positions of multi wavelengths signal due to FWM is 0.3 % on average with expanded uncertainty of 4.9 % at k=2. © 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Yandayan T.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center | Dahlan A.M.,National Metrology Laboratory
3rd International Metrology Conference 2010, CAFMET 2010 | Year: 2010

This paper describes the "cooperation activities in metrology" between Europe and South East Asia (SEA) through SEA-EU-NET project under the Framework Programme Seven (Fp7) of the European Commission. One of the key tasks in the project is to map the metrology infrastructure of the South East Asian countries to identify key areas where the EC could contribute to foster further collaboration between SEA and EU. The results of the mapping exercise viewed from various metrology perspectives will be presented after pointing out the importance of quality infrastructure and international recognition. The worldwide organizations in scientific metrology are shortly presented and the importance of "cooperation in metrology research" is expressed. The plans for promotion of cooperation activities between two regions and the first results are described.


Ahmad W.A.,University of Technology Malaysia | Yusof N.Z.,University of Technology Malaysia | Nordin N.,University of Technology Malaysia | Zakaria Z.A.,University of Technology Malaysia | Rezali M.F.,National Metrology Laboratory
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The present work highlighted the production of violacein by the locally isolated Chromobacterium violaceum (GenBank accession no. HM132057) in various agricultural waste materials (sugarcane bagasse, solid pineapple waste, molasses, brown sugar), as an alternative to the conventional rich medium. The highest yield for pigment production (0.82 g L-1) was obtained using free cells when grown in 3 g of sugarcane bagasse supplemented with 10% (v/v) of L-tryptophan. A much lower yield (0.15 g L-1) was obtained when the cells were grown either in rich medium (nutrient broth) or immobilized onto sugarcane bagasse. Violacein showed similar chemical properties as other natural pigments based on the UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry analysis. The pigment is highly soluble in acetone and methanol, insoluble in water or non-polar organic solvents, and showed good stability between pH 5-9, 25-100 °C, in the presence of light metal ions and oxidant such as H2O2. However, violacein would be slowly degraded upon exposure to light. This is the first report on the use of cheap and easily available agricultural wastes as growth medium for violacein-producing C. violaceum. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Park P.G.,Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science | Kim W.-S.,Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science | Kim Y.G.,Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science | Amran S.M.,National Metrology Laboratory
Metrologia | Year: 2014

The mean value of the coil constant and the uncertainty of the mean reported by both laboratories were used in the calculation of the DOE. The degree of equivalence (DOE) between NML-SIRIM and KRISS is summarized as follows, D = KNML-SIRIM - KKRISS = 1.1 μT/A, U(D) = 11.9 μT/A (approximately 95%, k = 2).


Kadir H.A.,National Metrology Laboratory | Kadir H.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Abas F.,University Putra Malaysia | Zakaria O.,National Metrology Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Analytical Methods | Year: 2015

A fast, simple and easily automated method was developed for the simultaneous determination of pesticide residues in tea using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with in-cell cleanup and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). This method integrates extraction and cleanup processes into a single step, by adding a clean-up sorbent along with the sample into the extraction cell. The efficiency of this method was characterized in terms of its recovery (with values ranging from 90 to 98%), repeatability along with intermediate precision (showing relative standard deviations less than 15%), and sensitivity (providing detection limits between 0.001 and 0.007 μg g-1). The concentration range of the pesticide residues found in the sample is from 0.008 to 0.161 μg g-1. The relative expanded uncertainty achieved for this method ranged from 24% to 34%. The results indicate that the proposed method is easy and reliable for the determination of pesticide residues in tea, and it is suitable for use in routine analysis. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Sirat H.M.,University of Technology Malaysia | Rezali M.F.,University of Technology Malaysia | Rezali M.F.,National Metrology Laboratory | Ujang Z.,Environment and Bioprocess Technology Center
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Phytochemical and bioactivity studies of the leaves and stem barks of Tibouchina semidecandra L. have been carried out. The ethyl acetate extract of the leaves yielded four flavonoid compounds, identified as quercetin, quercetin 3-O-α-L-(2'-O-acetyl) arabinofuranoside, avicularin, and quercitrin, while the stem barks gave one ellagitannin, identified as 3,3'-O-dimethyl ellagic acid 4-O-α-Lrhamnopyranoside. Evaluation of the antioxidative activity on the crude extracts and pure compounds by electron spin resonance (ESR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometric assays showed that the pure isolated polyphenols and the EtOAc extract possessed strong antioxidative capabilities. Quercetin was found to be the most active radical scavenger in DPPHUV and ESR methods with SC50 values of 0.7 μM ± 1.4 and 0.7 μM ± 0.6 μM, respectively, in the antioxidant assay. A combination of quercetin and quercitrin was tested for synergistic antioxidative capacity;, however, there was no significant improvement observed. Quercetin also exhibited strong antityrosinase activity with a percent inhibition of 95.0% equivalent to the positive control, kojic acid, in the tyrosinase inhibition assay. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

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