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Vesoulis Z.A.,University of Washington | Inder T.E.,University of Washington | Woodward L.J.,University of Washington | Buse B.,Macalester College | And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Research

Background: Previous studies of very preterm (VPT) infants have shown a wide range of seizure prevalence and association with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), white matter injury (WMI), and death. However, the impact of seizures on neurodevelopment is not well known. We hypothesized that seizures in the first 3 d after VPT birth would be associated with increased radiographic brain injury and later neurodevelopmental risk. Methods: For 72 h after birth, 95 VPT infants underwent amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram monitoring. High and low seizure burdens were related to radiographic brain injury, death in the neonatal period, and children's Bayley III (Bayley Scales of Infant Development) performance at 2 y corrected age in a subgroup of 59 infants. Results: The overall incidence of seizures in this sample was 48%. High seizure burden was associated with increased risk of IVH on day 1; IVH, WMI, and death on day 2; and high-grade IVH on day 3. The presence of seizures on any day was associated with decreased language performance at age 2, even after controlling for family social risk. Conclusion: Seizures during the first 3 d after birth are common and are associated with an increased risk of IVH, WMI, and death. They were also associated with poorer early language development. Copyright © 2014 International Pediatric Research Foundation, Inc. Source

Healy D.A.,University of Limerick | Walsh C.A.,National Maternity Hospital Dublin | Walsh S.R.,University of Limerick
Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is uncertainty regarding the optimal method of achieving bladder drainage at the time of gynaecologic surgery. As both transurethral catheterization (TUC) and suprapubic catheterization (SPC) have the potential to cause harm, it is important that gynaecologists have accurate evidence upon which to base their bladder drainage policy. RECENT FINDINGS: Several clinical trials and meta-analyses have compared TUC with SPC in abdominal and pelvic surgery. Most recently, a large meta-analysis pooled the results of 12 gynaecological trials and found that the use of SPC leads to fewer urinary tract infections (UTIs) without any major complications and without increasing the duration of catheterization or length of hospital stay. SUMMARY: Robust evidence shows that SPC use leads to fewer UTIs when compared with TUC use in gynaecologic surgery. However, SPC use is associated with an increased incidence of minor complications. Future research should aim to assess the acceptability of both SPC and TUC to patients who are undergoing gynaecologic surgery. The quality of similar data in relation to rectal pelvic surgery is poor in comparison to the data on gynaecologic surgery. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Dempsey E.M.,University College Cork | Barrington K.J.,University of Montreal | Marlow N.,University College London | O'Donnell C.P.,National Maternity Hospital Dublin | And 7 more authors.

Background: Extremely preterm babies (delivered at <28 completed weeks of gestation) are frequently diagnosed with hypotension and treated with inotropic and pressor drugs in the immediate postnatal period. Dopamine is the most commonly used first-line drug. Babies who are treated for hypotension more frequently sustain brain injury, have long-term disability or die compared to those who are not. Despite the widespread use of drugs to treat hypotension in such infants, evidence for efficacy is lacking, and the effect of these agents on long-term outcomes is unknown. Hypothesis: In extremely preterm babies, restricting the use of dopamine when mean blood pressure (BP) values fall below a nominal threshold and using clinical criteria to determine escalation of support ('restricted' approach) will result in improved neonatal and longer-term developmental outcomes. Research Plan: In an international multi-centre randomised trial, 830 infants born at <28 weeks of gestation, and within 72 h of birth, will be allocated to 1 of 2 alternative treatment options (dopamine vs. restricted approach) to determine the better strategy for the management of BP, using a conventional threshold to commence treatment. The first co-primary outcome of survival without brain injury will be determined at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age and the second co-primary outcome (survival without neurodevelopmental disability) will be assessed at 2 years of age, corrected for prematurity. Discussion: It is essential that appropriately designed trials be performed to define the most appropriate management strategies for managing low BP in extremely preterm babies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

O'Connor C.,University College Dublin | McAuliffe F.M.,University College Dublin | Breathnach F.M.,Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland | Geary M.,Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine

Objective: To establish if first or second trimester biometry is a useful adjunct in the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome in twin pregnancy. Methods: A consecutive cohort of 1028 twin pregnancies was enrolled for the Evaluation of Sonographic Predictors of Restricted growth in Twins (ESPRiT) study, a prospective study conducted at eight academic centers. Outcome data was recorded for 1001 twin pairs that completed the study. Ultrasound biometry was available for 960 pregnancies. Biometric data obtained between 11 and 22 weeks were evaluated as predictors of a composite of adverse perinatal outcome (mortality, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, respiratory distress, or sepsis), preterm delivery (PTD) and birthweight discordance greater than 18% (18% BW). Outcomes were adjusted for chorionicity and gestational age using Cox Proportional Hazards regression. Results: Differences in crown-rump length (CRL) were not predictive of adverse perinatal outcome. Between 14 and 22 weeks, a difference in abdominal circumference (AC) of more than 10% was the most useful predictor of adverse outcome, PTD and 18% or more BW discordance in all twins. Overall the strongest correlation was observed for intertwin differences in biometry between 18 and 22 weeks. Conclusion: Biometry in the early second trimester can successfully identify twin pregnancies at increased risk. Intertwin AC difference of greater than 10% between 14 and 22 weeks gestation was the best individual predictor of perinatal risk in all twins. Sonographic biometry in the early second trimester should therefore be utilized to establish perinatal risk, thus allowing prenatal care to be improved. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd. Source

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