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Siqin A.,University of Shizuoka | Siqin A.,Gifu University | Minagawa I.,University of Shizuoka | Minagawa I.,Gifu University | And 9 more authors.
Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

Relaxin-like factor (RLF), also called insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3), is a member of the insulin/relaxin gene family and is produced by testicular Leydig cells. While the understanding of its effects is growing, very little is known about the structural and functional properties of native INSL3. Here, we demonstrate that native INSL3 isolated from goat testes is a single-chain structure with full biological activity, and is constitutively expressed and secreted by Leydig cells. Using a series of chromatography steps, native INSL3 was highly purified as a single 12-kDa peak as revealed by SDS-PAGE. MS/MS analysis provided 81% sequence coverage and revealed a distinct singlechain structure consisting of the B-, C-, and A-domains deduced previously from the INSL3 cDNA sequence. Moreover, the N-terminal peptide was six amino acid residues longer than predicted. Native INSL3 exhibited full bioactivity in HEK-293 cells expressing the receptor for INSL3. Immunoelectron microscopy and Western blot analysis revealed that INSL3 was secreted by Leydig cells through the constitutive pathway into blood and body fluids. We conclude, therefore, that goat INSL3 is constitutively secreted from Leydig cells as a B-C-A single-chain structure with full biological activity. © 2013 Walter de Gruyter GmbH. Source


Siqin,University of Shizuoka | Siqin,Gifu University | Nakai M.,University of Shizuoka | Hagi T.,University of Shizuoka | And 14 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2010

Relaxin-like factor (RLF), also known as insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3), is produced by testicular Leydig cells, but its specific receptor LGR8 (leucine-rich repeat family of G-protein-coupled receptor 8) has not been identified in goats. This study aimed to identify complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences of goat LGR8, and characterize the expression of both RLF and LGR8 in goat testes by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Testes were collected from immature (3-month-old) and mature (24-month-old) Saanen goats, and partial cDNA sequences of the goat homologue of human LGR8 were identified. The sequence encoded a reduced peptide sequence of 167 amino acids, which corresponded to transmembrane regions 2 through 5, followed by the beginning of intracellular loop 3 of human LGR8. Expression of both LGR8 and RLF genes was drastically increased in mature testes compared with immature ones. Although RLF protein was restricted to Leydig cells, LGR8 protein was detected in both Leydig cells and seminiferous epithelial cells (possibly germ cells and Sertoli cells). These results reveal a possible existence of the RLF-LGR8 ligand-receptor system within the goat testis, suggesting that RLF may play a role in testicular function through LGR8 on Leydig cells and seminiferous epithelial cells in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source


Seki Y.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | Seki Y.,Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science | Yokohama M.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | Wada K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | And 8 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

The coat of a goat, like that of many mammalian species, consists of an outer coat of coarse hairs and an under coat of fine, downy hairs. The coarse guard hairs are produced by primary follicles and the finer cashmere hairs by secondary follicles. We previously reported that hair keratins are components of cashmere hair, and proteomic analysis revealed that their expression is elevated in winter coat hair. To determine detailed characterization, we have cloned keratin 33A gene, a major highly expressed keratin in winter, and then analyzed the expression of goat hair coat. By Western analysis, we detected that keratin 33A protein is expressed only in hair coat among the various goat tissues. Moreover, the expression level in winter has increased in cashmere high-producing Korean native breed, whereas the expression levels between summer and winter had not changed in cashmere low-producing Saanen. In addition, by immunohistochemistry we determined that keratin 33A is localized in the major cortex portion of cashmere fiber. These results confirm that keratin 33A is a structural protein of goat cashmere hair fiber. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source

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