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Surendar J.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation | Mohan V.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation | Mohan V.,Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialties Center | Rao M.M.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation | And 3 more authors.
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

Objective: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity, insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, and hypertension in which inflammation plays an important role. Few studies have addressed the role played by T cell-derived cytokines in MS. The aim of the study was to look at the T-helper (Th) 1 (interleukin [IL]-12, IL-2, and interferon-γ [IFN-γ]) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) cytokines in MS in the high-risk Asian Indian population. Research Design and Methods: Study subjects were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. MS was defined using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for waist according to World Health Organization Asia Pacific guidelines. Serum cytokine profile was determined by multiplex cytokine assay in subjects with (n=21) and without (n=33) MS. Results: Both Th1 and Th2 cytokines showed up-regulation in MS. IL-12 (5.40 pg/mL in MS vs. 3.24 pg/mL in non-MS; P < 0.01), IFN-γ (6.8 pg/mL in MS vs. 4.7 pg/mL in non-MS; P < 0.05), IL-4 (0.61 pg/mL in MS vs. 0.34 pg/mL in non-MS; P < 0.001), IL-5 (4.39 pg/mL in MS vs. 2.36 pg/mL in non-MS; P < 0.001), and IL-13 (3.42 pg in MS vs. 2.72 pg/mL in non-MS; P < 0.01) were significantly increased in subjects with MS compared with those without. Both Th1 and Th2 cytokines showed a significant association with fasting plasma glucose level even after adjusting for age and gender. The Th1 and Th2 cytokines also showed a negative association with adiponectin and a positive association with the homeostasis model of assessment of IR and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Conclusions: Apart from pro-inflammatory cytokines, Th cytokines might play an important role in inflammation, IR, and MS. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Shiny A.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Regin B.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Balachandar V.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Gokulakrishnan K.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | And 3 more authors.
Cytokine | Year: 2013

Despite the well known role of nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) receptor proteins in innate immunity, their association with diabetes is less explored. Here we report the transcriptional level of NODs and their downstream molecular signatures in CD14+ monocytes from subjects with different grades of glucose tolerance. NOD1 and NOD2 mRNA expression were significantly up-regulated in monocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and positively correlated with HOMA-IR and poor glycemic control. Patients with T2DM also exhibited increased monocyte activation markers (CD11b and CD36) and proinflammatory signals downstream of NOD (RIPK2 and NFκB) along with the increased circulatory levels of TNF-α and IL-6. In vitro stimulation of monocytes with NOD specific ligands-i-EDAP and MDP significantly up regulated the mRNA expression of NOD1 and NOD2 respectively in T2DM. Our study exposes up regulation of NODs in monocytes as an important component of inflammation and insulin resistance in patients with T2DM. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Kumar N.P.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Banurekha V.V.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Nair D.,National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis | Babu S.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are classical features of granuloma formation in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). In addition, the angiogenic factor-VEGF-A is a known biomarker for PTB. Aims/Methodology To examine the association of circulating angiogenic factors with PTB, we examined the systemic levels of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2 and VEGF-R3in individuals with PTB, latent TB (LTB) or no TB infection (NTB). Results Circulating levels of VEGF-A, VEGF-C andVEGF-R2 were significantly higher in PTB compared to LTB or NTB individuals. Moreover, the levels of VEGF-A, VEGF-C and VEGF-R2 were significantly higher in PTB with bilateral and/or cavitary disease. The levels of these factors also exhibited a significant positive relationship with bacterial burdens in PTB. ROC analysis revealed VEGF-A and VEGF-R2 as markers distinguishing PTB from LTB or NTB. Finally, the circulating levels of all the angiogenic factors examined were significantly reduced following successful chemotherapy. Conclusion Therefore, our data demonstrate that PTB is associated with elevated levels of circulating angiogenic factors, possibly reflecting vascular and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, some of these circulating angiogenic factors could prove useful as biomarkers to monitor disease severity, bacterial burden and therapeutic responses. Source


George P.J.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Anuradha R.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Kumar N.P.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Banurekha V.V.,National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis | And 2 more authors.
PLoS pathogens | Year: 2014

Tissue invasive helminth infections and tuberculosis (TB) are co-endemic in many parts of the world and can trigger immune responses that might antagonize each other. We have previously shown that helminth infections modulate the Th1 and Th17 responses to mycobacterial-antigens in latent TB. To determine whether helminth infections modulate antigen-specific and non-specific immune responses in active pulmonary TB, we examined CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses as well as the systemic (plasma) cytokine levels in individuals with pulmonary TB with or without two distinct helminth infections-Wuchereria bancrofti and Strongyloides stercoralis infection. By analyzing the frequencies of Th1 and Th17 CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and their component subsets (including multifunctional cells), we report a significant diminution in the mycobacterial-specific frequencies of mono- and multi-functional CD4(+) Th1 and (to a lesser extent) Th17 cells when concomitant filarial or Strongyloides infection occurs. The impairment in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell cytokine responses was antigen-specific as polyclonal activated T cell frequencies were equivalent irrespective of helminth infection status. This diminution in T cell responses was also reflected in diminished circulating levels of Th1 (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2)- and Th17 (IL-17A and IL-17F)-associated cytokines. Finally, we demonstrate that for the filarial co-infections at least, this diminished frequency of multifunctional CD4(+) T cell responses was partially dependent on IL-10 as IL-10 blockade significantly increased the frequencies of CD4(+) Th1 cells. Thus, co-existent helminth infection is associated with an IL-10 mediated (for filarial infection) profound inhibition of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses as well as protective systemic cytokine responses in active pulmonary TB. Source


Anuradha R.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | George J.P.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Pavankumar N.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Kumaraswami V.,Tuberculosis Research Center | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti can cause severe disease characterized by subcutaneous fibrosis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes governing extracellular remodeling by regulating cellular homeostasis, inflammation, and tissue reorganization, while tissue-inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are endogenous regulators of MMPs. Homeostatic as well as inflammation-induced balance between MMPs and TIMPs is considered critical in mediating tissue pathology. Methods: To elucidate the role of MMPs and TIMPs in filarial pathology, we compared the plasma levels of a panel of MMPs, TIMPs, other pro-fibrotic factors, and cytokines in individuals with chronic filarial pathology with (CP Ag+) or without (CP Ag-) active infection to those with clinically asymptomatic infections (INF) and in those without infection (endemic normal [EN]). Markers of pathogenesis were delineated based on comparisons between the two actively infected groups (CP Ag+ compared to INF) and those without active infection (CP Ag- compared to EN). Results and Conclusion: Our data reveal that an increase in circulating levels of MMPs and TIMPs is characteristic of the filarial disease process per se and not of active infection; however, filarial disease with active infection is specifically associated with increased ratios of MMP1/TIMP4 and MMP8/TIMP4 as well as with pro-fibrotic cytokines (IL-5, IL-13 and TGF-β). Our data therefore suggest that while filarial lymphatic disease is characterized by a non-specific increase in plasma MMPs and TIMPs, the balance between MMPs and TIMPs is an important factor in regulating tissue pathology during active infection. Source

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