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Zakrzewska M.E.,New University of Lisbon | Bogel-Lukasik E.,New University of Lisbon | Bogel-Lukasik R.,New University of Lisbon | Bogel-Lukasik R.,National Laboratory of Energy and Geology
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

Lignocellulosic biomass is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The compositions of these materials vary, and their structures are very complex. Biomass requires many hydrolytic technologies and biological as well as chemical pretreatments to be reduced in size and have its physical structure opened. The aqueous processes are favored from an ecological point of view, but unfortunately, the selectivity to 5-HMF in water is usually low. Water is abundant and nonhazardous and is a proper solvent for monosaccharides and the product. The bromide and iodide are better leaving groups and nucleophiles than chloride, and for this reason they were more effective as ionic additives. The outstanding results for the IL-mediated conversion of microcrystalline cellulose into 5-HMF under mild conditions were presented by Chen and co-workers.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: LCE-20-2014 | Award Amount: 3.70M | Year: 2015

The development and adoption of renewable and sustainable energy has become a top priority in Europe, and is Horizon 2020s most prominent theme. Research into new energy methods required to reduce humanitys carbon footprint is an urgent and critical need, and is reliant upon a flow of newly qualified persons in areas as diverse as renewable energy infrastructure management, new energy materials and methods, and smart buildings and transport. Bioenergy is a particularly important field in this respect as it is at the cross-roads of several important European policies, from the Strategic Energy Technology Plan Roadmap on Education and Training (SET-Plan) to the European Bioeconomy Strategy to European Food Safety and Nutrition Policy. European development in this prioritised field is stalled due to a lack of qualified personnel, a lack of cohesion and integration among stakeholders, and poor linkage between professional training and industry needs. To address these problems, BioEnergyTrain brings together fifteen partners from six EU countries to create new post-graduate level curricula in key bioenergy disciplines, and a network of tertiary education institutions, research centres, professional associations, and industry stakeholders encompassing the whole value chain of bioenergy from field/forest to integration into the sustainable energy systems of buildings, settlements and regions. The project will foster European cooperation to provide a highly skilled and innovative workforce across the whole bioenergy value chain, closely following the recommendations of the SET-Plan Education Roadmap.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-16-2014 | Award Amount: 3.00M | Year: 2015

The accelerated development of shale gas is accompanied by growing public concern regarding the safety of shale gas extraction and its impact on human health and the environment. For the US, shale gas exploitation proved very successful in changing the energy landscape in terms of security of domestic supply and increased contribution of gas in the energy mix. For Europe, shale gas exploitation could increase our resources and production of natural gas; a critical fuel for the transition to a low carbon energy system. However, there are a number of important gaps in our present understanding of shale gas exploration and exploitation, and a strong need for independent, science-based knowledge of its potential impacts in a European context. The M4ShaleGas program focuses on reviewing and improving existing best practices and innovative technologies for measuring, monitoring, mitigating and managing the environmental impact of shale gas exploration and exploitation in Europe. The technical and social research activities will yield integrated scientific recommendations for 1) how to minimize environmental risks to the subsurface, surface and atmosphere, 2) propose risk reduction and mitigation measures and 3) how to address the public attitude towards shale gas development. The 18 research institutes from 10 European Union Member States that collaborate in the M4ShaleGas consortium cover different geopolitical regions in Europe, including Member States that are at the forefront regarding shale gas exploration and exploitation in Europe as well as Member States where shale gas exploitation is not yet being actively pursued. The project governance ensures proper integration of all research activities. Knowledge and experience on best practices is imbedded by direct collaboration with US and Canadian research partners and input from representatives from the industry. During the project, results will be public and actively disseminated to all stakeholders.


Europe has invoked the SET-Plan to design and implement an energy technology policy for Europe to accelerate the development and deployment of cost-effective renewable energy systems, including photovoltaics. With lower cost of solar electricity, PV could significantly contribute to the achievements of the 20-20-20 objectives. The Joint Program on PV of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA-PV) aims to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of PV R&D through alignment and joint programming of R&D of its member institutes, and to contribute to the R&D-needs of the Solar Europe Industry Initiative. In CHEETAH, all EERA-PV members will, through collaborative R&D activities, (1) focus on solving specific bottlenecks in the R&D Joint Program of EERA-PV, (2) strengthen the collaboration between PV R&D performers in Europe through sharing of knowledge, personnel and facilities, and (3) accelerate the implementation of developed technologies in the European PV industry. Specifically, CHEETAH R&D will support Pillar A (performance enhancement & energy cost reduction) of the SEII Implementation Plan, through materials optimization and performance enhancement. CHEETAHs objectives are threefold: 1) Developing new concepts and technologies for wafer-based crystalline silicon PV (modules with ultra-thin cells), thin-film PV (advanced light management) and organic PV (very low-cost barriers), resulting in (strongly) reduced cost of materials and increased module performance; 2) Fostering long-term European cooperation in the PV R&D sector, by organizing workshops, training of researchers, efficient use of infrastructures; 3) Accelerating the implementation of innovative technologies in the PV industry, by a strong involvement of EPIA and EIT-KIC InnoEnergy in the program It is the ambition of CHEETAH to develop technology and foster manufacturing capabilities so that Europe can regain and build up own manufacturing capacity in all parts of the value chain in due time.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-02-2015 | Award Amount: 4.24M | Year: 2016

CHPM2030 aims to develop a novel and potentially disruptive technology solution that can help satisfy the European needs for energy and strategic metals in a single interlinked process. Working at the frontiers of geothermal resources development, minerals extraction and electro-metallurgy the project aims at converting ultra-deep metallic mineral formations into an orebody-EGS that will serve as a basis for the development of a new type of facility for Combined Heat, Power and Metal extraction (CHPM). In the technology envisioned the metal-bearing geological formation will be manipulated in a way that the co-production of energy and metals will be possible, and may be optimised according to the market demands at any given moment in the future. The workplan has been set up in a way to provide proof-of-concept for the following hypotheses: 1. The composition and structure of orebodies have certain advantages that could be used to our advantage when developing an EGS; 2. Metals can be leached from the orebodies in high concentrations over a prolonged period of time and may substantially influence the economics of EGS; 3. The continuous leaching of metals will increase systems performance over time in a controlled way and without having to use high-pressure reservoir stimulation, minimizing potential detrimental impacts of both heat and metal extraction. As a final outcome the project will deliver blueprints and detailed specifications of a new type of future facility that is designed and operated from the very beginning as a combined heat, power and metal extraction system. The horizontal aim is to provide new impetus to geothermal development in Europe by investigating previously unexplored pathways at low-TRL. This will be achieved by developing a Roadmap in support of the pilot implementation of such system before 2025, and full-scale commercial implementation before 2030.

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