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Shidiki A.,National Medical College and Teaching Hospital | Pokhrel N.,National College
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2013

This study determine the comparison of growth pattern and time required for isolation and drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on blood agar (BA) and Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media.Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from 250 sputum. The sputum samples were proceed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Ziehl-Neelsen method, culture on LJ and BA media followed by biochemical tests. Drug susceptibility test was performed on LJ and BA against 10 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates.Among 55·2% smear positive, growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was 71·7% on LJ and 82·6% on 10% blood agar media.Similarly, smear negative specimens, growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was 12·5% on LJ and 10·7% on blood agar. Statistically, there was no significant difference for isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on both LJ and BA media (P=1·39). Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (3+) was 34% on BA than 30·8% on LJ media. Time taken for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on blood agar (2-3 weeks) than for LJ (4-5 weeks).Drug susceptible test, 50% (5/10) were resistance to one or more drugs containing LJ and BA media. Blood agar slants may be a good substitute of LJ medium for rapid detection and drug susceptible test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Source


Deo S.P.,National Medical College and Teaching Hospital
Journal of the Nepal Medical Association | Year: 2011

Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of a single pre-operative sub-mucosal injection of dexamethasone after third molar surgery to see the effects on post-operative discomfort. Methods: This study was a prospective, double-blind, randomized, clinical trial. The subjects were forty patients who underwent surgical removal of the mandibular impacted third molar under local anesthesia and after being randomly assigned to receive either an 8 mg dexamethasone as submucosal injection or a normal saline injection into the lower buccal vestibule adjacent to the third molar. The maximum interincisal distance and facial contours were measured at the baseline and post-surgically on Day 2 and 7. Post-operative pain was evaluated subjectively using a visual analog scale and objectively by counting the number of analgesic tablets used. All subjects were operated upon by the same investigator to minimize the difference from inter-operator variability. Results: There was a significant difference in the measurements of the degree of swelling and trismus between the two groups on the 2 nd post-operative day. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups on the 7 th post-operative day. The test group also used fewer analgesics post-operatively. Conclusions: Submucosal injection of dexamethasone after third molar surgery is effective in reducing postoperative swelling and trismus. It also delays the onset of post-operative pain. Source


Adak M.,National Medical College and Teaching Hospital | Gabar M.A.,7th April University
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2011

Tea is the most popular drink after water, consumed everyday by millions of people around the world. Tea is generally consumed in the forms of green, oolong, and black tea, all of which originate from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. Tea consumption began about 5000 years ago in southwest China, where it was used medicinally to treat various illnesses. Health benefits are believed to be largely due to the presence of high levels of flavonoids. Recent human studies suggest that green tea may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer, as well as to the promotion of oral health. In addition, green tea possesses significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, thermogenic properties. Increasing interest in its health benefits has led to the inclusion of green tea in the group of beverages with functional properties. The present review focuses on the beneficial effects of tea consumption on human health. © 2010 RJPBCS. Source


Upadhyay A.K.,National Medical College and Teaching Hospital | Parajuli P.,Mission Research
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2013

Introduction: Extended spectrum β- lactamases (ESBL) producing multidrug resistant (MDR) Klebsiella species resulting in limitation of therapeutic option. The present study has been undertaken to detect the presence of extended spectrum β- lactamases producing multidrug resistant Klebsiella species in various clinical specimens. Methodology: A total of 300 specimens including Urine, Pus and Blood were processed according to the standard methodology. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method following Clinical and Laboratory standard institute (CLSI) guidelines. Combination disk method was done for the detection of extended spectrum β- lactamases producing isolates. Result: A total of 300 samples (200 urine, 45 bloods and 55 pus) were included in the study. Out of total samples proceed 110(36.7%) samples showed significant growth of Gram-negative bacteria. Amongst these significant growth of 65(59.1%) Klebsiella species, 45(69.2%) Klebsiella pneumonia and 20(30.8%) Klebsiella oxytoca were isolated. Amongst these total isolated Klebsiella species 30(66.7%) multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumonia and 9(45.0%) multidrug resistant Klebsiella oxytoca were isolated. A total of 21(70.0%) Klebsiella pneumonia isolates and 4(44.4%) Klebsiella oxytoca isolates were found to be extended spectrum β- lactamases producers. Conclusion: This study shows that Klebsiella pneumonia and Klebsiella oxytoca recovered from clinical specimens in this region produces extended spectrum β- lactamases in much higher number. Such isolates are also resistant to Floroquinolones, Aminoglycosides, Tetracycline and Cotrimoxazole. Further studies to investigate the factors which determine the emergence and persistence of multidrug resistant extended spectrum β- lactamases producing Klebsiella species in this region and their impact on clinical and economic outcomes at such institutions would be useful. Source


Das N.,University of Dhaka | Goshwami D.,National Medical College and Teaching Hospital | Hasan M.S.,University of Dhaka | Raihan S.Z.,University of Dhaka | Subedi N.K.,University of Dhaka
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2015

Objective: To evaluate anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Terminalia citrina (. T. citrina) plant belonging to the Combretaceae family. Methods: The tests of phytochemical screening included alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, quinines, anthocyanins, glycosides, carbohydrates and reducing sugars. The anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of T. citrina was evaluated against Pheretima posthuma at three different concentrations (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL) of extracts which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of worms. Results: The phytochemical screening of T. citrina leaves revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates and reducing sugars. The present study indicated that methanolic extract significantly exhibited paralysis and also caused death of worms especially at highest concentration of 100 mg/mL, as compared to standard reference Albendazole (10 mg/mL). Conclusions: This study suggests that the leaves of T. citrina possess potent anthelmintic activity. © 2015 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press. Source

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