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Alva Z.B.,National Major San Marcos University
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Publica | Year: 2014

In this paper, historical reference is made about legal provisions for recognition of the training and certification of medical specialists in Peru through university programs provided since 1928 and culminating in 1973 with the legal authorization by the relevant state authority to implement the Second Specialization Program in Human Medicine and to grant the Certification of Specialist in the Name of the Nation upon completion of a university residency program and specialized training by the “regular modality”, and the recognition by the university with the “non-regular modality”. In Peru it has been established to the present that the Professional Certifications of Specialists in Human Medicine “in the Name of the Nation”, both in “regular modality” as well as in “non-regular modality”, can only be granted by public or private universities authorized for this mission and, besides, no other public or private institution can claim this role that corresponds exclusively for the Peruvian University. © 2014, Instituto Nacional de Salud. All rights reserved. Source

This study determines that cytochrome c (cyt c) catalyses the oxidation of phenol compounds (Phen) in the presence of H2O2 or linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LOOH), generating Phen-derived free radicals or other reactive metabolites. These products irreversibly inactivated the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma cruzi (T cruzi LADH), depending on: the Phen structure, peroxide type, activated cyt c, incubation time and presence of an antioxidant. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and caffeic acid (CAFF) with cyt c/H 2O2 or cyt c/LOOH were the most effective inhibitors of T cruzi LADH. The comparison of inactivation values for T cruzi and mammalian heart enzymes demonstrated a greater sensitivity of T cruzi LADH to Phen. GSH, N-acetylcysteine, NAD(P)H, ascorbate and trolox, prevented T cruzi LADH inactivation by acetaminophen. The role of the Phen as potential trypanocidal systems is discussed. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Huicho L.,National Major San Marcos University
American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2010

The growth of children living in Nuñoa, a Peruvian high-altitude community, was studied over a 35-year period using data collected in 1964 and 1999. There had been evidence of a secular trend in growth in the mid-1980s, but this was before a period of sociopolitical upheaval lasting until the late 1990s partly linked to the activities of the Shining Path group and the Peruvian government's response. Anthropometric data for 576 children examined in 1964-1966 were compared with data from 361 children examined in 1999. Data were converted to Z Scores using NCHS/WHO reference standards. Compared with the 1964 cohort, boys in 1999 had marginally greater height Z Scores, but among females, the trend was reversed. Stunting prevalence had decreased from 1964 levels, but still approached 60% in both sexes, among the highest rates recorded for a modern world population. The prevalence of low weight for height was less than expected, possibly because of the compensatory effect of enlarged chest diameter. This anatomical feature may represent the effect of chronic hypoxic stress, causing growth of the chest cavity at the expense of growth in height. In view of modest improvements during the late 1980s in this population, we believe that the relatively poor growth status of children a decade later may result from food disruption associated with later political instability. Compared with children in a nearby community, which benefits from the socioeconomic infrastructure associated with a large copper mine, Nuñoa children continue to fare relatively poorly. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Garcia H.H.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Garcia H.H.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Neurologicas | Gonzalez A.E.,National Major San Marcos University | Gilman R.H.,Johns Hopkins University
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Purpose of Review: Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) has been long recognized as an important cause of neurological morbidity in most of the world. Unwarranted generalization of diagnostic and treatment recommendations made it difficult to assess individual prognosis and responses for each type of NCC. Understanding of the main clinical presentations (dependent on number, location, size, and stage of parasites, as well as on the immune response of the host) allows a better view of treatment options and expected outcomes. Recent Findings: Current treatment options are still limited and involve symptomatic agents, antiparasitic agents, or surgery. The importance of adequate symptomatic management, the potential for improved antiparasitic treatment regimes, in particular combination therapy, and the increasingly important role of minimally invasive neurosurgery are also reviewed in this article. Summary: Treatment decisions in NCC should be individualized in relation to the type of NCC. Initial measures should focus on the symptomatic management before considering antiparasitic therapy when appropriate. Appropriate patient categorization, new antiparasitic regimes, and minimally invasive surgery are improving the prognosis of patients with NCC. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Ramirez Soto M.C.,National Major San Marcos University
American Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2016

Purpose To describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of sporotrichosis in ocular adnexa and give an insight into factors associated with this condition. Design Retrospective case series and literature review. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all cases of sporotrichosis in ocular adnexa between 2004 and 2014 in the Santa Teresa Clinic of Abancay, Peru and reviewed all case reports of sporotrichosis in ocular adnexa in the literature. Results We reviewed records of 21 patients with sporotrichosis in ocular adnexa; 12 (57.1%) of them were male and their median age surrounded 9 years. In our series, 19 patients had lesions in the eyelids and 2 in the eyebrows. The lymphocutaneous form occurred in 62% of them. Ten patients (47.6%) were cured with potassium iodide. Among 65 patients with sporotrichosis in ocular adnexa (our 21 patients and 44 from the literature), the average age was 9 years, and 78% were ≤15 years of age; 54% were male. The lesions were more frequent on the eyelids (n = 53 [82%]), followed by the lacrimal gland (n = 5), conjunctiva (n = 4), and eyebrows (n = 3). The lymphocutaneous clinical form (54%) was the most frequent. Fifty patients were cured: 31 of them with potassium iodide, 16 with itraconazole, and 3 with a combination including potassium iodide, itraconazole, and fluconazole. Twenty-nine patients (44.6%) resided in a hyperendemic region, and 5 patients reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis. Conclusions Sporotrichosis in ocular adnexa is associated with children ≤15 years of age, and in 82% of these cases the disease is limited to the eyelids. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

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