National Livestock Research Institute

Suigen, South Korea

National Livestock Research Institute

Suigen, South Korea
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Choi K.-C.,National Livestock Research Institute | Chung W.-T.,Foundation Of Agri Technology Commercialization And Transfer | Kwon J.-K.,Chonbuk National University | Yu J.-Y.,Chonbuk National University | And 4 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2010

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-mediated hepatic damage is involved in production of AFB1-8,9-epoxide-bound DNA adducts and this is also affected by a pro-oxidant potential of the toxin. In this study we investigated the effects of quercetin on AFB1-treated HepG2 cells. We also examined the biochemical mechanisms associated with the effects of quercetin on AFB1-mediated liver damage in mice. Our results revealed that quercetin and isorhamnetin inhibit production of reactive oxygen species and cytotoxicity, and block the decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in AFB1-treated HepG2 cells. Isorhamnetin have inhibitory ability on lipid peroxidation stronger than quercetin in the cells. Oral supplementation with quercetin decreased serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, increased hepatic GSH levels and superoxide dismutase activity, and reduced lipid peroxidation in both the liver and kidney in AFB1-treated mice. However, quercetin did not show a significant reduction on serum levels of alkaline phosphate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase that were increased in AFB1-treated mice. HPLC analysis revealed that quercetin in plasma is mainly present as glucoronides and/or sulfates of quercetin. Collectively, it is suggested that quercetin does not directly protect against AFB1-mediated liver damage in vivo, but exerts a partial role in promoting antioxidative defense systems and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Choi H.L.,Seoul National University | Han S.H.,Seoul National University | Albright L.D.,Cornell University | Chang W.K.,National Livestock Research Institute
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2011

Correlations between environmental parameters (thermal range and noxious gas levels) and the status (productivity, physiological, and behavioral) of growing pigs were examined for the benefit of pig welfare and precision farming. The livestock experiment was conducted at a Seoul National University station in South Korea. Many variations were applied and the physiological and behavioral responses of the growing pigs were closely observed. Thermal and gas environment parameters were different during the summer and winter seasons, and the environments in the treatments were controlled in different manners. In the end, this study finds that factors such as Average Daily Gain (ADG), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), stress, posture, and eating habits were all affected by the controlled environmental parameters and that appropriate control of the foregoing could contribute to the improvement of precision farming and pig welfare. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Komwihangilo D.M.,National Livestock Research Institute | Mlela J.L.,Ukiriguru Agricultural Training Institute
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

Studies were conducted to assess the social and economic feasibility of using selected browses in goat feeding in central Tanzania. In the first study, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in four villages of Kongwa and Mpwapwa districts. A total of 141 households (farms) were individually visited in order to determine the factors influencing the use of native and exotic tree species for goat feeding. Results indicated that common indigenous browses including Acacia tortilis, Ecborium spp, Grewia spp, Ficus spp, Tamarindusindica and Leucaena leucocephala were fed to goats and their importance was ranked diferently among farmers (P < 0.01) between districts. Palatability was an important factor as indicated by 29% of the respondents (n= 123). Other factors were associated with improved animal conditions / health (28%) and milk yields of dairy goats (18%). In a separate on-station study, an economic analysis of feeding browse leaf meals showed that the use of browse-based supplements were relatively cheaper than the use of cotton seed cake (CSC). The highest profit margin was obtained with T. indica due to higher live-weight gain, followed by Lablab. Nevertheless, work is needed to train farmers to establish exogenous species and to sustainably manage the abundant multipurpose indigenous trees and shrubs.

Kim H.-J.,Chung - Ang University | Ham J.-S.,National Livestock Research Institute | Lee J.-W.,Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute | Kim K.,Woosong University | And 2 more authors.
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation of the food-borne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) in sliced and pizza cheeses commercially available in the Korean market. Total aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold in the cheeses ranged from 102 to 103 Log CFU/g. Irradiation of 1 kGy for sliced cheese and 3 kGy for pizza cheese were sufficient to lower the total aerobic bacteria to undetectable levels (101 CFU/g). Pathogen inoculation test revealed that gamma irradiation was more effective than electron beam irradiation at the same absorbed dose, and the ranges of the D10 values were from 0.84 to 0.93 kGy for L. monocytogenes and from 0.60 to 0.63 kGy for S. aureus. Results suggest that a low dose irradiation can improve significantly the microbial quality and reduce the risk of contamination of sliced and pizza cheeses by the food-borne pathogens which can potentially occur during processing. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Park K.M.,Chonbuk National University | Pramod A.B.,Chonbuk National University | Kim J.H.,National Livestock Research Institute | Choe H.S.,Chonbuk National University | Hwang I.H.,Chonbuk National University
Journal of Muscle Foods | Year: 2010

The postmortem factors like rate of glycolysis and muscle shortening have a major role on meat characteristics and these have been efficiently manipulated by methods like chilling regime, electrical stimulation and different hanging. These methods have been optimized with time leaving a little scope for further improvement. During the harvesting process of meat there is a generalized cell death often referred to as necrosis or apoptosis. This process of cell death has been well studied with respect to various physiological functions in vivo but its role in postmortem meat quality has received little attention. It is mainly regulated by caspases and also probably by calpains, cathepsins, proteasomes, lysosomal enzymes and other molecules, antioxidants and stress proteins. The term apoptosis appears to be more appropriate as evident by involvement of the enzyme systems and cell shrinkage. Further, examination of postmortem events effecting meat quality and correlate them to understand the cell death process may reveal the possible involvement of both apoptosis and necrosis processes, one preceding the other. This article is an attempt to review the apoptotic process of various cell lines and possible implication for muscle cells after slaughter and meat quality control. Practical Applications: Understanding the intricate biochemical mechanisms governing cell death processes after slaughter may help us provide better solutions for preslaughter animal handling and postslaughter interventions to manage meat toughness. Investigations on these tracks would distinguish muscle cell death processes after slaughter from apoptosis or necrosis, and consequently may lead to enhanced technological meat quality as available literature suggests that a number of molecules such as caspase family are likely to be involved in cell death process after slaughter and also in meat tenderization. © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Chenyambuga S.W.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Komwihangilo D.M.,National Livestock Research Institute | Jackson M.,National Livestock Research Institute
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

A study was carried out to determine the roles, desirable traits and production performance of indigenous goats in Iramba and Kongwa districts, central Tanzania. In each district five villages were selected and 93 and 100 goat keepers were interviewed in Iramba and Kongwa districts, respectively, using a structured questionnaire. Body weight, body length, rump height, withers height and heart girth of 225 goats were measured from flocks of the households surveyed. Crop and livestock production were the main enterprises undertaken by the farmers in the selected villages. Livestock production was ranked second to crop production in terms of contribution to household income and food security. The livestock kept by the farmers of the study area included cattle, goats, sheep, chicken, pigs and donkeys. In terms of importance, indigenous goats were ranked second to indigenous cattle by the respondents (61.4%). The average number of goats kept per household was 12.3 ± 0.86 and 14.9 ± 1.4 in Iramba and Kongwa districts, respectively. The main reasons for keeping goats, in order of importance, were generation of income, capital reserve and provision of meat. The indigenous goats were valued by their owners for being good tolerant to diseases, drought and heat. The goats in the study villages had small body size and average body weight of 24.5± 1.08 kg in Iramba district and 26.8 ± 0.82 kg in Kongwa district. The indigenous goats in Kongwa district had slightly higher values for wither height (59.6 ± 0.47 cm), rump height (56.4 ± 0.43 cm), heart girth (71.1 ± 0.75 cm) and body length (53.1 ± 0.54 cm) than those in Iramba district which had wither height, rump height, heart girth and body length of 58.4 ± 0.62, 55.5 ± 0.56, 68.3 ± 0.98, and 52.9 ± 0.71 cm, respectively. Average age at first kidding ranged from 14.2 to 16.8 months, average kidding interval was about eight months and average litter size was 1.2. Weaning age averaged about five months and the number of kids per does life time was between 9 and 10. Diseases were ranked by most farmers as the most important problem affecting goat production. The diseases of importance were contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, pneumonia, helminthiasis, foot and mouth disease, foot rot and mange. Shortages of grazing land, feed and water during the dry season were the other limiting factors to goat production. If productivity of indigenous goats is to be improved these problems need to be addressed through participatory research and development efforts.

Kim I.-H.,Chungbuk National University | Kang H.-G.,Chungbuk National University | Jeong J.-K.,Chungbuk National University | Hur T.-Y.,National Livestock Research Institute | Jung Y.-H.,National Livestock Research Institute
Theriogenology | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to compare the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in uterine flush and serum from healthy postpartum dairy cows and cows with clinical or subclinical endometritis. Clinical endometritis was diagnosed by observation of vaginal discharges (>50% pus) and subclinical endometritis was diagnosed by evaluation of uterine cytology (neutrophils>18%) at 4weeks postpartum. Uterine flush was obtained from 48 cows at 4, 6, and 8weeks postpartum for evaluation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 concentrations. Serum samples were obtained from 34 cows just after calving and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8weeks postpartum for evaluation of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 concentrations. Concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 were greater (P<0.05) in cows with clinical endometritis than in cows with subclinical endometritis and healthy controls, whereas concentrations of IL-8 in both cows with clinical and subclinical endometritis were greater (P<0.005) than in controls. Overall, IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations decreased during the postpartum period. IL-1β concentrations in cows with clinical endometritis decreased (P<0.0005) during the postpartum, whereas concentrations in cows with subclinical endometritis and controls did not change significantly with time; at 4weeks postpartum, concentrations were greater (P<0.0001) in cows with clinical endometritis. There were no significant effects of group, sampling time, or interaction on serum cytokine concentrations. In conclusion, cows with endometritis have greater inflammatory cytokine concentrations in uterine flush than healthy cows, but no differences were observed in serum. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Choi K.-C.,National Livestock Research Institute | Chung W.-T.,Foundation of Agrigulture Technology Commercialization and Transfer | Kwon J.-K.,Chonbuk National University | Jang Y.-S.,Chonbuk National University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Toxicology | Year: 2011

Since aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-mediated hepatic damage is related to the production of AFB1-8,9-epoxide and reactive oxygen species, bioactive compounds having antioxidant potentials are suggested to be capable of reducing AFB1-induced toxicity. We previously purified a mixture of flavonoids that we named RCMF (Rhus verniciflua Stokes chloroform-methanol fraction), from a traditional Korean food additive and herbal medicine. RCMF exhibited various biological effects, including antioxidant and antitumor activities. In this study, we examined whether RCMF protects against AFB1-induced liver injury using in vitro and in vivo systems. Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with RCMF significantly reduced AFB1-stimulated production of ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) to the control levels. RCMF also prevented the reduction in HepG2 cell viability caused by AFB1. Oral administration of RCMF to mice significantly suppressed an AFB1-induced increase in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase. It also prevented MDA formation and blocked decreases in glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activities in the livers of AFB1-treated mice. In addition, RCMF supplementation prevented an AFB1-induced decrease in serum titers of IgA and IgG1. Collectively, these results suggest that RCMF attenuates AFB1-mediated damage to the liver, and that this effect is at least partially related to the restoration of antioxidant defense systems and an increase in AFB1-GSH conjugate formation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Lee S.-A.,Chonbuk National University | Lee S.-A.,Chonnam Techno College | Son Y.-O.,University of Kentucky | Kook S.-H.,University of Pittsburgh | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Dermatological Research | Year: 2011

Ascorbic acid, a potential antioxidant, is known to inhibit melanogenesis. However, there are conflicting findings that ascorbic acid has very low stability and acts as a pro-oxidant, eventually increasing proliferation and melanin content in melanoma cells. In the present study, we explored the effects of ascorbic acid on the activity and expression of tyrosinase and melanin pigmentation in the presence and absence of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) using B16F10 melanoma cells. The mechanism by which ascorbic acid stimulated the expression of tyrosinase was also investigated. No inhibitory effect on melanin content was observed in ascorbic acid-treated cells, regardless of the presence of α-MSH. Ascorbic acid stimulated the activity and expression of tyrosinase and increased the expression of melanogenic regulatory factors, such as tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), dihydroxyphenylalaminechrome tautomerase (TRP-2), and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Ascorbic acid also induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The inhibition of p38 MAPK pathway by SB203580 led to the suppression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2 expression in cells treated with ascorbic acid. Combined treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine and/or desferrioxamine mesylate attenuated the stimulating effect of ascorbic acid on tyrosinase activation in the cells. Collectively, ascorbic acid stimulates tyrosinase activity and expression in B16F10 cells via activation of p38 MAPK signaling and subsequent up-regulation of MITF, tyrosinase, and TRP expression. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

PubMed | Hankyong National University, National Livestock Research Institute and Seoul National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences | Year: 2016

Milk-related traits (milk yield, fat and protein) have been crucial to selection of Holstein. It is essential to find the current selection trends of Holstein. Despite this, uncovering the current trends of selection have been ignored in previous studies. We suggest a new formula to detect the current selection trends based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). This suggestion is based on the best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) and the Fishers fundamental theorem of natural selection both of which are trait-dependent. Fishers theorem links the additive genetic variance to the selection coefficient. For Holstein milk production traits, we estimated the additive genetic variance using SNP effect from BLUP and selection coefficients based on genetic variance to search highly selective SNPs. Through these processes, we identified significantly selective SNPs. The number of genes containing highly selective SNPs with p-value <0.01 (nearly top 1% SNPs) in all traits and p-value <0.001 (nearly top 0.1%) in any traits was 14. They are phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B), serine/threonine kinase 40 (STK40), collagen, type XI, alpha 1 (COL11A1), ephrin-A1 (EFNA1), netrin 4 (NTN4), neuron specific gene family member 1 (NSG1), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), neurexin 3 (NRXN3), spectrin, beta, non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTBN1), ADP-ribosylation factor interacting protein 1 (ARFIP1), mutL homolog 1 (MLH1), transmembrane channel-like 7 (TMC7), carboxypeptidase X, member 2 (CPXM2) and ADAM metallopeptidase domain 12 (ADAM12). These genes may be important for future artificial selection trends. Also, we found that the SNP effect predicted from BLUP was the key factor to determine the expected current selection coefficient of SNP. Under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of SNP markers in current generation, the selection coefficient is equivalent to 2*SNP effect.

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