Time filter

Source Type

Khin H.S.S.,Population Services International Myanmar | Aung T.,Population Services International Myanmar | Thi A.,National Malaria Control Program | White C.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Malaria Journal

Background: In 2012 the Artemisinin Monotherapy Therapy Replacement (AMTR) project was implemented in Eastern Myanmar to increase access to subsidized, quality-assured artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and to remove oral artemisinin monotherapy (AMT) from the private sector. The aim of this paper is to examine changes over time in the private sector anti-malarial landscape and to illustrate the value of complementary interventions in the context of a national ACT subsidy. Methods: Three rounds of cross-sectional malaria medicine outlet surveys were conducted, in 2012, 2013 and 2014. Project intervention areas were selected from the Myanmar Artemisinin Resistance Containment (MARC) area. Provider detailing was implemented in these selected areas. Comparison areas were selected outside of this catchment area, from townships in close proximity to the MARC framework. Within each domain, multi-staged sampling was used to select areas for the survey. Outlets with the potential to sell or distribute anti-malarials in the private sector were screened for eligibility. Results: The total number of outlets approached for an interview was as follows in the intervention and comparison areas, respectively: 2012, N = 2046 and 1612; 2013, N = 1636 and 1884; 2014, N = 2939 and 2941. The percentage of pharmacies, general retailers and mobile providers (classed as 'priority outlets') with oral AMT in stock on the day of the survey decreased over time in the intervention areas (2012 = 68 %; 2013 = 48 %; 2014 = 10 %). Conversely, quality-assured ACT availability increased among these outlets (2012 = 4 %; 2013 = 62 %; 2014 = 79 %). Relative oral AMT market share among priority outlets also decreased over time (2012 = 44 %; 2013 = 18 %; 2014 = 14 %), while market share of quality-assured ACT increased (2012 = 3 %; 2013 = 59 %; 2014 = 51 %). Among priority outlets in the comparison area, similar trends were observed, though changes over time were less substantial compared to the intervention area. Other outlet types (community health workers and health facilities) performed relatively well over time though modest improvements were also observed. Conclusion: The findings point to the successful design and implementation of a strategy to rapidly remove oral AMT from pharmacies, general retailers and mobile providers and to replace its use with quality-assured ACT. The evidence also highlights the importance of supporting interventions in the context of a high-level subsidy. © 2016 Khin et al. Source

Chizema-Kawesha E.,Zambia Ministry of Health | Miller J.M.,MACEPAPATH | Steketee R.W.,Voltaire | Mukonka V.M.,Zambia Ministry of Health | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Zambia national survey, administrative, health facility, and special study data were used to assess progress and impact in national malaria control between 2000 and 2008. Zambia malaria financial support expanded from US$9 million in 2003 to US$ ∼40 million in 2008. High malaria prevention coverage was achieved and extended to poor and rural areas. Increasing coverage was consistent in time and location with reductions in child (age 6-59 months) parasitemia and severe anemia (53% and 68% reductions, respectively, from 2006 to 2008) and with lower post-neonatal infant and 1-4 years of age child mortality (38% and 36% reductions between 2001/2 and 2007 survey estimates). Zambia has dramatically reduced malaria transmission, disease, and child mortality burden through rapid national scale-up of effective interventions. Sustained progress toward malaria elimination will require maintaining high prevention coverage and further reducing transmission by actively searching for and treating infected people who harbor malaria parasites. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

Mathanga D.P.,University of Malawi | Walker E.D.,Michigan State University | Wilson M.L.,University of Michigan | Ali D.,National Malaria Control Program | And 3 more authors.
Acta Tropica

The last decade has seen an increase in investment and concerted efforts by the Malawi Ministry of Health and partners to control malaria disease. This report summarizes what is known about the burden of malaria and the strategies being implemented to control it in Malawi. Over the past 5 years, roll out of treatment and prevention efforts have been successful in the country, as demonstrated by increased use of insecticide treated nets, improved access to prompt and effective treatment and the initiation of pilot studies of indoor residual spraying. However, unlike other countries in the region, the recent data have not suggested a decrease in the burden of disease. We describe the environment in which the activities of Malawi's International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research (ICEMR) will be carried out and provide the rationale for the clinical, entomological and molecular studies. Our approach is to establish consistent, stainable data collection systems that are embedded within the public health sector. Through standardized and long-term studies of hosts, parasites and vectors, we hope to contribute to assessment of malaria disease burden, the appropriate application of interventions and policies and provide both the data collection and the health care infrastructure to ultimately eliminate the disease. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

MacEdo De Oliveira A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Wolkon A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Krishnamurthy R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Erskine M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 3 more authors.
Malaria Journal

Abstract. Background. Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) are an efficacious intervention for malaria prevention. During a national immunization campaign in Mozambique, vouchers, which were to be redeemed at a later date for free ITNs, were distributed in Manica and Sofala provinces. A survey to evaluate ITN ownership and usage post-campaign was conducted. Methods. Four districts in each province and four enumeration areas (EAs) in each district were selected using probability proportional to size. Within each EA, 32 households (HHs) were selected using a simple random sample. Interviews to assess ownership and usage were conducted in each of the selected HHs using personal digital assistants. Results. Valid interviews were completed for 947 (92.5%) (440 in Manica and 507 in Sofala) of the 1,024 selected HHs. Among participating HHs, 65.0% in Manica and 63.1% in Sofala reported that at least one child under five years of age slept in the house the previous night. HH ownership of at least one bed net of any kind was 20.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9%-43.6%) and 35.6% (95% CI: 27.8%-44.3%) pre-campaign; and 55.1% (95% CI: 43.6%-66.1%) and 59.6 (95% CI: 42.4%-74.7%) post-campaign in Manica and Sofala, respectively. Post-campaign HH ownership of at least one ITN was 50.2% (95% CI: 41.8%-58.5%) for both provinces combined. In addition, 60.3% (95% CI: 50.6%-69.2%) of children under five years of age slept under an ITN the previous night. Conclusions. This ITN distribution increased bed net ownership and usage rates. Integration of ITN distribution with immunization campaigns presents an opportunity for reaching malaria control targets and should continue to be considered. © 2010 Macedo de Oliveira et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Barrington J.,Novartis | Wereko-Brobby O.,Novartis | Ward P.,IBM | Mwafongo W.,National Malaria Control Program | Kungulwe S.,Lindi District Council
Malaria Journal

Background. Maintaining adequate supplies of anti-malarial medicines at the health facility level in rural sub-Saharan Africa is a major barrier to effective management of the disease. Lack of visibility of anti-malarial stock levels at the health facility level is an important contributor to this problem. Methods. A 21-week pilot study, 'SMS for Life', was undertaken during 2009-2010 in three districts of rural Tanzania, involving 129 health facilities. Undertaken through a collaborative partnership of public and private institutions, SMS for Life used mobile telephones, SMS messages and electronic mapping technology to facilitate provision of comprehensive and accurate stock counts from all health facilities to each district management team on a weekly basis. The system covered stocks of the four different dosage packs of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and quinine injectable. Results. Stock count data was provided in 95% of cases, on average. A high response rate (≥ 93%) was maintained throughout the pilot. The error rate for composition of SMS responses averaged 7.5% throughout the study; almost all errors were corrected and messages re-sent. Data accuracy, based on surveillance visits to health facilities, was 94%. District stock reports were accessed on average once a day. The proportion of health facilities with no stock of one or more anti-malarial medicine (i.e. any of the four dosages of AL or quinine injectable) fell from 78% at week 1 to 26% at week 21. In Lindi Rural district, stock-outs were eliminated by week 8 with virtually no stock-outs thereafter. During the study, AL stocks increased by 64% and quinine stock increased 36% across the three districts. Conclusions. The SMS for Life pilot provided visibility of anti-malarial stock levels to support more efficient stock management using simple and widely available SMS technology, via a public-private partnership model that worked highly effectively. The SMS for Life system has the potential to alleviate restricted availability of anti-malarial drugs or other medicines in rural or under-resourced areas. © 2010 Barrington et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Discover hidden collaborations