National Livestock Breeding Center
National Livestock Breeding Center
Inoue K.,National Livestock Breeding Center |
Hosono M.,National Livestock Breeding Center |
Tanimoto Y.,National Livestock Breeding Center
Animal | Year: 2017
The objectives of this study were to infer phenotypic causal networks involving gestation length (GL) and calving difficulty (CD) for the primiparity of 1850 Japanese Black heifers, and the birth weight (BWT), withers height (WH) and chest girth (CHG) of their full blood calves, and to compare the causal effects among them. The inductive causation (IC) algorithm was employed to search for causal links among these traits; it was applied to the posterior distribution of the residual (co)variance matrix of a multiple-trait sire-maternal grand sire (MGS) model. The IC algorithm implemented with 95% and 90% highest posterior density intervals detected only one structure with links between GL and BWT (WH or CHG) and between BWT (WH or CHG) and CD, although their directions were not resolved. Therefore, a possible causal structure based on the networks obtained from the IC algorithm [GL→BWT (WH or CHG)→CD] was fitted using a structural equation model to infer causal structure coefficients between the traits. The structural coefficients of GL on BWT and of BWT on GL on the observable scale showed that an extra day of GL led to a 270-g gain in BWT, and a 1-kg increase in BWT increased the risk for dystocia by 1.1%, in the causal structure. Similarly, an increase in GL by 1 day resulted in a 2.1 (2.0)-mm growth in WH (CHG), and a 1-cm increase in WH (CHG) increased the risk of dystocia by 1.2% (0.9%). The structural equation model was also fitted to alternative causal structures, which involved the addition of a directed link from GL to CD, or GL→CD to the structures described above. The inferred structural coefficients with the alternative structures were almost the same as the corresponding ones that had GL→BWT (WH or CHG)→CD. However, the direct causal effect of the extra link from GL on CD was similar to the indirect causal effect of GL through the mediating effect of BWT (WH or CHG) on CD and significant (P<0.05). This suggest that maternal genetic effects might not be removed completely from the residual variance components in the sire-MGS model, and the application of the IC algorithm to the variances from the model could detect an incorrect structure. Nonetheless, fitting the structural equation model to the causal structure provided useful information such as the magnitude of the causal effects between the traits. © The Animal Consortium 2017
Matoba S.,National Livestock Breeding Center |
Matoba S.,University College Dublin |
Fair T.,University College Dublin |
Lonergan P.,University College Dublin
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2010
The ability to successfully culture oocytes and embryos individually would facilitate the study of the relationship between follicle parameters and oocyte developmental competence, in order to identify markers of competent oocytes, as well as the ability to use small numbers of oocytes from an individual donor such as when ovum pick-up is carried out. Using a total of 3118 oocytes, the aim of the present study was to develop a system capable of supporting the development of immature bovine oocytes to the blastocyst stage in an individually identifiable manner. Initially, post-fertilisation embryo culture in the Well-of-the-Well (WOW) system, on the cell adhesive Cell-Tak or in polyester mesh was tested and shown to result in similar development to embryos cultured in standard group culture. The results demonstrate that it is possible to culture bovine oocytes to the blastocyst stage in an individually identifiable manner in all three culture systems with comparable success rates. This permits the localisation and identification of individual embryos throughout preimplantation development in vitro while retaining the developmental benefits of group culture. In terms of ease of preparation and use, culture in isolation within the strands of a polyester mesh is preferable. © 2010 CSIRO.
Inoue K.,National Livestock Breeding Center |
Kobayashi M.,Yamagata General Agricultural Research Center |
Shoji N.,Yamagata General Agricultural Research Center |
Kato K.,Livestock Improvement Association of Japan
Animal | Year: 2011
We estimated the genetic parameters related to feed intake (FI), feed efficiency traits (including feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) of digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN)), beef marbling score (BMS), melting point of fat (MP) and fatty acid composition. Fat and meat (Musculus trapezius) samples were taken from the carcasses of 863 Japanese Black steers derived from 65 sires, for determination of the MP and fatty acid composition of the total lipid in intramuscular adipose tissue. Genetic parameters were estimated using uni- and bivariate animal models. In addition, pedigree information for 4841 animals was used. Heritability estimates for BMS, MP, individual fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), the ratio of saturated fatty acids to MUFA (MUS) and the ratio of elongation (ELONG) were generally high. The FI values of TDN and DCP were also high, but FCRs and RFIs of those were low (0.09 to 0.22). Genetic correlation of BMS with MP was -0.34 (favorable) and with C18:1, MUFA, MUS and ELONG values were 0.40, 0.28, 0.29 and 0.37, respectively (favorable). Genetic correlations of MP with C18:1, MUFA, MUS and ELONG were negative (also favorable) and high (-0.85, -0.98, -1.00 (-0.996) and -0.66, respectively). The correlation estimates for feed efficiency traits of DCP were quite similar to those of TDN. Genetic correlations of BMS with FCRs and RFIs of TDN and DCP were all positive (unfavorable; 0.21 to 0.51), and in particular, the correlations with RFIs of those were high. The correlations of C18:1, MUFA, MUS and ELONG with RFIs of TDN and DCP were positive (unfavorable) but low (0.06 to 0.17), whereas the corresponding correlations with FCRs of those were all negative (favorable; -0.38 to -0.10). These results suggest that the quantity and quality of beef fat can be simultaneously improved and that the quality of beef fat (fatty acid composition) can be improved directly or indirectly with MP. Furthermore, selecting MP or fatty acid traits does not significantly affect feed efficiency. © 2011 The Animal Consortium.
Sugimoto M.,National Livestock Breeding Center |
Sugimoto Y.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics | Year: 2012
Mastitis is a common infectious disease of the mammary gland and generates large losses in the dairy industry. By means of positional cloning and functional analysis techniques, we here show that insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) can possibly mediate susceptibility to mastitis through autophagy. Scanning the whole genome of cows (Bos taurus) that were susceptible or resistant to mastitis in the half-sib families revealed that susceptible cows had a relatively long stretch of cytosine residues (C stretch) in the 59 untranslated region of IGF1R. The forebrain embryonic zinc finger-like (FEZL) transcription factor, which was previously identified as a factor controlling mastitis resistance in the same half-sib families, bound the C stretch of IGF1R. The susceptible type of FEZL with a glycine stretch containing 13 glycines (13G) and the longer C stretch of IGF1R together enhanced expression of IGF1R. Enhancing IGF1R inhibited autophagy in response to Streptococcus agalactiae invasion of mammary epithelial cells, whereas treatment with rapamycin, a known inducer of autophagy, rescued it. Cows carrying the variant combination of 13GFEZL might be more susceptible to mastitis as the result of impaired autophagy. Our results suggest that IGF1R could control innate immunity in mammals and serve as a potential tool for preventing mastitis. © 2012 Sugimoto, Sugimoto.
Goto Y.,National Livestock Breeding Center
Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaihō | Year: 2013
In this study, we compared the developmental ability of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos reconstructed with three bovine somatic cells that had been synchronized in G0-phase (G0-SCNT group) or early G1-phase (eG1-SCNT group). Furthermore, we investigated the production efficiency of cloned offspring for NT embryos derived from these donor cells. The G0-phase and eG1-phase cells were synchronized, respectively, using serum starvation and antimitotic reagent treatment combined with shaking of the plate containing the cells (shake-off method). The fusion rate in the G0-SCNT groups (64.2 ± 1.8%) was significantly higher than that of eG1-SCNT groups (39.2 ± 1.9%) (P < 0.05), but the developmental rates to the blastocyst stage of SCNT embryos per fused oocytes were similar for all groups. The overall production efficiency of the clone offspring in eG1-SCNT groups (12.7%) per recipient cow was higher than that in G0-SCNT groups (3%) (P < 0.05). The mean birth weight of cloned calves and the average calving score in the G0-SCNT groups (48.1 ± 3.4 kg and 3.3 ± 0.3, respectively) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of eG1-SCNT groups (37.2 ± 2.1 kg and 2.3 ± 0.2, respectively). Results of this study indicate that synchronization of donor cells in eG1-phase using the shake-off method improved the overall production efficiency of the clone offspring per transferred embryo. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Sato S.,National Livestock Breeding Center |
Hayashi T.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science |
Kobayashi E.,National Livestock Breeding Center
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2011
In a previous study, we mapped two quantitative trait loci (QTL) approximately 50cM apart, both influencing the number of corpora lutea in pigs on chromosome 3. One locus included functional candidate genes for proteins related to specific aspects of fertility, such as the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor and the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor. However, specific genes related to the second locus have not yet been identified. This study aims to identify another candidate gene influencing the number of corpora lutea in pigs. Using 12 polymorphic markers, we fine-mapped a narrow region of pig chromosome 3 that had been shown to contain a QTL for corpora lutea. In the critical region, only 1 gene, autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2), was identified as a positional candidate. Our results demonstrate that the porcine AUTS2 gene consists of 19 exons with a complete open reading frame of 3768bp encoding an AUTS2 protein of 1256 amino acids. We screened the whole coding sequence and parts of the untranslated region for polymorphisms in an F 2 population of Duroc×Meishan crosses. We found 1 ins/del and 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), including 2 nonsynonymous variants, c.943C>T in exon 7 and c.2828C>T in exon 19, resulting in P315S and A943V, respectively. The SNP c.943C>T within a proline-rich domain was genotyped in several breeds; the C allele occurred in all breeds, whereas the T allele occurred only in Meishan pigs. Using in situ hybridization, the mRNA expression of the AUTS2 gene was observed on granulosa cells in the porcine ovary and thus may be associated with hormone sensitivity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Takasuga A.,National Livestock Breeding Center
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2016
A recent progress on stature genetics has revealed simple genetic architecture in livestock animals in contrast to that in humans. PLAG1 and/or NCAPG-LCORL, both of which are known as a locus for adult human height, have been detected for association with body weight/height in cattle and horses, and for selective sweep in dogs and pigs. The findings indicate a significant impact of these loci on mammalian growth or body size and usefulness of the natural variants for selective breeding. However, association with an unfavorable trait, such as late puberty or risk for a neuropathic disease, was also reported for the respective loci, indicating an importance to discriminate between causality and association. Here I review the recent findings on quantitative trait loci (QTL) for stature in livestock animals, mainly focusing on the PLAG1 and NCAPG-LCORL loci. I also describe our recent efforts to identify the causative variation for the third major locus for carcass weight in Japanese Black cattle. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Sugimoto M.,National Livestock Breeding Center
G3 (Bethesda, Md.) | Year: 2012
Mastitis is a common infectious disease of the mammary gland and generates large losses in the dairy industry. By means of positional cloning and functional analysis techniques, we here show that insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) can possibly mediate susceptibility to mastitis through autophagy. Scanning the whole genome of cows (Bos taurus) that were susceptible or resistant to mastitis in the half-sib families revealed that susceptible cows had a relatively long stretch of cytosine residues (C stretch) in the 5' untranslated region of IGF1R. The forebrain embryonic zinc finger-like (FEZL) transcription factor, which was previously identified as a factor controlling mastitis resistance in the same half-sib families, bound the C stretch of IGF1R. The susceptible type of FEZL with a glycine stretch containing 13 glycines (13G) and the longer C stretch of IGF1R together enhanced expression of IGF1R. Enhancing IGF1R inhibited autophagy in response to Streptococcus agalactiae invasion of mammary epithelial cells, whereas treatment with rapamycin, a known inducer of autophagy, rescued it. Cows carrying the variant combination of 13GFEZL might be more susceptible to mastitis as the result of impaired autophagy. Our results suggest that IGF1R could control innate immunity in mammals and serve as a potential tool for preventing mastitis.
Dai Nippon Printing and National Livestock Breeding Center | Date: 2010-02-09
An object of the present invention is to provide a culture dish appropriate for automatically identifying cultured cells. The present invention relates to a culture dish for culturing cells that require separate control, which has a bottom wall and a side wall, wherein cell-holding parts having wells are arranged on the bottom wall, 4 or more wells are adjacent to each other, the wall surface of each well has a concave surface that slopes upward from the lowest position to the outer edge of the well, and the pitch between adjacent wells is 1 mm or less.
Dai Nippon Printing and National Livestock Breeding Center | Date: 2010-01-05
An embryo quality evaluation assistance system including an image pickup unit for picking up an image of the embryo, and a computer that communicates data with the embryo observing apparatus to assist quality evaluation of the embryo. The computer includes a time-series image storing unit that stores a time-series image picked up by the embryo observing apparatus, an embryo image extracting unit that extracts an embryo image from the time-series image, and an active site extracting unit that compares an embryo image based on a first time-series image with an embryo image based on a second time-series image picked up before or after a predetermined time from a pickup time of the first time-series image, and extracts as an active site a set of pixels when the difference between pixel values of corresponding pixels of the first and second time-series images is larger than a predetermined threshold value.