National Laboratory Animal Center

Taipei, Taiwan

National Laboratory Animal Center

Taipei, Taiwan
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Liu W.-H.,National Yang Ming University | Chuang H.-L.,National Laboratory Animal Center | Huang Y.-T.,National Laboratory Animal Center | Wu C.-C.,National Yang Ming University | And 3 more authors.
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2016

Probiotics, defined as live bacteria or bacterial products, confer a significant health benefit to the host, including amelioration of anxiety-like behavior and psychiatric illnesses. Here we administered Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 (PS128) to a germ-free (GF) mouse model to investigate the impact of the gut-brain axis on emotional behaviors. First, we demonstrated that chronic administration of live PS128 showed no adverse effects on physical health. Then, we found that administration of live PS128 significantly increased the total distance traveled in the open field test and decreased the time spent in the closed arm in the elevated plus maze test, whereas the administration of PS128 had no significant effects in the depression-like behaviors of GF mice. Also, chronic live PS128 ingestion significantly increased the levels of both serotonin and dopamine in the striatum, but not in the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus. These results suggest that the chronic administration of PS128 is safe and could induce changes in emotional behaviors. The behavioral changes are correlated with the increase in the monoamine neurotransmitters in the striatum. These findings suggest that daily intake of the L. plantarum strain PS128 could improve anxiety-like behaviors and may be helpful in ameliorating neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2015 The Authors.

Tu Y.-F.,National Cheng Kung University | Jiang S.-T.,National Laboratory Animal Center | Chow Y.-H.,National Health Research Institute | Huang C.-C.,National Cheng Kung University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2016

This study determined if dietary restriction (DR) protects against hypoxic-ischemia (HI) in the neonatal brain via insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)/Akt pathway-mediated downregulation of p53 in the neurovascular unit. On postnatal (P) day 7, HI was induced in rat pups grouped from P1 into normal litter size (NL, 12 pups/dam) and increased litter size (DR, 18 pups/dam). In vivo IRS-1 anti-sense oligonucleotide and IRS-1 overexpressed recombinant adenovirus were given, and neurovascular damage was assessed. In vitro models of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) examined the inhibition and overexpression of IRS-1 on p53 and cell death in neurons and endothelial cells. Compared to NL pups, DR pups had significantly higher IRS-1, p-IRS-1, and pAkt levels, decreased p53, more tight junction proteins, reduced blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage after HI, and less infarct volumes at P21. Immunofluorescence revealed that IRS-1 was upregulated in the endothelial cells and neurons of DR pups. IRS-1 downregulation in DR pups reduced p-Akt, increased p53, worsened BBB damage, and increased brain injury, whereas IRS-1 overexpression in NL pups upregulated p-Akt, decreased p53, attenuated BBB damage, and decreased brain injury. In vitro, IRS-1 downregulation aggravated cell death in neurons and endothelial cells and is associated with decreased p-Akt and increased p53. In contrast, IRS-1 overexpression reduced cell death in endothelial cells with increased p-Akt and decreased p53. In conclusion, DR reduces neurovascular damage after HI in the neonatal brain through an IRS-1/Akt-mediated p53 downregulation, suggesting that IRS-1 signaling is a therapeutic target for hypoxic brain injury in neonates. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Ching Y.-H.,Cornell University | Ching Y.-H.,National Laboratory Animal Center | Wilson L.A.,The Jackson Laboratory | Schimenti J.C.,Cornell University
BMC Developmental Biology | Year: 2010

Background. The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger gene Plzf (also called Zbtb16, Zfp145 or Green's luxoid) belongs to the POZ/zinc-finger family of transcription factors. It contains a BTB/POZ domain that mediates epigenetic transcriptional repression. PLZF is essential for proper skeleton patterning and male germ cell renewal. Two alleles have been reported that display similar phenotypes: a targeted knock-out, and the spontaneous nonsense mutation luxoid. Results. We describe a new ENU induced missense allele of Plzf called seven toes (Plzf7t). Homozygous animals exhibit hindlimb and axial skeleton abnormalities. Whereas the skeletal abnormalities are similar to those of the other alleles, Plzf7t differs in that it does not cause spermatogonial depletion and infertility. Positional cloning revealed a point mutation changing the evolutionarily conserved amino acid Glu44 to Gly, possibly altering the BTB domain's activity. Conclusions. Plzf7t is a separation-of-function allele that reveals differential requirements for domains of PLZF in different developmental milieus. © 2010 Ching et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Wu Y.-H.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Kuo W.-C.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Wu Y.-J.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Wu Y.-J.,National Taiwan University | And 7 more authors.
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2014

Cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is an inhibitor of caspase-8 and is required for macrophage survival. Recent studies have revealed a selective role of caspase-8 in noncanonical IL-1β production that is independent of caspase-1 or inflammasome. Here we demonstrated that c-FLIP L is an unexpected contributor to canonical inflammasome activation for the generation of caspase-1 and active IL-1β. Hemizygotic deletion of c-FLIP impaired ATP- and monosodium uric acid (MSU)-induced IL-1β production in macrophages primed through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Decreased IL-1β expression was attributed to a reduced activation of caspase-1 in c-FLIP hemizygotic cells. In contrast, the production of TNF-α was not affected by downregulation in c-FLIP. c-FLIP L interacted with NLRP3 or procaspase-1. c-FLIP is required for the full NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and NLRP3 mitochondrial localization, and c-FLIP is associated with NLRP3 inflammasome. c-FLIP downregulation also reduced AIM2 inflammasome activation. In contrast, c-FLIP inhibited SMAC mimetic-, FasL-, or Dectin-1-induced IL-1β generation that is caspase-8-mediated. Our results demonstrate a prominent role of c-FLIP L in the optimal activation of the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes, and suggest that c-FLIP could be a valid target for treatment of inflammatory diseases caused by over-activation of inflammasomes. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Shiao M.-S.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chang A.Y.-F.,National Health Research Institute | Liao B.-Y.,National Health Research Institute | Ching Y.-H.,Tzu Chi University | And 5 more authors.
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2012

To sense numerous odorants and chemicals, animals have evolved a large number of olfactory receptor genes (Olfrs) in their genome. In particular, the house mouse has ;1,100 genes in the Olfr gene family. This makes the mouse a good model organism to study Olfr genes and olfaction-related genes. To date, whether male and female mice possess the same ability in detecting environmental odorants is still unknown. Using the next generation sequencing technology (paired-end mRNAseq), we detected 1,088 expressed Olfr genes in both male and female olfactory epithelium. We found that not only Olfr genes but also odorant-binding protein (Obp) genes have evolved rapidly in the mouse lineage. Interestingly, Olfr genes tend to express at a higher level in males than in females, whereas the Obp genes clustered on the X chromosome show the opposite trend. These observations may imply a more efficient odorant-transporting system in females, whereas a more active Olfr gene expressing system in males. In addition, we detected the expression of two genes encoding major urinary proteins, which have been proposed to bind and transport pheromones or act as pheromones in mouse urine. This observation suggests a role of main olfactory system (MOS) in pheromone detection, contrary to the view that only accessory olfactory system (AOS) is involved in pheromone detection. This study suggests the sexual differences in detecting environmental odorants in MOS and demonstrates that mRNA-seq provides a powerful tool for detecting genes with low expression levels and with high sequence similarities. © 2012 The Author(s).

Chen C.-W.,National Cheng Kung University | Lee Y.-P.,National Cheng Kung University | Wang Y.-F.,National Health Research Institute | Yu C.-K.,National Cheng Kung University | Yu C.-K.,National Laboratory Animal Center
Vaccine | Year: 2011

In this study we tested the effectiveness of a formaldehyde-inactivated EV71 vaccine and its compatibility for co-immunization with a pentavalent vaccine that contained inactivated poliovirus (PV) vaccine. The inactivated EV71 vaccine (C2 genogroup) elicited an antibody response which broadly neutralized homologous and heterologous genogroups, including B4, C4, and B5. Pups from vaccinated dams were resistant to the EV71 challenge and had a high survival rate and a low tissue viral burden when compared to those from non-vaccinated counterparts. Co-immunization with pentavalent and inactivated EV71 vaccines elicited antibodies against the major components of the pentavalent vaccine including the PV, Bordetella pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, diphtheria toxoid, and tetanus toxoid at the same levels as in mice immunized with pentavalent vaccine alone. Likewise, EV71 neutralizing antibody titers were comparable between EV71-vaccinated mice and mice co-immunized with the two vaccines. These results indicate that formaldehyde-inactivated whole virus EV71 vaccine is feasible for designing multivalent vaccines. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Chang Y.H.,National Health Research Institute | Lin L.-M.,National Health Research Institute | Lou C.-W.,National Health Research Institute | Chou C.-K.,National Laboratory Animal Center | And 2 more authors.
Radiotherapy and Oncology | Year: 2012

Purpose: Our previous study reveals bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recruits host marrow-derived myelomonocytic cells to radiation-injured intestine, enhancing stromal proliferation, leading secondarily to epithelial regeneration. In this study, we propose BMT ameliorates intestinal damage via paracrine mechanisms. Materials and methods: Angiogenic cytokines within the intestinal mucosa of mice after whole body irradiation (WBI) with or without BMT were measured by cytokine array and ELISA. BM conditioned medium (BMCM) with or without treatment with neutralizing antibodies to angiogenic cytokines were continuously infused into mice for three days after radiation. Carrageenan was used to deplete myelomonocytic cells of mice. Results: BMT increased VEGF, bFGF and other angiogenic and chemotactic cytokines in the intestinal mucosa within 24 h after WBI. Infusion of BMCM ameliorated radiation-induced intestinal damage with improved stromal activity and prolonged survival of mice. Neutralization of bFGF, PDGF and other angiogenic cytokines within BMCM abolished the mitigating effect to the intestine. Pretreatment of carrageenan to recipient mice reversed some of the cytokine levels, including VEGF, bFGF and IGF within the intestinal mucosa after BMT. Conclusions: Our result suggests BMT recruits host myelomonocytic cells and enhances intestinal stroma proliferation after radiation by secreting cytokines enhancing angiogenesis and chemotaxis. Host myelomonocytic cells further uplift the paracrine effect to enhance intestinal mucosal recovery. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lee P.-T.,National Cheng Kung University | Lee P.-T.,National Yang Ming University | Lin H.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Jiang S.-T.,National Laboratory Animal Center | And 5 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2010

Acute tubular necrosis is followed by regeneration of damaged renal tubular epithelial cells, and renal stem cells are supposed to contribute to this process. The purpose of our study is to test the hypothesis that renal stem cells isolated from adult mouse kidney accelerate renal regeneration via participation in the repair process. A unique population of cells exhibiting characteristics consistent with renal stem cells, mouse kidney progenitor cells (MKPC), was isolated from Myh9 targeted mutant mice. Features of these cells include (1) spindle-shaped morphology, (2) self-renewal of more than 100 passages without evidence of senescence, and (3) expression of Oct-4, Pax-2, Wnt-4, WT-1, vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin, CD29, and S100A4 but no SSEA-1, c-kit, or other markers of more differentiated cells. MKPC exhibit plasticity as demonstrated by the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells and osteoblasts in vitro and endothelial cells and tubular epithelial cells in vivo. The origin of the isolated MKPC was from the interstitium of medulla and papilla. Importantly, intrarenal injection of MKPC in mice with ischemic injury rescued renal damage, as manifested by decreases in peak serum urea nitrogen, the infarct zone, and the necrotic injury. Seven days after the injury, some MKPC formed vessels with red blood cells inside and some incorporated into renal tubules. In addition, MKPC treatment reduces the mortality in mice after ischemic injury. Our results indicate that MKPC represent a multipotent adult stem cell population, which may contribute to the renal repair and prolong survival after ischemic injury. © AlphaMed Press.

Wang Y.-F.,National Cheng Kung University | Wang Y.-F.,National Health Research Institute | Yu C.-K.,National Cheng Kung University | Yu C.-K.,National Laboratory Animal Center
Journal of Biomedical Science | Year: 2014

Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus that is responsible for several outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region over the past 15 years. Appropriate animal models are needed to understand EV71 neuropathogenesis better and to facilitate the development of effective vaccines and drugs. Non-human primate models have been used to characterize and evaluate the neurovirulence of EV71 after the early outbreaks in late 1990s. However, these models were not suitable for assessing the neurovirulence level of the virus and were associated with ethical and economic difficulties in terms of broad application. Several strategies have been applied to develop mouse models of EV71 infection, including strategies that employ virus adaption and immunodeficient hosts. Although these mouse models do not closely mimic human disease, they have been applied to determine the pathogenesis of and treatment and prevention of the disease. EV71 receptor-transgenic mouse models have recently been developed and have significantly advanced our understanding of the biological features of the virus and the host-parasite interactions. Overall, each of these models has advantages and disadvantages, and these models are differentially suited for studies of EV71 pathogenesis and/or the pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this paper, we review the characteristics, applications and limitation of these EV71 animal models, including non-human primate and mouse models. © 2014 Wang and Yu; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Hsu Y.J.,National Taiwan Sport University | Chiu C.C.,National Taiwan Sport University | Li Y.P.,National Laboratory Animal Center | Huang W.C.,National Taiwan Sport University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2015

The antioxidant enzyme system helps protect against intense exercise-induced oxidative damage and is related to the physical status of athletes. Evidence suggests that intestinal microbiota may be an important environmental factor associated with host metabolism, physiology, and antioxidant endogenous defense. However, evidence of the effect of gut microbiota status on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We investigated the association of intestinal bacteria and exercise performance in specific pathogen-free (SPF), germ-free (GF), and Bacteroides fragilis (BF) gnotobiotic mice. Endurance swimming time was longer for SPF and BF than GF mice, and the weight of liver, muscle, brown adipose, and epididymal fat pads was higher for SPF and BF than GF mice. The serum levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase were greater in SPF than GF mice. Serum superoxide dismutase activity was lower in BF than SPF and GF mice. In addition, hepatic GPx level was higher in SPF than GF and BF mice. Gut microbial status could be crucial for exercise performance and its potential action linked with the antioxidant enzyme system in athletes. © 2015 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

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