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Kim H.-J.,Chung - Ang University | Ham J.-S.,National Livestock Research Institute | Lee J.-W.,Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute | Kim K.,Woosong University | And 2 more authors.
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation of the food-borne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) in sliced and pizza cheeses commercially available in the Korean market. Total aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold in the cheeses ranged from 102 to 103 Log CFU/g. Irradiation of 1 kGy for sliced cheese and 3 kGy for pizza cheese were sufficient to lower the total aerobic bacteria to undetectable levels (101 CFU/g). Pathogen inoculation test revealed that gamma irradiation was more effective than electron beam irradiation at the same absorbed dose, and the ranges of the D10 values were from 0.84 to 0.93 kGy for L. monocytogenes and from 0.60 to 0.63 kGy for S. aureus. Results suggest that a low dose irradiation can improve significantly the microbial quality and reduce the risk of contamination of sliced and pizza cheeses by the food-borne pathogens which can potentially occur during processing. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Park K.M.,Chonbuk National University | Pramod A.B.,Chonbuk National University | Kim J.H.,National Livestock Research Institute | Choe H.S.,Chonbuk National University | Hwang I.H.,Chonbuk National University
Journal of Muscle Foods | Year: 2010

The postmortem factors like rate of glycolysis and muscle shortening have a major role on meat characteristics and these have been efficiently manipulated by methods like chilling regime, electrical stimulation and different hanging. These methods have been optimized with time leaving a little scope for further improvement. During the harvesting process of meat there is a generalized cell death often referred to as necrosis or apoptosis. This process of cell death has been well studied with respect to various physiological functions in vivo but its role in postmortem meat quality has received little attention. It is mainly regulated by caspases and also probably by calpains, cathepsins, proteasomes, lysosomal enzymes and other molecules, antioxidants and stress proteins. The term apoptosis appears to be more appropriate as evident by involvement of the enzyme systems and cell shrinkage. Further, examination of postmortem events effecting meat quality and correlate them to understand the cell death process may reveal the possible involvement of both apoptosis and necrosis processes, one preceding the other. This article is an attempt to review the apoptotic process of various cell lines and possible implication for muscle cells after slaughter and meat quality control. Practical Applications: Understanding the intricate biochemical mechanisms governing cell death processes after slaughter may help us provide better solutions for preslaughter animal handling and postslaughter interventions to manage meat toughness. Investigations on these tracks would distinguish muscle cell death processes after slaughter from apoptosis or necrosis, and consequently may lead to enhanced technological meat quality as available literature suggests that a number of molecules such as caspase family are likely to be involved in cell death process after slaughter and also in meat tenderization. © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Choi K.-C.,National Livestock Research Institute | Chung W.-T.,Foundation of Agri. Technology Commercialization and Transfer | Kwon J.-K.,Chonbuk National University | Yu J.-Y.,Chonbuk National University | And 4 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2010

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-mediated hepatic damage is involved in production of AFB1-8,9-epoxide-bound DNA adducts and this is also affected by a pro-oxidant potential of the toxin. In this study we investigated the effects of quercetin on AFB1-treated HepG2 cells. We also examined the biochemical mechanisms associated with the effects of quercetin on AFB1-mediated liver damage in mice. Our results revealed that quercetin and isorhamnetin inhibit production of reactive oxygen species and cytotoxicity, and block the decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in AFB1-treated HepG2 cells. Isorhamnetin have inhibitory ability on lipid peroxidation stronger than quercetin in the cells. Oral supplementation with quercetin decreased serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, increased hepatic GSH levels and superoxide dismutase activity, and reduced lipid peroxidation in both the liver and kidney in AFB1-treated mice. However, quercetin did not show a significant reduction on serum levels of alkaline phosphate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase that were increased in AFB1-treated mice. HPLC analysis revealed that quercetin in plasma is mainly present as glucoronides and/or sulfates of quercetin. Collectively, it is suggested that quercetin does not directly protect against AFB1-mediated liver damage in vivo, but exerts a partial role in promoting antioxidative defense systems and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Komwihangilo D.M.,National Livestock Research Institute | Mlela J.L.,Ukiriguru Agricultural Training Institute
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

Studies were conducted to assess the social and economic feasibility of using selected browses in goat feeding in central Tanzania. In the first study, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in four villages of Kongwa and Mpwapwa districts. A total of 141 households (farms) were individually visited in order to determine the factors influencing the use of native and exotic tree species for goat feeding. Results indicated that common indigenous browses including Acacia tortilis, Ecborium spp, Grewia spp, Ficus spp, Tamarindusindica and Leucaena leucocephala were fed to goats and their importance was ranked diferently among farmers (P < 0.01) between districts. Palatability was an important factor as indicated by 29% of the respondents (n= 123). Other factors were associated with improved animal conditions / health (28%) and milk yields of dairy goats (18%). In a separate on-station study, an economic analysis of feeding browse leaf meals showed that the use of browse-based supplements were relatively cheaper than the use of cotton seed cake (CSC). The highest profit margin was obtained with T. indica due to higher live-weight gain, followed by Lablab. Nevertheless, work is needed to train farmers to establish exogenous species and to sustainably manage the abundant multipurpose indigenous trees and shrubs.

Choi H.L.,Seoul National University | Han S.H.,Seoul National University | Albright L.D.,Cornell University | Chang W.K.,National Livestock Research Institute
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2011

Correlations between environmental parameters (thermal range and noxious gas levels) and the status (productivity, physiological, and behavioral) of growing pigs were examined for the benefit of pig welfare and precision farming. The livestock experiment was conducted at a Seoul National University station in South Korea. Many variations were applied and the physiological and behavioral responses of the growing pigs were closely observed. Thermal and gas environment parameters were different during the summer and winter seasons, and the environments in the treatments were controlled in different manners. In the end, this study finds that factors such as Average Daily Gain (ADG), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), stress, posture, and eating habits were all affected by the controlled environmental parameters and that appropriate control of the foregoing could contribute to the improvement of precision farming and pig welfare. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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