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Xu H.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | Zhang Y.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | Tao Y.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | Huang B.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies

An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) was first employed to establish the chromatographic fingerprint and thereby identify the major components of Yuanhu Zhitong tablet (YZT), a traditional Chinese medicine. Fingerprint was established by analyzing 15 different batches of YZT, in which we obtained 17 common peaks with 18 constituents. Fifteen components were identified in the fingerprint with reference to the standards and literature data, including protopine, α-allocryptopine, coptisine, tetrahydropalmatine, tetrahydroberberine, corydaline, palmatine, berberine, byakangelicol, dehydrocorydaline, oxypeucedanin, imperatorin, phelloptorin, isoimperatorin, and osthole. Each of these was separated by using a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C 18 (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) column with linear gradient elution of 0.2% formic acid water-acetonitrile. Meanwhile, the hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to evaluate the variation of the YZTs based on the characteristics of the common peaks in the UPLC/Q-TOF-MS profiles. This established method with high sensitivity and high speed may become a powerful tool for quality evaluation of YZT and related preparation. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Zhang Y.-C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li G.,Beijing Normal University | Li G.,National Integrative Medicine Center for Cardiovascular Disease | Jiang C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 5 more authors.

The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the effect of the cultivation year on the quality of different ginseng tissues. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of ginsenosides were conducted using a UPLC-UV-MS method. Eight main ginsenosides in three tissues (leaf, rhizome and main root) and four parts (periderm, phloem, cambium and xylem) of ginseng aged from 1 to 13 years were determined using a UPLC-PDA method. Additionally, the antioxidant capacities of ginseng leaves were analyzed by the DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods. It was found that the contents of ginsenosides increased with cultivation years, causing a sequential content change of ginsenosides in an organ-specific manner: leaf > rhizome > main root. The ratio between protopanaxatriol (PPT, Rg1, Re and RF) and protopanaxadiol (PPD, Rb1, Rb2, RC and Rd) in the main root remained stable (about 1.0), while it increased in leaf from 1.37 to 3.14 and decreased in the rhizome from 0.99 to 0.72. The amount of ginsenosides accumulated in the periderm was 45.48 mg/g, which was more than twice as high compared with the other three parts. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of ginseng leaves were measured as Trolox equivalents, showing that antioxidant activity increased along with time of cultivation. The results show that the best harvest time for shizhu ginseng is the fifth year of cultivation, and the root and rhizome could be used together within seven planting years for their similar PPT/PPD level. Besides, the quality of the ginseng products would be enhanced with the periderm. The ginseng leaf is rich in ginsenosides and has potential application for its antioxidant capacity. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI. Source

Feng Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Xu H.,National Integrative Medicine Center for Cardiovascular Disease | Qu D.,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine | Zheng F.,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine

Objective: To explore the tongue manifestations for the blood-stasis and toxin syndrome in the stable patients of coronary heart disease (CHD) according to the acute cardiovascular events (ACEs) in one-year follow-up which based on the pathogenesis hypothesis of "blood-stasis and toxin causing catastrophe". Methods: Totally 254 stable CHD cases were enrolled after diagnosed by coronary angiography, their tongue appearances were recorded by the digital camera of uniform type, 29 cases with ACEs during one-year follow-up were assigned in ACEs group. The non-ACEs were matched in proportion of 2:1 according to the gender, age (±2.5 years), diabetes mellitus history and previous acute coronary syndrome hospitalization history in the non-ACEs group, and 54 cases were eligibly included. The differences of tongue appearance between the ACEs and non-ACEs group were compared. Results: Fifteen cases manifested with bluish tongue (including bluish-grounding or bluish purple tongue), among which 11 cases (37.9%) in the ACEs group and four cases (7.4%) in the non-ACEs group, and there was significant difference (P<0.002). Twenty six cases showed yellow tongue coating in the non-ACEs group, which was significantly higher than that in the ACEs group (48.1 vs. 10.3%, P=0.001). The tongue of sticky greasy coating was more frequently occurred in the non-ACEs group than that in the ACEs group (66.7% vs. 41.4%, P=0.026). The proportion of purplish-red sublingual vessel was higher in the ACEs group than that in the non-ACEs group (41.4% vs. 20.4%, P=0.041). Odd ratio (OR) analysis showed that the patients with bluish tongue, purplish-red sublingual vessel, dry-greasy or dirty greasy coating were more likely to experience ACEs during oneoneyear follow-up (OR: 11.67, 95%CI: 3.34 year 3.34-40.81, P<0.001; OR: 2.76, 95%CI: 1.02 1.02-7.44, P<0.05; OR: 3.12, 95%, CI: 0.89 0.89-10.92, P=0.066). Conclusions: The bluish tongue (including bluish-grounding or bluish purple tongue) and purplish-red sublingual vessel were potential tongue manifestations of blood-stasis and toxin. The tongue coating changing from sticky greasy to dry greasy or dirty greasy was also probably a tongue manifestation of "transforming toxin", which need demonstration by further study. © 2011 Chinese Association of the Integration of Traditional and Western Medicine and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Cheng Q.-Q.,Capital Medical University | Cheng Q.-Q.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | He Y.-F.,Chinese Institute of Materia Medica | Li G.,Beijing Normal University | And 5 more authors.
Yaoxue Xuebao

This study reported the obtainment of the full-length cDNA of Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots (Abbr: SmHDR, GenBank number: JX233817), via extracting Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots total RNA, designing specific primers according to the transcriptome data and using the RACE strategy, and then analyzed it with bioinformatics approaches. On this basis, using the real-time PCR to detect SmHDR gene expression after Ag+ induction, and testing tanshinones contents of corresponding samples by UPLC. SmHDR has 1 647 nucleotides, and an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 463 amino acid residues. The deduced protein has isoelectric point (pI) of 5.72 and a calculated molecular weight about 51.88 kD. In the secondary structure, the percentage of alpha helix, beta turn and random coil were 35.64%, 20.30% and 44.06%, respectively. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that SmHDR had relative close relationship to the HDR of Picrorhiza kurrooa, similar to HDR from other species of plants. Real time PCR results indicated that elicitor of Ag+ stimulated the increase of mRNA expression of SmHDR. At the same time, results of ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), used to examine the accumulation of diterpenoid tanshinones in hairy roots, showed that the contents of diterpenoid tanshinones in hairy roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza were increased dramatically at 12 h after treated with Ag+, and then decreased significantly. This result showed a positive correlation between the levels of mRNA expression and tanshinones accumulation in Salvia miltiorrhiza stimulated by Ag+. The content of tanshinones was gradually raised, and it had an obvious increase at 120 h. The bioinformatics analysis and gene expression indicated that SmHDR might be involved in tanshinones biosynthesis, which laid the foundation for further study of secondary metabolic regulation mechanism of tanshinones. Source

Yan X.-F.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ni Q.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wei J.-P.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Xu H.,National Integrative Medicine Center for Cardiovascular Disease
Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine

An evidence-based practice method according to literature retrieval through PICO (Patients, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) questions and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) topics, which can obtain helpful evidence for guiding clinical practice, was introduced with a practical example in this paper. The knowledge of diseases and Western medicine treatment can be acquired by literature retrieval through PICO question, while searching by CAM topics may provide evidence for Chinese medicine (CM). Thus the author held that literature retrieval through both PICO question and CAM topics was an ideal evidence-based practice method for integrative Chinese and Western medicine (ICWM). However, since the standard in CM evidence hierarchy is still under study, the value of the CAM thematic retrieval method remains very limited. In the future, studies on the definition and hierarchy of CM evidences and the herb-drug interaction between Western and Chinese medicine during a combination therapy should be strengthened to improve the status of ICWM evidence-based practice. ©The Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine Press and Springer-Verlag 2010. Source

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