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Chang Y.H.,National Health Research Institute | Lin L.-M.,National Health Research Institute | Lou C.-W.,National Health Research Institute | Chou C.-K.,National Laboratory Animal Center | And 2 more authors.
Radiotherapy and Oncology | Year: 2012

Purpose: Our previous study reveals bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recruits host marrow-derived myelomonocytic cells to radiation-injured intestine, enhancing stromal proliferation, leading secondarily to epithelial regeneration. In this study, we propose BMT ameliorates intestinal damage via paracrine mechanisms. Materials and methods: Angiogenic cytokines within the intestinal mucosa of mice after whole body irradiation (WBI) with or without BMT were measured by cytokine array and ELISA. BM conditioned medium (BMCM) with or without treatment with neutralizing antibodies to angiogenic cytokines were continuously infused into mice for three days after radiation. Carrageenan was used to deplete myelomonocytic cells of mice. Results: BMT increased VEGF, bFGF and other angiogenic and chemotactic cytokines in the intestinal mucosa within 24 h after WBI. Infusion of BMCM ameliorated radiation-induced intestinal damage with improved stromal activity and prolonged survival of mice. Neutralization of bFGF, PDGF and other angiogenic cytokines within BMCM abolished the mitigating effect to the intestine. Pretreatment of carrageenan to recipient mice reversed some of the cytokine levels, including VEGF, bFGF and IGF within the intestinal mucosa after BMT. Conclusions: Our result suggests BMT recruits host myelomonocytic cells and enhances intestinal stroma proliferation after radiation by secreting cytokines enhancing angiogenesis and chemotaxis. Host myelomonocytic cells further uplift the paracrine effect to enhance intestinal mucosal recovery. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Ching Y.-H.,Cornell University | Ching Y.-H.,National Laboratory Animal Center | Wilson L.A.,The Jackson Laboratory | Schimenti J.C.,Cornell University
BMC Developmental Biology | Year: 2010

Background. The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger gene Plzf (also called Zbtb16, Zfp145 or Green's luxoid) belongs to the POZ/zinc-finger family of transcription factors. It contains a BTB/POZ domain that mediates epigenetic transcriptional repression. PLZF is essential for proper skeleton patterning and male germ cell renewal. Two alleles have been reported that display similar phenotypes: a targeted knock-out, and the spontaneous nonsense mutation luxoid. Results. We describe a new ENU induced missense allele of Plzf called seven toes (Plzf7t). Homozygous animals exhibit hindlimb and axial skeleton abnormalities. Whereas the skeletal abnormalities are similar to those of the other alleles, Plzf7t differs in that it does not cause spermatogonial depletion and infertility. Positional cloning revealed a point mutation changing the evolutionarily conserved amino acid Glu44 to Gly, possibly altering the BTB domain's activity. Conclusions. Plzf7t is a separation-of-function allele that reveals differential requirements for domains of PLZF in different developmental milieus. © 2010 Ching et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Wu Y.-H.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Kuo W.-C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Wu Y.-J.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Wu Y.-J.,National Taiwan University | And 7 more authors.
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2014

Cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is an inhibitor of caspase-8 and is required for macrophage survival. Recent studies have revealed a selective role of caspase-8 in noncanonical IL-1β production that is independent of caspase-1 or inflammasome. Here we demonstrated that c-FLIP L is an unexpected contributor to canonical inflammasome activation for the generation of caspase-1 and active IL-1β. Hemizygotic deletion of c-FLIP impaired ATP- and monosodium uric acid (MSU)-induced IL-1β production in macrophages primed through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Decreased IL-1β expression was attributed to a reduced activation of caspase-1 in c-FLIP hemizygotic cells. In contrast, the production of TNF-α was not affected by downregulation in c-FLIP. c-FLIP L interacted with NLRP3 or procaspase-1. c-FLIP is required for the full NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and NLRP3 mitochondrial localization, and c-FLIP is associated with NLRP3 inflammasome. c-FLIP downregulation also reduced AIM2 inflammasome activation. In contrast, c-FLIP inhibited SMAC mimetic-, FasL-, or Dectin-1-induced IL-1β generation that is caspase-8-mediated. Our results demonstrate a prominent role of c-FLIP L in the optimal activation of the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes, and suggest that c-FLIP could be a valid target for treatment of inflammatory diseases caused by over-activation of inflammasomes. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Shiao M.-S.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chang A.Y.-F.,National Health Research Institute | Liao B.-Y.,National Health Research Institute | Ching Y.-H.,Tzu Chi University | And 5 more authors.
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2012

To sense numerous odorants and chemicals, animals have evolved a large number of olfactory receptor genes (Olfrs) in their genome. In particular, the house mouse has ;1,100 genes in the Olfr gene family. This makes the mouse a good model organism to study Olfr genes and olfaction-related genes. To date, whether male and female mice possess the same ability in detecting environmental odorants is still unknown. Using the next generation sequencing technology (paired-end mRNAseq), we detected 1,088 expressed Olfr genes in both male and female olfactory epithelium. We found that not only Olfr genes but also odorant-binding protein (Obp) genes have evolved rapidly in the mouse lineage. Interestingly, Olfr genes tend to express at a higher level in males than in females, whereas the Obp genes clustered on the X chromosome show the opposite trend. These observations may imply a more efficient odorant-transporting system in females, whereas a more active Olfr gene expressing system in males. In addition, we detected the expression of two genes encoding major urinary proteins, which have been proposed to bind and transport pheromones or act as pheromones in mouse urine. This observation suggests a role of main olfactory system (MOS) in pheromone detection, contrary to the view that only accessory olfactory system (AOS) is involved in pheromone detection. This study suggests the sexual differences in detecting environmental odorants in MOS and demonstrates that mRNA-seq provides a powerful tool for detecting genes with low expression levels and with high sequence similarities. © 2012 The Author(s). Source

Lee Y.-P.,National Cheng Kung University | Wang Y.-F.,National Health Research Institute | Wang J.-R.,National Cheng Kung University | Huang S.-W.,National Cheng Kung University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Virology | Year: 2012

Type I interferons (IFNs) represent an essential innate defense mechanism for controlling enterovirus 71 (EV 71) infection. Mice inoculated with EV 71 produced a significantly lower amount of type I IFNs than those inoculated with poly (I:C), adenovirus type V, or coxsackievirus B3 (CB3). EV 71 infection, however, mounted a proinflammatory response with a significant increase in the levels of serum and brain interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor, and IFN-γ. EV 71 infection abolished both poly (I:C)- and CB3-induced type I IFN production of mice. Such effect was not extended to other enteroviruses including coxsackievirus A24, B2, B3, and echovirus 9, as mice infected with these viruses retained type I IFN responsiveness upon poly (I:C) challenge. In addition, EV 71-infected RAW264.7 cells produced significantly lower amount of type I IFNs than non-infected cells upon poly (I:C) stimulation. The inhibitory effect of EV 71 on type I IFN production was attributed to the viral protein 3C, which was confirmed using over-expression systems in both mice and RAW264.7 cells. The 3C over-expression, however, did not interfere with poly (I:C)-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. These findings indicate that EV 71 can hamper the host innate defense by blocking selectively type I IFN synthesis through the 3C viral protein. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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