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Mildner M.,Medical University of Vienna | Storka A.,Medical University of Vienna | Lichtenauer M.,Christian Doppler Laboratory | Mlitz V.,Medical University of Vienna | And 6 more authors.
Cardiovascular Research | Year: 2010

Aims Serum levels of the soluble growth stimulation gene-2 (sST2) are elevated in heart and pulmonary diseases. However, the relationship of the sST2/interleukin (IL)-33 axis and its triggers as well as its organ distribution is still not known. This study was thus designed to investigate the cellular origin and regulation of sST2 and IL-33 in vitro and in vivo. Methods and results sST2 and IL-33 gene expression and protein secretion were analysed in pooled organ-specific cDNAs and in primary cell cultures, respectively, by RT-PCR and ELISA technology. The strongest sST2 mRNA expression was detected in heart and lung tissues, which correlated with spontaneous secretion of sST2 protein in vitro. The inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-1, and tumour necrosis factor as well as supernatants of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells led to an enhanced secretion of sST2 in cultured cardiac myocytes and lung alveolar epithelial cells. These cytokines enhanced sST2 secretion via an NFκB-dependent mechanism. In addition, LPS stimulation in humans in vivo induced a short-term inflammatory response that was followed by a massive enhancement of sST2 secretion. Conclusion These results identify the primary sources and inflammatory triggers for the enhancement of sST2 secretion and demonstrate a relationship between inflammation and the secretion of a bioactive member of the IL-1R family, both in vitro and in vivo. © 2010 The Author.

Wegiel B.,Harvard University | Nemeth Z.,Harvard University | Nemeth Z.,National Koranyi Institute of Pulmonology | Correa-Costa M.,Harvard University | And 2 more authors.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2014

Significance: Heme degradation, which was described more than 30 years ago, is still very actively explored with many novel discoveries on its role in various disease models every year. Recent Advances: The heme oxygenases (HO) are metabolic enzymes that utilize NADPH and oxygen to break apart the heme moiety liberating biliverdin (BV), carbon monoxide (CO), and iron. Heme that is derived from hemoproteins can be toxic to the cells and if not removed immediately, it causes cell apoptosis and local inflammation. Elimination of heme from the milieu enables generation of three products that influences numerous metabolic changes in the cell. Critical Issues: CO has profound effects on mitochondria and cellular respiration and other hemoproteins to which it can bind and affect their function, while BV and bilirubin (BR), the substrate and product of BV, reductase, respectively, are potent antioxidants. Sequestration of iron into ferritin and its recycling in the tissues is a part of the homeodynamic processes that control oxidation-reduction in cellular metabolism. Further, heme is an important component of a number of metabolic enzymes, and, therefore, HO-1 plays an important role in the modulation of cellular bioenergetics. Future Directions: In this review, we describe the cross-talk between heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and its products with other metabolic pathways. HO-1, which we have labeled Nike, the goddess who personified victory, dictates triumph over pathophysiologic conditions, including diabetes, ischemia, and cancer. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.

Marko-Varga G.,Biomedical Imaging Center | Marko-Varga G.,Tokyo Medical University | Fehniger T.E.,Biomedical Imaging Center | Fehniger T.E.,Tallinn University of Technology | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2011

Lung cancer is a common cause of cancer mortality in the world, largely due to the risk factor of tobacco smoking. The drug therapy at the molecular level includes targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase activity by using inhibitors, such as erlotinib (Tarceva) and gefitinib (Iressa). The heterogeneity of disease phenotypes and the somatic mutations presented in patient populations have a great impact on the efficacy of treatments using targeted personalized medicine.In this study, we report on basic physical and chemical properties of erlotinib and gefitinib in three different lung cancer tumor phenotypes, using MALDI instrumentation in imaging mode, providing spatial localization of drugs without chemical labeling. Erlotinib and gefitinib were analyzed in i) planocellular lung carcinoma, ii) adenocarcinoma and iii) large cell lung carcinoma following their deposition on the tissue surfaces by piezo-dispensing, using a controlled procedure. The importance of high-resolution sampling was crucial in order to accurately localize the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors deposited in heterogeneous cancer tissue compartments.This is the first report on personalized drug characterization with localizations at a lateral resolution of 30. μm, which allowed us to map these compounds at attomolar concentrations within the lung tumor tissue microenvironments. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Paku S.,Semmelweis University | Dezs K.,Semmelweis University | Bugyik E.,Semmelweis University | Tovari J.,National Institute of Oncology | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2011

One of the hallmarks of intussusceptive angiogenesis is the development of intraluminal connective tissue pillars. The exact mechanism of pillar formation has not yet been elucidated. By using electron and confocal microscopy, we observed intraluminal nascent pillars that contain a collagen bundle covered by endothelial cells (ECs) in the vasculature of experimental tumors. We proposed a new mechanism for the development of these pillars. First, intraluminal endothelial bridges are formed. Second, localized dissolution of the basement membrane occurs and a bridging EC attaches to a collagen bundle in the underlying connective tissue. A pulling force is then exerted by the actin cytoskeleton of the ECs via specific attachment points, which contain vinculin, to the collagen bundle, resulting in suction and subsequent transport of the collagen bundle into and through the vessel lumen. Third, the pillar matures through the immigration of connective tissue cells and the deposition of new collagenous connective tissue. The proposed simple mechanism generates a connection between the processes of endothelial bridging and intussusceptive angiogenesis and identifies the source of the force behind pillar formation. Moreover, it ensures the rapid formation of pillars from pre-existing building blocks and the maintenance of EC polarity. To describe it, we coined the term inverse sprouting. © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology.

Douillard J.-Y.,Institute Of Cance Rologie Of Louest | Ostoros G.,National Koranyi Institute of Pulmonology | Cobo M.,Hospital Regional Universitario Carlos Haya | Ciuleanu T.,Institutul Oncologic Ion Chiricuta | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Background:Phase-IV, open-label, single-arm study (NCT01203917) to assess efficacy and safety/tolerability of first-line gefitinib in Caucasian patients with stage IIIA/B/IV, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Methods:Treatment: gefitinib 250 mg day-1 until progression. Primary endpoint: objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints: disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and safety/tolerability. Pre-planned exploratory objective: EGFR mutation analysis in matched tumour and plasma samples.Results:Of 1060 screened patients with NSCLC (859 known mutation status; 118 positive, mutation frequency 14%), 106 with EGFR sensitising mutations were enrolled (female 70.8%; adenocarcinoma 97.2%; never-smoker 64.2%). At data cutoff: ORR 69.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 60.5-77.7), DCR 90.6% (95% CI 83.5-94.8), median PFS 9.7 months (95% CI 8.5-11.0), median OS 19.2 months (95% CI 17.0-NC; 27% maturity). Most common adverse events (AEs; any grade): rash (44.9%), diarrhoea (30.8%); CTC (Common Toxicity Criteria) grade 3/4 AEs: 15%; SAEs: 19%. Baseline plasma 1 samples were available in 803 patients (784 known mutation status; 82 positive; mutation frequency 10%). Plasma 1 EGFR mutation test sensitivity: 65.7% (95% CI 55.8-74.7).Conclusion:First-line gefitinib was effective and well tolerated in Caucasian patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. Plasma samples could be considered for mutation analysis if tumour tissue is unavailable. © 2014 Cancer Research UK.

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