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Santos R.,National Laboratory of Energy and Geology
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2014

The addition of methane to nebulizer gas was assessed as a method for the reduction of polyatomic interferents in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The effects of nebulizer gas flow rate, RF power and methane flow were studied for a range of analytes and polyatomic ions. The analyte sensitivity, especially for Be, Br and I, was enhanced by a factor of 7-12 with methane addition. Polyatomic ions, such as ArCl+, ArO +, ClO+ and ArArH+, were reduced between 61 and 92% when compared to those of an unmodified plasma. Such reduction allowed better quantification limits for V, As, Se, Br and I, as well as 90% BaO + polyatomic reduction. Finally, the optimized conditions were evaluated in successful recovery tests for As, Se and V in different matrices with high chloride content. The Fe accuracy was evaluated in several reference materials. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Zakrzewska M.E.,New University of Lisbon | Bogel-Lukasik E.,New University of Lisbon | Bogel-Lukasik R.,New University of Lisbon | Bogel-Lukasik R.,National Laboratory of Energy and Geology
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

Lignocellulosic biomass is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The compositions of these materials vary, and their structures are very complex. Biomass requires many hydrolytic technologies and biological as well as chemical pretreatments to be reduced in size and have its physical structure opened. The aqueous processes are favored from an ecological point of view, but unfortunately, the selectivity to 5-HMF in water is usually low. Water is abundant and nonhazardous and is a proper solvent for monosaccharides and the product. The bromide and iodide are better leaving groups and nucleophiles than chloride, and for this reason they were more effective as ionic additives. The outstanding results for the IL-mediated conversion of microcrystalline cellulose into 5-HMF under mild conditions were presented by Chen and co-workers. Source

Castro P.M.,National Laboratory of Energy and Geology
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2010

This work addresses the short-term scheduling problem involved in the pipeline transportation of refined petroleum products to distribution centers serving local markets. A new continuous-time formulation is proposed that can handle complex treelike systems involving multiple refineries and depots. The novelty concerns the modeling of the complex storage policy associated with the flow of multiple products inside the pipeline. This is accomplished through the use of real and accumulated volume resources for every product, coupled with filling, moving, and emptying tasks, under the scope of the resource-task network process representation. Computational studies are performed to compare the performance of the new approach to three models from the literature that rely on the concept of batches rather than events to model what is in reality a continuous system. The results show that the proposed approach is wider in scope with the typical drawback of being less efficient for structural subclasses of the general problem. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: LCE-20-2014 | Award Amount: 3.70M | Year: 2015

The development and adoption of renewable and sustainable energy has become a top priority in Europe, and is Horizon 2020s most prominent theme. Research into new energy methods required to reduce humanitys carbon footprint is an urgent and critical need, and is reliant upon a flow of newly qualified persons in areas as diverse as renewable energy infrastructure management, new energy materials and methods, and smart buildings and transport. Bioenergy is a particularly important field in this respect as it is at the cross-roads of several important European policies, from the Strategic Energy Technology Plan Roadmap on Education and Training (SET-Plan) to the European Bioeconomy Strategy to European Food Safety and Nutrition Policy. European development in this prioritised field is stalled due to a lack of qualified personnel, a lack of cohesion and integration among stakeholders, and poor linkage between professional training and industry needs. To address these problems, BioEnergyTrain brings together fifteen partners from six EU countries to create new post-graduate level curricula in key bioenergy disciplines, and a network of tertiary education institutions, research centres, professional associations, and industry stakeholders encompassing the whole value chain of bioenergy from field/forest to integration into the sustainable energy systems of buildings, settlements and regions. The project will foster European cooperation to provide a highly skilled and innovative workforce across the whole bioenergy value chain, closely following the recommendations of the SET-Plan Education Roadmap.

Da Costa Lopes A.M.,National Laboratory of Energy and Geology | Bogel-Lukasik R.,National Laboratory of Energy and Geology
ChemSusChem | Year: 2015

The use of ionic liquids (ILs) for biomass processing has attracted considerable attention recently as it provides distinct features for pre-treated biomass and fractionated materials in comparison to conventional processes. Process intensification through integration of dissolution, fractionation, hydrolysis and/or conversion in one pot should be accomplished to maximise economic and technological feasibility. The possibility of using alternative ILs capable not only of dissolving and deconstructing selectively biomass but also of catalysing reactions simultaneously are a potential solution of this problem. In this Review a critical overview of the state of the art and perspectives of the hydrolysis and conversion of cellulose and lignocellulosic biomass using acidic ILs using no additional catalyst are provided. The efficiency of the process is mainly considered with regard to the hydrolysis and conversion yields obtained and the selectivity of each reaction. The process conditions can be easily tuned to obtain sugars and/or platform chemicals, such as furans and organic acids. On the other hand, product recovery from the IL and its purity are the main challenges for the acceptance of this technology as a feasible alternative to conventional processes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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