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Zhu X.,National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules | Fu L.,National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules | Yi F.,Salk Institute for Biological Studies | Liu G.-H.,National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules | And 5 more authors.
Cell Research | Year: 2014

In recent years, researchers worldwide have developed protocols to efficiently differentiate skeletal myogenic cells from human pluripotent stem cells through either ectopic gene expression or the use of small molecules. These stem cell-derived myogenic cells provide new avenues for the study of muscle-related diseases, drug screening and are potentially a new tool for cell therapy against muscular dystrophies. © 2014 IBCB, SIBS, CAS All rights reserved.

Chen P.,National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules
Nucleus (Austin, Tex.) | Year: 2014

In eukaryotes, genomic DNA is hierarchically packaged into chromatin by histones. A defined organization of the genome into chromatin with specific patterns of epigenetic modifications is crucial for transcriptional regulation, cell fate determination, and maintenance, in which the histone variant incorporation has been characterized as one of the most key players. The diversity of histone variants results in structural plasticity of chromatin and highlights functionally distinct chromosomal domains. Here we focus on the role of histone variant H3.3 and its coregulation with H2A.Z in chromatin dynamics at enhancers and promoters and transcriptional regulation.

Wang Z.,National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules | Wang Z.,China Japan Joint Laboratory of Structural Virology and Immunology | Wang Z.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Jiang J.,National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Immunotherapy | Year: 2010

Although adjuvants are important components of vaccines, few studies have been conducted to establish the criteria on adjuvant selection and to investigate mechanisms of adjuvant actions during vaccination. Here we found that complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) induced a CD11b cell population in a B-cell independent manner. This cell population exhibited strong ability to inhibit T-cell-mediated rejection of tumor transplants. In vitro studies indicated that these cells induced T-cell apoptosis and down-regulated interferon-γ production. Nitric oxide (NO) played important roles to achieve these effects. Plenty of NO was produced by these CFA-induced CD11b cells. The addition of N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, an inhibitor of NO synthase, rescued T cells from apoptosis and partially abrogated the detrimental effects of CFA in cancer vaccines. Incomplete Freund adjuvant, one of the adjuvants still being used in clinical trials, also induced a similar cell population. Our results reveal a previously unknown mechanism in which the myeloid cell population induced by Freund adjuvant impairs antitumor immunity, and highlight the importance of adjuvant selection during tumor vaccination. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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