Zhang J.,Henan Agricultural University |
Wang L.M.,Henan Agricultural University |
Li Y.H.,Henan Agricultural University |
Ding S.L.,Henan Agricultural University |
And 4 more authors.
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2016
An actinomyce (S07) isolated from a cyst of Heterodera filipjevi was characterised as Streptomyces anulatus by morphological, physiological and biochemical criteria and 16S rRNA analysis. The biocontrol potential of S07 was evaluated against both Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi. After an initial assay of S07 culture filtrates on egg hatch in vitro and juvenile survival, the effect on these cereal cyst nematodes (CCN) was evaluated in the greenhouse using naturally infested soil and in the field over two consecutive years. The results showed that S07 significantly reduced the population densities of CCN females in wheat, concurrently increasing grain yield. It is concluded that S07 offers potential as a commercial biocontrol agent. © 2015, Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.
Chen F.,National Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science |
Chen F.,Henan Agricultural University |
Cui D.,National Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science |
Cui D.,Henan Agricultural University
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2015
Key message: This study cloned two novelTaLoxgenes on chromosome of 4BS and developed a co-dominant marker, Lox-B23, in bread wheat that showed highly significant association with lipoxygenase activity. Abstract: Lipoxygenase (Lox), a critical enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, significantly influences the color and processing quality of wheat-based products. Two novel Lox genes, designated TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3, were cloned on chromosome 4BS of Chinese bread wheat. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that both TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3 genes encoded an 861-aa protein and possessed a lipoxygenase superfamily domain at the 170–838 interval. Two different TaLox-B2 alleles, designated TaLox-B2a and TaLox-B2b, were subsequently discovered. A co-dominant marker, Lox-B23, was developed based on sequences of TaLox-B2a, TaLox-B2b, and TaLox-B3 genes to precisely distinguish these three alleles in Chinese bread cultivars. Among five allelic combinations of Lox genes at Lox-B1, Lox-B2, and Lox-B3 loci, wheat cultivars with TaLox-B1a/TaLox-B2a/TaLox-B3a combination exhibited the highest Lox activity, whereas those with TaLox-B1a/TaLox-B2b/TaLox-B3b combination significantly showed the lowest Lox activity. A RIL population was used to evaluate the influence of TaLox-B3a gene on Lox activity. Results showed that TaLox-B3a gene could significantly increase the Lox activity in bread wheat. Physical mapping indicated that both TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3 genes were located on chromosome 4BS in bread wheat. This study provides useful information to further understand the molecular and genetic bases of Lox activity in bread wheat. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Zhao Y.-L.,Henan Agricultural University |
Zhao Y.-L.,National Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science |
Guo H.-B.,Henan Agricultural University |
Guo H.-B.,Zhumadian Academy of Agricultural science |
And 4 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2015
A two-year field study with split plot design was conducted to investigate the effects of different soil tillage (conventional tillage, CT; deep tillage, DT; subsoil tillage, ST) and straw returning (all straw retention, AS; no straw returning, NS) on microorganism quantity, enzyme activities in soil and grain yield. The results showed that, deep or subsoil tillage and straw returning not only reduced the soil bulk density and promoted the content of organic carbon in soil, but increased the soil microbial quantity, soil enzyme activities and grain yield. Furthermore, such influences in maize season were greater than that in wheat season. Compared with CT+NS, DT+AS and ST+AS decreased the soil bulk density at 20-30 cm depth by 8.5% and 6.6%, increased the content of soil organic carbon by 14.8% and 12.4%, increased the microorganism quantity by 45.9% and 33.9%, increased the soil enzyme activities by 34.1% and 25.5%, increased the grain yield by 18.0% and 19.3%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between DT+AS and ST+ AS. We concluded that retaining crop residue and deep or subsoil tillage improved soil microorganism quantity, enzyme activities and crop yield. ©, 2015, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. All right reserved.
Zhao Y.,Henan Agricultural University |
Zhao Y.,National Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science |
Xue Z.,Henan Agricultural University |
Guo H.,Henan Agricultural University |
And 4 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2014
In Huang-Huai-Hai area in China, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum)/summer maize (Zea mays) rotation is the dominant two-crop-per-year cropping system. Crop residue removal and subsoil compaction have become limiting factors for yield improvement in the area. Tillage and crop residue retained are two effective ways to improve soil properties and increase crop yield. Soil tillage and crop residue retained can reduce soil bulk density, improve water storage and aeration in the soil, increase soil microorganism and enzyme activities, improve soil biological properties, thus promote plant root growth and increase crop production. However, studies in the past mainly focused on the effects of single tillage or single crop residue retained on soil respiration. There is a need currently for research in the effects of tillage, crop residue retained and their interaction on soil respiration under the two-crop-per-year cropping system. A two-year field study from 2010 to 2012 was conducted to determine effects of tillage practice and crop residue management on soil respiration, soil temperature, soil water content, soil compaction, soil organic carbon content, dry matter accumulation of plant and root in the wheat-corn double crop cropping system. The study was conducted at the Wen County Experimental Station, Henan, China. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot design with three replications. Tillage practice and crop residue management were two factors of interest. The tillage treatment was randomly assigned to main plots and crop residue treatment was randomly assigned to sub-plots. The tillage practice treatments were: moldboard plough (MP) to a maximum depth of 15 cm, deep moldboard plough (DMP) to a maximum depth of 30 cm, and chisel plough (CP) to a maximum depth of 30 cm. All three tillage treatments were implemented after corn harvested in October of 2010 and 2011. In addition to different plough treatments, all plots were disc harrowed before wheat planting. There were no direct tillage implements for corn as corn was seeded using a no-till planter. Crop residue management included two levels: crop residue retained (CRRet) and crop residue removed (CRRem). For the CRRet treatment, the wheat straw produced in 2011 and 2012 remained in fields as straw mulching for the following no-till corns, and the 2010 and 2011 corn stover was also incorporated into soil by tillage implements. For the CRRem treatment, both wheat straw and corn stover were removed from the field. The results indicated that there were significant (P<0.05) effects of tillage and crop residue management on soil respiration. Both soil tillage and crop residue retained significantly (P<0.05) increased soil respiration. Crop residue retained increased soil respiration during winter wheat season, but decreased soil respiration during summer maize season. During the growth period of winter wheat, DMP and CP increased soil respiration by 31.8% and 21.9%, respectively, relative to MP. The CRRet increased soil respiration by 14.3% compared with CRRem. On average, DMP+CRRet and CP+CRRet treatments increased soil respiration by 45.5% and 38.2%, respectively, as compared with MP+CRRem treatment. During the growth period of summer maize, DMP and CP increased soil respiration by 47.6% and 47.8%, respectively, relative to MP, and CRRet decreased soil respiration by 18.0% compared with CRRem. On average, DMP+CRRet and CP+CRRet treatments increased soil respiration by 19.7% and 22.2%, respectively, compared with MP+CRRem treatment. The soil respiration was significantly positively correlated with soil temperature and soil carbon, while negatively correlated with soil compaction. The correlation coefficient of soil respiration and soil temperature was highest among the correlation coefficients that affected soil respiration. Compared with the MP+CRRem treatment, the dry matter accumulation of the DMP+CRRet and CP+CRRem treatments increased by 34.9% and 38.2%, the root dry weight density increased by 45.0% and 39.4%, respectively. Therefore, we concluded that deep moldboard plough or chisel plough with crop residue retained was the most appropriate tillage practice in Huang-Huai-Hai area.
Zhang X.,National Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science |
Zhang X.,Henan Agricultural University |
Gao M.,Henan Agricultural University |
Wang S.,National Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science |
And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015
A total of 205 wheat cultivars from the Yellow and Huai valley of China were used to identify allelic variations of vernalization and photoperiod response genes, as well as the copy number variations (CNVs) of Ppd-B1 and Vrn-A1 genes. A novel Vrn-D1 allele with 174-bp insertion in the promoter region of the recessive allele vrn-D1 was discovered in three Chinese wheat cultivars and designated as Vrn-D1c. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that cultivars with the Vrn-D1c allele exhibited significantly higher expression of the Vrn-D1 gene than that in cultivars with the recessive allele vrn-D1, indicating that the 174-bp insertion of Vrn-D1c contributed to the increase in Vrn-D1 gene expression and caused early heading and flowering. The five new cis-elements (Box II-like, 3-AF1 binding site, TC-rich repeats, Box-W1 and CAT-box) in the 174-bp insertion possibly promoted the basal activity level of Vrn-D1 gene. Two new polymorphism combinations of photoperiod genes were identified and designated as Ppd-D1_Hapl-IX and Ppd-D1_Hapl-X. Association of the CNV of Ppd-B1 gene with the heading and flowering days showed that the cultivars with Ppd-B1_Hapl-VI demonstrated the earliest heading and flowering times, and those with Ppd-B1_Hapl-IV presented the latest heading and flowering times in three cropping seasons. Distribution of the vernalization and photoperiod response genes indicated that all recessive alleles at the four vernalization response loci, Ppd-B1_Hapl-I at Ppd-B1 locus, and Ppd-D1_Hapl-I at the Ppd-D1 locus were predominant in Chinese winter wheat cultivars. This study can provide useful information for wheat breeding programs to screen wheat cultivars with relatively superior adaptability and maturity. © 2015 Zhang, Gao, Wang, Chen and Cui.