National Malaria Control Programme

Banjul, Gambia

National Malaria Control Programme

Banjul, Gambia
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Manguin S.,IRD Montpellier | Foumane V.,Organisation de Coordination pour la lutte contre les Endemies en Afrique Centrale OCEAC | Besnard P.,SUBSEA7 | Fortes F.,National Malaria Control Programme | Carnevale P.,Portiragnes
Acta Tropica | Year: 2017

Microscopic blood smear examinations done in health centers of Angola demonstrated a large overdiagnosis of malaria cases with an average rate of errors as high as 85%. Overall 83% of patients who received Coartem® had an inappropriate treatment. Overestimated malaria diagnosis was noticed even when specific symptoms were part of the clinical observation, antimalarial treatments being subsequently given. Then, malaria overdiagnosis has three main consequences, (i) the lack of data reliability is of great concern, impeding epidemiological records and evaluation of the actual influence of operations as scheduled by the National Malaria Control Programme; (ii) the large misuse of antimalarial drug can increase the selective pressure for resistant strain and can make a false consideration of drug resistant P. falciparum crisis; and (iii) the need of strengthening national health centers in term of human, with training in microscopy, and equipment resources to improve malaria diagnosis with a large scale use of rapid diagnostic tests associated with thick blood smears, backed up by a “quality control” developed by the national health authorities. Monitoring of malaria cases was done in three Angolan health centers of Alto Liro (Lobito town) and neighbor villages of Cambambi and Asseque (Benguéla Province) to evaluate the real burden of malaria. Carriers of Plasmodium among patients of newly-borne to 14 years old, with or without fever, were analyzed and compared to presumptive malaria cases diagnosed in these health centers. Presumptive malaria cases were diagnosed six times more than the positive thick blood smears done on the same children. In Alto Liro health center, the percentage of diagnosis error reached 98%, while in Cambambi and Asseque it was of 79% and 78% respectively. The percentage of confirmed malaria cases was significantly higher during the dry (20.2%) than the rainy (13.2%) season. These observations in three peripheral health centers confirmed what has already been noticed in other malaria endemic regions, and highlight the need for an accurate evaluation of the Malaria control programme implemented in Angola. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Michael D.,PSI Tanzania | Mkunde S.P.,National Malaria Control Programme
Malaria Journal | Year: 2017

Background: Understanding the key characteristics of malaria testing and treatment is essential to the control of a disease that continues to pose a major risk of morbidity and mortality in mainland Tanzania, with evidence of a resurgence of the disease in recent years. The introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment for malaria, alongside policies to promote rational case management following testing, highlights the need for evidence of anti-malarial and testing markets in the country. The results of the most recent mainland Tanzania ACTwatch outlet survey are presented here, including data on the availability, market share and price of anti-malarials and malaria diagnosis in 2016. Methods: A nationally-representative malaria outlet survey was conducted between 18th May and 2nd July, 2016. A census of public and private outlets with potential to distribute malaria testing and/or treatment was conducted among a representative sample of administrative units. An audit was completed for all anti-malarials, malaria rapid (RDT) diagnostic tests and microscopy. Results: A total of 5867 outlets were included in the nationally representative survey, across both public and private sectors. In the public sector, availability of malaria testing was 92.3% and quality-assured (QA) ACT was 89.1% among all screened outlets. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) was stocked by 51.8% of the public sector and injectable artesunate was found in 71.4% of all screened public health facilities. Among anti-malarial private-sector stockists, availability of testing was 15.7, and 65.1% had QA ACT available. The public sector accounted for 83.4% of the total market share for malaria diagnostics. The private sector accounted for 63.9% of the total anti-malarial market, and anti-malarials were most commonly distributed through accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDOs) (39.0%), duka la dawa baridi (DLDBs) (13.3%) and pharmacies (6.7%). QA ACT comprised 33.1% of the national market share (12.2% public sector and 20.9% private sector). SP accounted for 53.3% of the total market for anti-malarials across both private and public sectors (31.3 and 22.0% of the total market, respectively). The median price per adult equivalent treatment dose (AETD) of QA ACT in the private sector was ce:para.40, almost 1.5 times more expensive than the median price per AETD of SP (ce:para.05). In the private sector, 79.3% of providers perceived ACT to be the most effective treatment for uncomplicated malaria for adults and 88.4% perceived this for children. Conclusions: While public sector preparedness for appropriate malaria testing and case management is showing encouraging signs, QA ACT availability and market share in the private sector continues to be sub-optimal for most outlet types. Furthermore, it is concerning that SP continues to predominate in the anti-malarial market. The reasons for this remain unclear, but are likely to be in part related to price, availability and provider knowledge or preferences. Continued efforts to implement government policy around malaria diagnosis and case management should be encouraged. © 2017 The Author(s).


Thwing J.I.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Perry R.T.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Townes D.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Diouf M.B.,National Malaria Control Programme | And 2 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Background: In 2009, the first national long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) distribution campaign in Senegal resulted in the distribution of 2.2 million LLINs in two phases to children aged 6-59 months. Door-to-door teams visited all households to administer vitamin A and mebendazole, and to give a coupon to redeem later for an LLIN. Methods. A nationwide community-based two-stage cluster survey was conducted, with clusters selected within regions by probability proportional to size sampling, followed by GPS-assisted mapping, simple random selection of households in each cluster, and administration of a questionnaire using personal digital assistants (PDAs). The questionnaire followed the Malaria Indicator Survey format, with rosters of household members and bed nets, and questions on campaign participation. Results: There were 3,280 households in 112 clusters representing 33,993 people. Most (92.1%) guardians of eligible children had heard about the campaign, the primary sources being health workers (33.7%), neighbours (26.2%), and radio (22.0%). Of eligible children, 82.4% received mebendazole, 83.8% received vitamin A, and 75.4% received LLINs. Almost all (91.4%) LLINs received during the campaign remained in the household; of those not remaining, 74.4% had been given away and none were reported sold. At least one insecticide-treated net (ITN) was present in 82.3% of all households, 89.2% of households with a child < 5 years and 57.5% of households without a child < 5 years. Just over half (52.4%) of ITNs had been received during the campaign. Considering possible indicators of universal coverage, 39.8% of households owned at least one ITN per two people, 21.6% owned at least one ITN per sleeping space and 34.7% of the general population slept under an ITN the night before the survey. In addition, 45.6% of children < 5 years, and 49.2% of pregnant women had slept under an ITN. Conclusions: The nationwide integrated LLIN distribution campaign allowed household ITN ownership of one or more ITNs to surpass the RBM target of 80% set for 2010, though additional distribution strategies are needed to reach populations missed by the targeted campaign and to reach the universal coverage targets of one ITN per sleeping space and 80% of the population using an ITN. © 2011 Thwing et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Kunene S.,National Malaria Control Programme | Phillips A.A.,University of California at San Francisco | Gosling R.D.,University of California at San Francisco | Kandula D.,University of California at San Francisco | Novotny J.M.,University of California at San Francisco
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Swaziland is working to be the first country in mainland sub-Saharan Africa to eliminate malaria. The highest level of Swaziland's government recently approved a national elimination policy, which endorses Swaziland's robust national elimination strategic plan. This commentary outlines Swaziland's progress towards elimination as well as the challenges that remain, primarily around securing long-term financial resources and managing imported cases from neighbouring countries. © 2011Kunene et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Cohen J.M.,Clinton Health Access Initiative | Dlamini S.,National Malaria Control Programme | Novotny J.M.,Clinton Health Access Initiative | Novotny J.M.,University of California at San Francisco | And 5 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013

Background: As successful malaria control programmes move towards elimination, they must identify residual transmission foci, target vector control to high-risk areas, focus on both asymptomatic and symptomatic infections, and manage importation risk. High spatial and temporal resolution maps of malaria risk can support all of these activities, but commonly available malaria maps are based on parasite rate, a poor metric for measuring malaria at extremely low prevalence. New approaches are required to provide case-based risk maps to countries seeking to identify remaining hotspots of transmission while managing the risk of transmission from imported cases. Methods. Household locations and travel histories of confirmed malaria patients during 2011 were recorded through routine surveillance by the Swaziland National Malaria Control Programme for the higher transmission months of January to April and the lower transmission months of May to December. Household locations for patients with no travel history to endemic areas were compared against a random set of background points sampled proportionate to population density with respect to a set of variables related to environment, population density, vector control, and distance to the locations of identified imported cases. Comparisons were made separately for the high and low transmission seasons. The Random Forests regression tree classification approach was used to generate maps predicting the probability of a locally acquired case at 100 m resolution across Swaziland for each season. Results: Results indicated that case households during the high transmission season tended to be located in areas of lower elevation, closer to bodies of water, in more sparsely populated areas, with lower rainfall and warmer temperatures, and closer to imported cases than random background points (all p < 0.001). Similar differences were evident during the low transmission season. Maps from the fit models suggested better predictive ability during the high season. Both models proved useful at predicting the locations of local cases identified in 2012. Conclusions: The high-resolution mapping approaches described here can help elimination programmes understand the epidemiology of a disappearing disease. Generating case-based risk maps at high spatial and temporal resolution will allow control programmes to direct interventions proactively according to evidence-based measures of risk and ensure that the impact of limited resources is maximized to achieve and maintain malaria elimination. © 2013 Cohen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Pinder M.,Medical Research Council Unit | Pinder M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Pinder M.,Durham University | Jawara M.,Medical Research Council Unit | And 14 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Background: Although many malaria control programmes in sub-Saharan Africa use indoor residual spraying with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), the two studies assessing the benefit of the combination of these two interventions gave conflicting results. We aimed to assess whether the addition of indoor residual spraying to LLINs provided a significantly different level of protection against clinical malaria in children or against house entry by vector mosquitoes. Methods: In this two-arm cluster, randomised, controlled efficacy trial we randomly allocated clusters of Gambian villages using a computerised algorithm to LLINs alone (n=35) or indoor residual spraying with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane plus LLINs (n=35). In each cluster, 65-213 children, aged 6 months to 14 years, were surveyed at the start of the 2010 transmission season and followed in 2010 and 2011 by passive case detection for clinical malaria. Exposure to parasite transmission was assessed by collection of vector mosquitoes with both light and exit traps indoors. Primary endpoints were the incidence of clinical malaria assessed by passive case detection and number of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes collected per light trap per night. Intervention teams had no role in data collection and the data collection teams were not informed of the spray status of villages. The trial is registered at the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN01738840. Findings LLIN coverage in 2011 was 3510 (93%) of 3777 children in the indoor residual spraying plus LLIN group and 3622 (95·5%) of 3791 in the LLIN group. In 2010, 7845 children were enrolled, 7829 completed passive case detection, and 7697 (98%) had complete clinical and covariate data. In 2011, 7009 children remained in the study, 648 more were enrolled, 7657 completed passive case detection, and 7545 (98·5%) had complete data. Indoor residual spraying coverage per cluster was more than 80% for both years in the indoor residual spraying plus LLIN group. Incidence of clinical malaria was 0·047 per child-month at risk in the LLIN group and 0·044 per child-month at risk in the indoor residual spraying plus LLIN group in 2010, and 0·032 per child-month at risk in the LLIN group and 0·034 per child-month at risk in the indoor residual spraying plus LLIN group in 2011. The incident rate ratio was 1·08 (95% CI 0·80-1·46) controlling for confounders and cluster by mixed-effect negative binomial regression on all malaria attacks for both years. No significant difference was recorded in the density of vector mosquitoes caught in light traps in houses over the two transmission seasons; the mean number of A gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes per trap per night was 6·7 (4·0-10·1) in the LLIN group and 4·5 (2·4-7·4) in the indoor residual spraying plus LLIN group (p=0·281 in the random-effects linear regression model). Interpretation We identified no significant difference in clinical malaria or vector density between study groups. In this area with high LLIN coverage, moderate seasonal transmission, and susceptible vectors, indoor residual spraying did not provide additional benefit.


Koita K.,University of California at San Francisco | Novotny J.,University of California at San Francisco | Novotny J.,Clinton Health Access Initiative | Kunene S.,National Malaria Control Programme | And 5 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Swaziland has made great progress towards its goal of malaria elimination by 2015. However, malaria importation from neighbouring high-endemic Mozambique through Swaziland's eastern border remains a major factor that could prevent elimination from being achieved. In order to reach elimination, Swaziland must rapidly identify and treat imported malaria cases before onward transmission occurs. Methods. A nationwide formative assessment was conducted over eight weeks to determine if the imported cases of malaria identified by the Swaziland National Malaria Control Programme could be linked to broader social networks and to explore methods to access these networks. Results: Using a structured format, interviews were carried out with malaria surveillance agents (6), health providers (10), previously identified imported malaria cases (19) and people belonging to the networks identified through these interviews (25). Most imported malaria cases were Mozambicans (63%, 12/19) making a living in Swaziland and sustaining their families in Mozambique. The majority of imported cases (73%, 14/19) were labourers and self-employed contractors who travelled frequently to Mozambique to visit their families and conduct business. Social networks of imported cases with similar travel patterns were identified through these interviews. Nearly all imported cases (89%, 17/19) were willing to share contact information to enable network members to be interviewed. Interviews of network members and key informants revealed common congregation points, such as the urban market places in Manzini and Malkerns, as well as certain bus stations, where people with similar travel patterns and malaria risk behaviours could be located and tested for malaria. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that imported cases of malaria belonged to networks of people with similar travel patterns. This study may provide novel methods for screening high-risk groups of travellers using both snowball sampling and time-location sampling of networks to identify and treat additional malaria cases. Implementation of a proactive screening programme of importation networks may help Swaziland halt transmission and achieve malaria elimination by 2015. © 2013 Koita et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Raman J.,Malaria Research Programme | Mauff K.,University of Cape Town | Muianga P.,Gaza Province Directorate of Health | Mussa A.,National Malaria Control Programme | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Antimalarial drug resistance is a major obstacle to malaria control and eventual elimination. The routine surveillance for molecular marker of resistance is an efficient way to assess drug efficacy, which remains feasible in areas where malaria control interventions have succeeded in substantially reducing malaria transmission. Community based asexual parasite prevalence surveys were conducted annually in sentinel sites in Gaza Province, Mozambique from 2006 until 2010, before, during and after antimalarial policy changes to artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in 2006 and to artemether-lumefantrine in 2008. Genetic analysis of dhfr, dhps, crt, and mdr1 resistant genes was conducted on 3 331 (14.4%) Plasmodium falciparum PCR positive samples collected over the study period from 23 229 children aged 2 to 15 years. The quintuple dhfr/dhps mutation associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance increased from 56.2% at baseline to 75.8% by 2010. At baseline the crt76T and mdr186Y mutants were approaching fixation, 96.1% and 74.7%, respectively. Following the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy, prevalence of both these chloroquine-resistance markers began declining, reaching 32.4% and 30.9%, respectively, by 2010. All samples analysed over the 5-year period possessed a single copy of the mdr1 gene. The high and increasing prevalence of the quintuple mutation supports the change in drug policy from artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to artemether-lumefantrine in Mozambique. As chloroquine related drug pressure decreased in the region, so did the molecular markers associated with chloroquine resistance (crt76T and mdr186Y). However, this reversion to the wild-type mdr186N predisposes parasites towards developing lumefantrine resistance. Close monitoring of artemether-lumefantrine efficacy is therefore essential, particularly given the high drug pressure within the region where most countries now use artemether-lumefantrine as first line treatment. © 2011 Raman et al.


Ansah E.K.,Ghana Health Service | Narh-Bana S.,Dodowa Health Research Center | Affran-Bonful H.,Dangme West District Health Directorate | Bart-Plange C.,National Malaria Control Programme | And 3 more authors.
BMJ (Online) | Year: 2015

Objective To examine the impact of providing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria on fever management in private drug retail shops where most poor rural people with fever present, with the aim of reducing current massive overdiagnosis and overtreatment of malaria. Design Cluster randomized trial of 24 clusters of shops. Setting Dangme West, a poor rural district of Ghana. Participants Shops and their clients, both adults and children. Interventions Providing rapid diagnostic tests with realistic training. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of clients testing negative for malaria by a double-read research blood slide who received an artemisinin combination therapy or other antimalarial. Secondary outcomes were use of antibiotics and antipyretics, and safety. Results Of 4603 clients, 3424 (74.4%) tested negative by double-read research slides. The proportion of slide-negative clients who received any antimalarial was 590/1854 (32%) in the intervention arm and 1378/1570 (88%) in the control arm (adjusted risk ratio 0.41 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.58), P<0.0001). Treatment was in high agreement with rapid diagnostic test result. Of those who were slide-positive, 690/787 (87.8%) in the intervention arm and 347/392 (88.5%) in the control arm received an artemisinin combination therapy (adjusted risk ratio 0.96 (0.84 to 1.09)). There was no evidence of antibiotics being substituted for antimalarials. Overall, 1954/2641 (74%) clients in the intervention arm and 539/1962 (27%) in the control arm received appropriate treatment (adjusted risk ratio 2.39 (1.69 to 3.39), P<0.0001). No safety concerns were identified. Conclusions Most patients with fever in Africa present to the private sector. In this trial, providing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in the private drug retail sector significantly reduced dispensing of antimalarials to patients without malaria, did not reduce prescribing of antimalarials to true malaria cases, and appeared safe. Rapid diagnostic tests should be considered for the informal private drug retail sector.


Kakar Q.,World Health Organization | Khan M.A.,National Malaria Control Programme | Bile K.M.,World Health Organization
Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal | Year: 2010

Malaria is endemic in Pakistan and constitutes a national health priority However the parasite and vectors are showing resistance to common antimalarial drugs and insecticides. The provinces of Balochistan, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas have the highest malaria burden. Districts and agencies bordering Afghanistan and Islamic Republic of Iran account for 37% of the malaria burden with an annual parasite incidence (API) exceeding 4.5/1000 population per year. Moreover, there has been a growing risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence in areas where previously P. vivax was predominant. New and effective control tools have been introduced such as rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination therapy and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets. This paper reports the progress achieved in the implementation of a malaria control strategy in Pakistan, shares major outstanding challenges and unearths the potential of performance-based implementation for advancing resource mobilization and collaborative partnerships.

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