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Zhang Y.,National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement | Xu L.,National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement | Zhu X.,North Dakota State University | Gong Y.,National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement | And 3 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2013

High temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors influencing plant growth and development. Radish is a cool season vegetable crop sensitive to higher temperatures. Heat injuries may affect plant growth, and interfere with formation and thickening of the fleshy taproot. To characterize the heat-stress response in radish, 30-day-old radish seedlings were exposed to a temperature of 40 °C. Leaf samples were then collected from the seedlings at 0 h, 12 h and 24 h after temperature exposure. Proteins extracted from leaves were analyzed with two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), and differentially expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). In total, 11 differentially expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF MS. Of these, four were heat shock proteins (HSPs), four were related to energy and metabolism, two were related to redox homeostasis, and one was related to signal transduction. These proteins were analyzed further for mRNA levels, corresponding to differential levels of gene expression. The result showed that gene expression profiles at the transcriptional level were not completely consistent with those at translational levels. The differentially expressed heat stress response proteins identified, like small heat shock proteins together with energy and metabolism-related proteins, provide new insights into the molecular basis of plant responses to high temperature stresses in radish. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Zhai L.,National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement | Xu L.,National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement | Wang Y.,National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement | Huang D.,North Dakota State University | And 4 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2014

microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous non-coding RNAs of approximately 21-24 nucleotides, are important regulators of transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene expression. These regulators play a key role during plant growth and development, including embryogenesis, which is crucial to the life cycle of most plant species. However, although embryogenesis-associated miRNAs have been isolated in a few species, the diversity of these regulatory miRNAs remains largely unexplored, especially in radish. In this study, two small RNA libraries were constructed from radish ovules before and after fertilization. Both libraries were sequenced by next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. This analysis identified 144 conserved and 34 non-conserved miRNAs (representing 43 known miRNA families) and 38 novel miRNAs (representing 28 miRNA families). Comparative analysis revealed that 29 known and 10 novel miRNA families were differentially expressed during embryogenesis. QRT-PCR analysis confirmed miRNA expression patterns and revealed tissue-specific and/or developmental stage-dependent expression for some miRNAs. Moreover, potential target predictions indicated that most of these targets were transcription factors involved in regulating plant growth, development and metabolism. Notably, target transcripts such as squamosa promoter-binding protein, auxin response factor and agamous-like MADS-box protein participated in radish embryogenesis. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Wang Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Wang Y.,Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Soybean | Wang Y.,National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement | Chen W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 23 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2016

The disease-like leaf mutant exhibits sensitive symptoms in the absence of pathogens and is an important experimental material for studying leaf development and pathogen resistance mechanisms in plants. We used60Co γ ray irradiation treatment of a Japanese soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] plant introduction Tamahomore to obtain a new disease-like mutant, designated NT301. The mutant leaves were significantly smaller and thicker than those of the wild-type plant, with a reduction in leaf vein growth and increased growth of leaf mesophyll tissue. The surface of these rugose leaves resembled the symptoms of virus infection. Genetic analysis of two crosses between NT301 and the normal parents indicated that the rugose traits were controlled by two pairs of recessive duplicated genes, tentatively designated rl1 and rl2. We mapped rl1 between simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers BARCSOYSSR_18_0415 and BARCSOYSSR_18_0485 on chromosome 18. We mapped rl2 between BARCSOYSSR 08_1700 and Satt409 on chromosome 8, a region that is homoeologous to the rl1 position. We have inferred the possible process for creation of this induced mutant with double recessive genes. Our study will facilitate the gene cloning of rl1 and rl2, providing a new genetic stock for exploring the genetic mechanisms of leaf development and genome evolution in soybean. © Crop Science Society of America | 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA All rights reserved.

Yang C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yang C.,National Center for Soybean Improvement | Yang C.,National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement | Zhao T.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2011

It is well accepted that somatic embryogenesis serves a primary role in plant regeneration. However, it is also a model system to explore the regulatory and morphogenetic events in the life of a plant. To date, a suite of genes that serve important roles in somatic embryogenesis have been isolated and identified. In the present study, a novel gene designated as GmSERK1 was isolated from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr). Sequence and structural analysis determined that the GmSERK1 protein, which encodes 624 amino acids, belongs to the somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (SERK) gene family. GmSERK1 shared all the characteristic domains of the SERK family, including five leucine-rich repeats, one proline-rich region motif, transmembrane domain, and kinase domains. DNA gel blot analysis indicated that a single copy of the GmSERK1 gene resides in the soybean genome. The GmSERK1 tissue-specific and induced expression patterns were explored using quantitative real-time PCR. Dissimilar expression levels in various tissues under different treatments were found. In addition, transient expression experiments in onion epidermal cells indicated that the GmSERK1 protein was located on the plasma membrane. The results from this study suggested that GmSERK1, a member of the SERK gene family, exhibits a broader role in various aspects of plant development and function, in addition to its basic functions in somatic embryogenesis. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

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