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Thwing J.I.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Perry R.T.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Townes D.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Diouf M.B.,National Malaria Control Programme | And 2 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Background: In 2009, the first national long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) distribution campaign in Senegal resulted in the distribution of 2.2 million LLINs in two phases to children aged 6-59 months. Door-to-door teams visited all households to administer vitamin A and mebendazole, and to give a coupon to redeem later for an LLIN. Methods. A nationwide community-based two-stage cluster survey was conducted, with clusters selected within regions by probability proportional to size sampling, followed by GPS-assisted mapping, simple random selection of households in each cluster, and administration of a questionnaire using personal digital assistants (PDAs). The questionnaire followed the Malaria Indicator Survey format, with rosters of household members and bed nets, and questions on campaign participation. Results: There were 3,280 households in 112 clusters representing 33,993 people. Most (92.1%) guardians of eligible children had heard about the campaign, the primary sources being health workers (33.7%), neighbours (26.2%), and radio (22.0%). Of eligible children, 82.4% received mebendazole, 83.8% received vitamin A, and 75.4% received LLINs. Almost all (91.4%) LLINs received during the campaign remained in the household; of those not remaining, 74.4% had been given away and none were reported sold. At least one insecticide-treated net (ITN) was present in 82.3% of all households, 89.2% of households with a child < 5 years and 57.5% of households without a child < 5 years. Just over half (52.4%) of ITNs had been received during the campaign. Considering possible indicators of universal coverage, 39.8% of households owned at least one ITN per two people, 21.6% owned at least one ITN per sleeping space and 34.7% of the general population slept under an ITN the night before the survey. In addition, 45.6% of children < 5 years, and 49.2% of pregnant women had slept under an ITN. Conclusions: The nationwide integrated LLIN distribution campaign allowed household ITN ownership of one or more ITNs to surpass the RBM target of 80% set for 2010, though additional distribution strategies are needed to reach populations missed by the targeted campaign and to reach the universal coverage targets of one ITN per sleeping space and 80% of the population using an ITN. © 2011 Thwing et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | National Malaria Control Programme and Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2017

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) are a highly effective means for preventing malaria infection and reducing associated morbidity and mortality. Mass free distribution campaigns have been shown to rapidly increase LLIN ownership and use. Around 3.5 million LLINs were distributed free of charge in the Kasa Occidental Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in September-October 2014, using two different approaches, a fixed delivery strategy and a door-to-door strategy including hang-up activities.Repeated community-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted 2months before and six months after the mass distribution. Descriptive statistics were used to measure changes in key malaria household indicators. LLIN ownership and use were compared between delivery strategies. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with LLIN use before and after the mass distribution. A comparative financial cost analysis between the fixed delivery and door-to-door distribution strategies was carried out from the providers perspective.Household ownership of at least one LLIN increased from 39.4% pre-campaign to 91.4% post-campaign and LLIN universal coverage, measured as the proportion of households with at least one LLIN for every two people increased from 4.1 to 41.1%. Population access to LLIN within the household increased from 22.2 to 80.7%, while overall LLIN use increased from 18.0 to 68.3%. Higher LLIN ownership was achieved with the fixed delivery strategy compared with the door-to-door (92.5% [95% CI 90.2-94.4%] versus 85.2% [95% CI 78.5-90.0%]), while distribution strategy did not have a significant impact on LLIN use (69.6% [95% CI 63.1-75.5%] versus 65.7% [95% CI 52.7-76.7%]). Malaria prevalence among children aged 6-59months was 44.8% post-campaign. Living in a household with sufficient numbers of LLIN to cover all members was the strongest determinant of LLIN use. The total financial cost per LLIN distributed was 6.58 USD for the fixed distribution strategy and 6.61 USD for the door-to-door strategy.The mass distribution campaign was effective for rapidly increasing LLIN ownership and use. These gains need to be sustained for long-term reduction in malaria burden. The fixed delivery strategy achieved a higher LLIN coverage at lower delivery cost compared with the door-to-door strategy and seems to be a better distribution strategy in the context of the present study setting.

Kunene S.,National Malaria Control Programme | Phillips A.A.,University of California at San Francisco | Gosling R.D.,University of California at San Francisco | Kandula D.,University of California at San Francisco | Novotny J.M.,University of California at San Francisco
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Swaziland is working to be the first country in mainland sub-Saharan Africa to eliminate malaria. The highest level of Swaziland's government recently approved a national elimination policy, which endorses Swaziland's robust national elimination strategic plan. This commentary outlines Swaziland's progress towards elimination as well as the challenges that remain, primarily around securing long-term financial resources and managing imported cases from neighbouring countries. © 2011Kunene et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Cohen J.M.,Clinton Health Access Initiative | Dlamini S.,National Malaria Control Programme | Novotny J.M.,Clinton Health Access Initiative | Novotny J.M.,University of California at San Francisco | And 5 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013

Background: As successful malaria control programmes move towards elimination, they must identify residual transmission foci, target vector control to high-risk areas, focus on both asymptomatic and symptomatic infections, and manage importation risk. High spatial and temporal resolution maps of malaria risk can support all of these activities, but commonly available malaria maps are based on parasite rate, a poor metric for measuring malaria at extremely low prevalence. New approaches are required to provide case-based risk maps to countries seeking to identify remaining hotspots of transmission while managing the risk of transmission from imported cases. Methods. Household locations and travel histories of confirmed malaria patients during 2011 were recorded through routine surveillance by the Swaziland National Malaria Control Programme for the higher transmission months of January to April and the lower transmission months of May to December. Household locations for patients with no travel history to endemic areas were compared against a random set of background points sampled proportionate to population density with respect to a set of variables related to environment, population density, vector control, and distance to the locations of identified imported cases. Comparisons were made separately for the high and low transmission seasons. The Random Forests regression tree classification approach was used to generate maps predicting the probability of a locally acquired case at 100 m resolution across Swaziland for each season. Results: Results indicated that case households during the high transmission season tended to be located in areas of lower elevation, closer to bodies of water, in more sparsely populated areas, with lower rainfall and warmer temperatures, and closer to imported cases than random background points (all p < 0.001). Similar differences were evident during the low transmission season. Maps from the fit models suggested better predictive ability during the high season. Both models proved useful at predicting the locations of local cases identified in 2012. Conclusions: The high-resolution mapping approaches described here can help elimination programmes understand the epidemiology of a disappearing disease. Generating case-based risk maps at high spatial and temporal resolution will allow control programmes to direct interventions proactively according to evidence-based measures of risk and ensure that the impact of limited resources is maximized to achieve and maintain malaria elimination. © 2013 Cohen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Pinder M.,Medical Research Council Unit | Pinder M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Pinder M.,Durham University | Jawara M.,Medical Research Council Unit | And 14 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Background: Although many malaria control programmes in sub-Saharan Africa use indoor residual spraying with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), the two studies assessing the benefit of the combination of these two interventions gave conflicting results. We aimed to assess whether the addition of indoor residual spraying to LLINs provided a significantly different level of protection against clinical malaria in children or against house entry by vector mosquitoes. Methods: In this two-arm cluster, randomised, controlled efficacy trial we randomly allocated clusters of Gambian villages using a computerised algorithm to LLINs alone (n=35) or indoor residual spraying with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane plus LLINs (n=35). In each cluster, 65-213 children, aged 6 months to 14 years, were surveyed at the start of the 2010 transmission season and followed in 2010 and 2011 by passive case detection for clinical malaria. Exposure to parasite transmission was assessed by collection of vector mosquitoes with both light and exit traps indoors. Primary endpoints were the incidence of clinical malaria assessed by passive case detection and number of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes collected per light trap per night. Intervention teams had no role in data collection and the data collection teams were not informed of the spray status of villages. The trial is registered at the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN01738840. Findings LLIN coverage in 2011 was 3510 (93%) of 3777 children in the indoor residual spraying plus LLIN group and 3622 (95·5%) of 3791 in the LLIN group. In 2010, 7845 children were enrolled, 7829 completed passive case detection, and 7697 (98%) had complete clinical and covariate data. In 2011, 7009 children remained in the study, 648 more were enrolled, 7657 completed passive case detection, and 7545 (98·5%) had complete data. Indoor residual spraying coverage per cluster was more than 80% for both years in the indoor residual spraying plus LLIN group. Incidence of clinical malaria was 0·047 per child-month at risk in the LLIN group and 0·044 per child-month at risk in the indoor residual spraying plus LLIN group in 2010, and 0·032 per child-month at risk in the LLIN group and 0·034 per child-month at risk in the indoor residual spraying plus LLIN group in 2011. The incident rate ratio was 1·08 (95% CI 0·80-1·46) controlling for confounders and cluster by mixed-effect negative binomial regression on all malaria attacks for both years. No significant difference was recorded in the density of vector mosquitoes caught in light traps in houses over the two transmission seasons; the mean number of A gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes per trap per night was 6·7 (4·0-10·1) in the LLIN group and 4·5 (2·4-7·4) in the indoor residual spraying plus LLIN group (p=0·281 in the random-effects linear regression model). Interpretation We identified no significant difference in clinical malaria or vector density between study groups. In this area with high LLIN coverage, moderate seasonal transmission, and susceptible vectors, indoor residual spraying did not provide additional benefit.

Koita K.,University of California at San Francisco | Novotny J.,University of California at San Francisco | Novotny J.,Clinton Health Access Initiative | Kunene S.,National Malaria Control Programme | And 5 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Swaziland has made great progress towards its goal of malaria elimination by 2015. However, malaria importation from neighbouring high-endemic Mozambique through Swaziland's eastern border remains a major factor that could prevent elimination from being achieved. In order to reach elimination, Swaziland must rapidly identify and treat imported malaria cases before onward transmission occurs. Methods. A nationwide formative assessment was conducted over eight weeks to determine if the imported cases of malaria identified by the Swaziland National Malaria Control Programme could be linked to broader social networks and to explore methods to access these networks. Results: Using a structured format, interviews were carried out with malaria surveillance agents (6), health providers (10), previously identified imported malaria cases (19) and people belonging to the networks identified through these interviews (25). Most imported malaria cases were Mozambicans (63%, 12/19) making a living in Swaziland and sustaining their families in Mozambique. The majority of imported cases (73%, 14/19) were labourers and self-employed contractors who travelled frequently to Mozambique to visit their families and conduct business. Social networks of imported cases with similar travel patterns were identified through these interviews. Nearly all imported cases (89%, 17/19) were willing to share contact information to enable network members to be interviewed. Interviews of network members and key informants revealed common congregation points, such as the urban market places in Manzini and Malkerns, as well as certain bus stations, where people with similar travel patterns and malaria risk behaviours could be located and tested for malaria. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that imported cases of malaria belonged to networks of people with similar travel patterns. This study may provide novel methods for screening high-risk groups of travellers using both snowball sampling and time-location sampling of networks to identify and treat additional malaria cases. Implementation of a proactive screening programme of importation networks may help Swaziland halt transmission and achieve malaria elimination by 2015. © 2013 Koita et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Raman J.,Malaria Research Programme | Mauff K.,University of Cape Town | Muianga P.,Gaza Province Directorate of Health | Mussa A.,National Malaria Control Programme | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Antimalarial drug resistance is a major obstacle to malaria control and eventual elimination. The routine surveillance for molecular marker of resistance is an efficient way to assess drug efficacy, which remains feasible in areas where malaria control interventions have succeeded in substantially reducing malaria transmission. Community based asexual parasite prevalence surveys were conducted annually in sentinel sites in Gaza Province, Mozambique from 2006 until 2010, before, during and after antimalarial policy changes to artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in 2006 and to artemether-lumefantrine in 2008. Genetic analysis of dhfr, dhps, crt, and mdr1 resistant genes was conducted on 3 331 (14.4%) Plasmodium falciparum PCR positive samples collected over the study period from 23 229 children aged 2 to 15 years. The quintuple dhfr/dhps mutation associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance increased from 56.2% at baseline to 75.8% by 2010. At baseline the crt76T and mdr186Y mutants were approaching fixation, 96.1% and 74.7%, respectively. Following the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy, prevalence of both these chloroquine-resistance markers began declining, reaching 32.4% and 30.9%, respectively, by 2010. All samples analysed over the 5-year period possessed a single copy of the mdr1 gene. The high and increasing prevalence of the quintuple mutation supports the change in drug policy from artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to artemether-lumefantrine in Mozambique. As chloroquine related drug pressure decreased in the region, so did the molecular markers associated with chloroquine resistance (crt76T and mdr186Y). However, this reversion to the wild-type mdr186N predisposes parasites towards developing lumefantrine resistance. Close monitoring of artemether-lumefantrine efficacy is therefore essential, particularly given the high drug pressure within the region where most countries now use artemether-lumefantrine as first line treatment. © 2011 Raman et al.

Ansah E.K.,Ghana Health Service | Narh-Bana S.,Dodowa Health Research Center | Affran-Bonful H.,Dangme West District Health Directorate | Bart-Plange C.,National Malaria Control Programme | And 3 more authors.
BMJ (Online) | Year: 2015

Objective To examine the impact of providing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria on fever management in private drug retail shops where most poor rural people with fever present, with the aim of reducing current massive overdiagnosis and overtreatment of malaria. Design Cluster randomized trial of 24 clusters of shops. Setting Dangme West, a poor rural district of Ghana. Participants Shops and their clients, both adults and children. Interventions Providing rapid diagnostic tests with realistic training. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of clients testing negative for malaria by a double-read research blood slide who received an artemisinin combination therapy or other antimalarial. Secondary outcomes were use of antibiotics and antipyretics, and safety. Results Of 4603 clients, 3424 (74.4%) tested negative by double-read research slides. The proportion of slide-negative clients who received any antimalarial was 590/1854 (32%) in the intervention arm and 1378/1570 (88%) in the control arm (adjusted risk ratio 0.41 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.58), P<0.0001). Treatment was in high agreement with rapid diagnostic test result. Of those who were slide-positive, 690/787 (87.8%) in the intervention arm and 347/392 (88.5%) in the control arm received an artemisinin combination therapy (adjusted risk ratio 0.96 (0.84 to 1.09)). There was no evidence of antibiotics being substituted for antimalarials. Overall, 1954/2641 (74%) clients in the intervention arm and 539/1962 (27%) in the control arm received appropriate treatment (adjusted risk ratio 2.39 (1.69 to 3.39), P<0.0001). No safety concerns were identified. Conclusions Most patients with fever in Africa present to the private sector. In this trial, providing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in the private drug retail sector significantly reduced dispensing of antimalarials to patients without malaria, did not reduce prescribing of antimalarials to true malaria cases, and appeared safe. Rapid diagnostic tests should be considered for the informal private drug retail sector.

PubMed | Tulane University, University of Ghana, Net Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and National Malaria Control Programme
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2017

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are ineffective malaria transmission prevention tools if they are unused. Discomfort due to heat is the most commonly reported reason for not using nets, but this problem is largely unaddressed. With increasing rural electrification and the dropping price of solar power, fans could improve comfort inside nets and be affordable to populations in malaria endemic areas. Here, results are presented from a pilot randomized controlled cross-over study testing the effect of fans on LLIN use.Eighty-three households from two rural communities in Greater Accra, Ghana, randomized into three groups, participated in a 10-month cross-over trial. After a screening survey to identify eligible households, all households received new LLINs. Bk net fan systems (one fan per member) were given to households in Group 1 and water filters were given to households in Group 2. At mid-point, Group 1 and 2 crossed over interventions. Households in Group 1 and 2 participated in fortnightly surveys on households practices related to nets, fans and water filters, while households in Group 3 were surveyed only at screening, mid-point and study end. Entomological and weather data were collected throughout the study. Analysis took both per protocol (PP) and intention to treat (ITT) approaches. The mid- and end-point survey data from Group 1 and 2 were analysed using Firth logistic regressions. Fortnightly survey data from all groups were analysed using logistic regressions with random effects.Provision of fans to households appeared to increase net use in this study. Although the increase in net use explained by fans was not significant in the primary analyses (ITT odds ratio 3.24, p>0.01; PP odds ratio=1.17, p>0.01), it was significant in secondary PP analysis (odds ratio=1.95, p<0.01). Net use was high at screening and even higher after provision of new LLINs and with follow up. Fan use was 90-100% depending on the fortnightly visit.This pilot study could not provide definitive evidence that fans increase net use. A larger study with additional statistical power is needed to assess this association across communities with diverse environmental and socio-demographic characteristics.

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