National Major San Marcos University
Cusco, Peru

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In 1913, around 100 years ago, the Harvard University sent an expedition to Peru, led by Richard Strong, to investigate Carrion’s disease. This paper provides a critical review of the scientific research carried out in this expedition. Richard Strong was a physician who performed unethical human experimentation in the Philippines and China. In Peru, Strong conducted experiments on humans to inoculate wart secretions to a psychiatric patient, which led him to replicate the Peruvian wart in this individual, although he could not replicate Oroya fever. Based on this experiment, and without taking into account epidemiological and clinical evidence, the Harvard expedition erroneously concluded that Oroya fever and Peruvian wart were two different diseases. A retrospective review of the scientific work conducted by the expedition in Peru allows drawing the following lessons for science: a) disapproving unethical human experimentation conducted by the expedition; b) to determine the cause of infectious diseases, it is necessary to obtain the best scientific, experimental and observational evidence, and c) to acknowledge that, despite the poor infrastructure, researchers in developing countries are able to produce high-quality scientific knowledge that may surpass the knowledge generated by researchers in developed countries. © 2016, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2007. | Award Amount: 4.20M | Year: 2009

Tropical forests harbour thousands of useful plants which are harvested and used in subsistence economies or traded in local, regional or international markets. The effect on the ecosystem is little known, and the forests resilience is badly understod. Palms are the most useful group of plants in tropical American forests and we will study the effect of extraction and trade of palms on forest in the western Amazon, the Andes and the Pacific lowlands. We will determine the size of the resource by making palm community studies in the different forest formations and determine the number of species and individuals of all palm species. The genetic structure of useful palm species will be studied to determine how much harvesting of the species contributes to genetic erosion of its populations, and whether extraction can be made without harm. We then determine how much palms are used for subsistence purposes by carrying out quantitative, ethnobotanical research in different forest types and then we study trade patterns for palm products from local markets to markets which involve export to other countries and continents. Palm populations are managed in various ways from sustainable ones to destructive harvesting; we will study different ways in which palms are managed and propose sustainable methods to local farmers, local governments, NGOs and other interested parties. Finally we will study national level mechanism that governs extraction, trade and commercialization of palm products, to identify positive and negative policies in relation to resilience of ecosystems and use this to propose sustainable policies to the governments. The results will be diseminated in a variety of ways, depending on need and stake holders, from popular leaflets and videos for farmers, reports for policy makers to scientific publication for the research community. The team behind the proposal represents 10 universities and research institutions in Europe and northwestern South America.

Alva Z.B.,National Major San Marcos University
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Publica | Year: 2014

In this paper, historical reference is made about legal provisions for recognition of the training and certification of medical specialists in Peru through university programs provided since 1928 and culminating in 1973 with the legal authorization by the relevant state authority to implement the Second Specialization Program in Human Medicine and to grant the Certification of Specialist in the Name of the Nation upon completion of a university residency program and specialized training by the “regular modality”, and the recognition by the university with the “non-regular modality”. In Peru it has been established to the present that the Professional Certifications of Specialists in Human Medicine “in the Name of the Nation”, both in “regular modality” as well as in “non-regular modality”, can only be granted by public or private universities authorized for this mission and, besides, no other public or private institution can claim this role that corresponds exclusively for the Peruvian University. © 2014, Instituto Nacional de Salud. All rights reserved.

This study determines that cytochrome c (cyt c) catalyses the oxidation of phenol compounds (Phen) in the presence of H2O2 or linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LOOH), generating Phen-derived free radicals or other reactive metabolites. These products irreversibly inactivated the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma cruzi (T cruzi LADH), depending on: the Phen structure, peroxide type, activated cyt c, incubation time and presence of an antioxidant. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and caffeic acid (CAFF) with cyt c/H 2O2 or cyt c/LOOH were the most effective inhibitors of T cruzi LADH. The comparison of inactivation values for T cruzi and mammalian heart enzymes demonstrated a greater sensitivity of T cruzi LADH to Phen. GSH, N-acetylcysteine, NAD(P)H, ascorbate and trolox, prevented T cruzi LADH inactivation by acetaminophen. The role of the Phen as potential trypanocidal systems is discussed. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd.

Huicho L.,National Major San Marcos University
American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2010

The growth of children living in Nuñoa, a Peruvian high-altitude community, was studied over a 35-year period using data collected in 1964 and 1999. There had been evidence of a secular trend in growth in the mid-1980s, but this was before a period of sociopolitical upheaval lasting until the late 1990s partly linked to the activities of the Shining Path group and the Peruvian government's response. Anthropometric data for 576 children examined in 1964-1966 were compared with data from 361 children examined in 1999. Data were converted to Z Scores using NCHS/WHO reference standards. Compared with the 1964 cohort, boys in 1999 had marginally greater height Z Scores, but among females, the trend was reversed. Stunting prevalence had decreased from 1964 levels, but still approached 60% in both sexes, among the highest rates recorded for a modern world population. The prevalence of low weight for height was less than expected, possibly because of the compensatory effect of enlarged chest diameter. This anatomical feature may represent the effect of chronic hypoxic stress, causing growth of the chest cavity at the expense of growth in height. In view of modest improvements during the late 1980s in this population, we believe that the relatively poor growth status of children a decade later may result from food disruption associated with later political instability. Compared with children in a nearby community, which benefits from the socioeconomic infrastructure associated with a large copper mine, Nuñoa children continue to fare relatively poorly. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Fugere V.,McGill University | Ortega H.,McGill University | Krahe R.D.,National Major San Marcos University
Biology Letters | Year: 2011

Animals often use signals to communicate their dominance status and avoid the costs of combat. We investigated whether the frequency of the electric organ discharge (EOD) of the weakly electric fish, Sternarchorhynchus sp., signals the dominance status of individuals. We correlated EOD frequency with body size and found a strong positive relationship. We then performed a competition experiment in which we found that higher frequency individuals were dominant over lower frequency ones. Finally, we conducted an electrical playback experiment and found that subjects more readily approached and attacked the stimulus electrodes when they played lowfrequency signals than high-frequency ones. We propose that EOD frequency communicates dominance status in this gymnotiform species. © 2011 The Royal Society.

Heymann E.W.,Abteilung Verhaltensokologie and Soziobiologie | Aquino R.,National Major San Marcos University
International Journal of Primatology | Year: 2010

In the literature, particularly in primatological books, the Peruvian red uakari (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) is generally considered as a species that is specialized on living in flooded forest, despite existing evidence to the contrary. Here we review all available information on habitats where Cacajao calvus ucayalii have been observed. Most sightings are from terra firme, including palm swamps, or from mixed habitats, including terra firme and flooded forest. Therefore, we conclude that the species is not a flooded-forest specialist, but is flexible in its habitat requirements and generally uses terra firme forests or a mixture of habitats. Proper recognition of habitat requirements is important for understanding the ecoethological adaptations of a species and for appropriate conservation measures. © 2010 The Author(s).

Papa Quiroz E.A.,National Major San Marcos University
Journal of Global Optimization | Year: 2013

In this paper we present an extension of the proximal point algorithm with Bregman distances to solve constrained minimization problems with quasiconvex and convex objective function on Hadamard manifolds. The proposed algorithm is a modified and extended version of the one presented in Papa Quiroz and Oliveira (J Convex Anal 16(1): 49-69, 2009). An advantage of the proposed algorithm, for the nonconvex case, is that in each iteration the algorithm only needs to find a stationary point of the proximal function and not a global minimum. For that reason, from the computational point of view, the proposed algorithm is more practical than the earlier proximal method. Another advantage, for the convex case, is that using minimal condition on the problem data as well as on the proximal parameters we get the same convergence results of the Euclidean proximal algorithm using Bregman distances. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Background: HIV-associated cognitive impairment occurs even in the early stages of infection. Short-term memory, psychomotor speed, attention, and executive functioning are the main capacities affected. Controversy exists regarding whether highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is helpful in combating this process. The objective of the present study is to determine the association between cognitive impairment and HAART in HIV-infected patients from Hospital Regional de Huacho. Methods: Prospective study of HIV patients meeting criteria to start HAART. Twenty-one HIV-positive patients were recruited between April and July 2011. Researchers administered a standardised neuropsychological test battery before and 4 weeks after onset of HAART. Psychomotor speed, executive function, short term memory (visual and verbal), attention, and visuospatial performance were evaluated. Results: Nineteen patients completed the study (14 males and 5 females). In the pre-HAART evaluation, most patients scored below average on the executive function and psychomotor speed subtests. Psychomotor speed and immediate visual memory improved significantly after four months of treatment with HAART. Conclusions: Some degree of cognitive decline may present even in the early and asymptomatic stages of HIV infection. The benefits of antiretroviral treatment for cognitive performance can be detected after only a few weeks of follow-up. © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología.

Ramirez Soto M.C.,National Major San Marcos University
American Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2016

Purpose To describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of sporotrichosis in ocular adnexa and give an insight into factors associated with this condition. Design Retrospective case series and literature review. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all cases of sporotrichosis in ocular adnexa between 2004 and 2014 in the Santa Teresa Clinic of Abancay, Peru and reviewed all case reports of sporotrichosis in ocular adnexa in the literature. Results We reviewed records of 21 patients with sporotrichosis in ocular adnexa; 12 (57.1%) of them were male and their median age surrounded 9 years. In our series, 19 patients had lesions in the eyelids and 2 in the eyebrows. The lymphocutaneous form occurred in 62% of them. Ten patients (47.6%) were cured with potassium iodide. Among 65 patients with sporotrichosis in ocular adnexa (our 21 patients and 44 from the literature), the average age was 9 years, and 78% were ≤15 years of age; 54% were male. The lesions were more frequent on the eyelids (n = 53 [82%]), followed by the lacrimal gland (n = 5), conjunctiva (n = 4), and eyebrows (n = 3). The lymphocutaneous clinical form (54%) was the most frequent. Fifty patients were cured: 31 of them with potassium iodide, 16 with itraconazole, and 3 with a combination including potassium iodide, itraconazole, and fluconazole. Twenty-nine patients (44.6%) resided in a hyperendemic region, and 5 patients reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis. Conclusions Sporotrichosis in ocular adnexa is associated with children ≤15 years of age, and in 82% of these cases the disease is limited to the eyelids. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

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