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Kumar B.,National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases Indian Council of Medical Research | Sharma D.,National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases Indian Council of Medical Research | Sharma P.,National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases Indian Council of Medical Research | Katoch V.M.,Indian Council of Medical Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2013

Kanamycin (KM) and amikacin (AK) are the key aminoglycoside drugs against tuberculosis (TB) and resistance to them severely affects the options for treatment. Many explanations have been proposed for drug resistance to these drugs but still some mechanisms are unknown. Proteins are the functional moiety of the cell and manifest in most of the biological processes; so, these are potential foci for the development of new therapeutics, diagnostics and vaccine. We examined the KM and AK resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using proteomic analysis comprising of two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE), matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and bioinformatic tools like BLASTP, InterProScan, KEGG motif scan and molecular docking. Proteins intensities of twelve spots were found to be consistently increased in KM and AK resistant isolates and these were identified as Rv3867, Rv1932, Rv3418c, Rv1876, Rv2031c, Rv0155, Rv0643c, Rv3224, Rv0952, and Rv0440. Among these, Rv3867 and Rv3224 were identified as proteins with unknown function. All the proteins identified were cellular proteins. Molecular docking shows the proper interaction of both drugs with these molecules. Also, Rv1876 and Rv3224 were found to be probably involved in iron regulation/metabolism indicating the role of iron in imparting resistance to second line drugs. Biological significance: The study that was carried out shows that two dimensional electrophoresis along with mass spectrometry is still the best approach for proteomic analysis. To the best of our knowledge it is the first ever report on proteomic analysis of M. tuberculosis isolates resistant to second line drugs (kanamycin and amikacin). The major finding implicates that the genes/proteins involved in iron metabolism and the two hypothetical proteins (Rv3867 and Rv3224) might be playing some crucial role in contributing resistance to second line drugs. Further exploitation in this direction may lead to the development of newer therapeutics against tuberculosis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Hussain T.,National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases Indian Council of Medical Research | Hussain T.,Regional Medical Research Center | Kulshreshtha K.K.,National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases Indian Council of Medical Research | Yadav V.S.,National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases Indian Council of Medical Research | Katoch K.,National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases Indian Council of Medical Research
Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry | Year: 2015

In this study, we estimated the CD4+, CD8+, CD3+ cell counts and the CD4/CD8 ratio among normal healthy controls (adults and children), leprosy patients (without any complications and during reactional states), TB patients (with and without HIV), and HIV-positive patients (early infection and full-blown AIDS) and correlated the changes with disease progression. In our study, it was observed that among adults, CD4+ cell counts ranged from 518-1098, CD8+ from 312-952, whereas CD4/CD8 ratio from 0.75-2.30. Among children, both CD4+ and CD8+ cells were more and the CD4/CD8 ratio varied from 0.91-3.17. With regard to leprosy patients, we observed that CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts were lower among PB (pauci-bacillary) and MB (multi-bacillary) patients. CD4/CD8 ratio was 0.99 ± 0.28 among PB patients while the ratio was lower, 0.78 ± 0.20, among MB patients. CD4+ cell counts were raised during RR (reversal reactions) and ENL (erythema nodosum leprosum) among the PB and MB patients whereas the CD8+ cell counts were lower among PB and MB patients. CD4/CD8 ratio doubled during reactional episodes of RR and ENL. Among the HIV-negative tuberculosis (TB) patients, both the CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts were found to be less and the CD4/CD8 ratio varied between 0.53-1.75. Among the HIV-positive TB patients and HIV-positive patients, both the CD4+ and CD8+ cells were very less and ratio drops significantly. In the initial stages of infection, as CD4+ counts drop, an increase in the CD8+ cell counts was observed and the ratio declines. In full-blown cases, CD4+ cell counts were very low, 3-4 to 54 cells, CD8+ cells from 12-211 and the ratio drops too low. This study is the first of its kind in this region of the country and assumes importance since no other study has reported the values of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts among patients with mycobacterial diseases (leprosy and TB), HIV infections along with normal healthy individuals of the region, and correlation with clinical presentations of patients. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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