National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research

Chetput, India

National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research

Chetput, India

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George P.J.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Anuradha R.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Kumar N.P.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Banurekha V.V.,National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis | And 2 more authors.
PLoS pathogens | Year: 2014

Tissue invasive helminth infections and tuberculosis (TB) are co-endemic in many parts of the world and can trigger immune responses that might antagonize each other. We have previously shown that helminth infections modulate the Th1 and Th17 responses to mycobacterial-antigens in latent TB. To determine whether helminth infections modulate antigen-specific and non-specific immune responses in active pulmonary TB, we examined CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses as well as the systemic (plasma) cytokine levels in individuals with pulmonary TB with or without two distinct helminth infections-Wuchereria bancrofti and Strongyloides stercoralis infection. By analyzing the frequencies of Th1 and Th17 CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and their component subsets (including multifunctional cells), we report a significant diminution in the mycobacterial-specific frequencies of mono- and multi-functional CD4(+) Th1 and (to a lesser extent) Th17 cells when concomitant filarial or Strongyloides infection occurs. The impairment in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell cytokine responses was antigen-specific as polyclonal activated T cell frequencies were equivalent irrespective of helminth infection status. This diminution in T cell responses was also reflected in diminished circulating levels of Th1 (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2)- and Th17 (IL-17A and IL-17F)-associated cytokines. Finally, we demonstrate that for the filarial co-infections at least, this diminished frequency of multifunctional CD4(+) T cell responses was partially dependent on IL-10 as IL-10 blockade significantly increased the frequencies of CD4(+) Th1 cells. Thus, co-existent helminth infection is associated with an IL-10 mediated (for filarial infection) profound inhibition of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses as well as protective systemic cytokine responses in active pulmonary TB.


Anuradha R.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | George P.J.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Kumaran P.,National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis | Nutman T.B.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2014

Lymphatic filariasis is known to be associated with diminished CD4+ Th1 and elevated CD4+ Th2 responses to parasitespecific antigens. The roles of cytokine-expressing CD8+ T cells in immune responses to filarial infections are not well defined. To study the roles of CD8+ T cells expressing type 1, type 2, and type 17 cytokines in filarial infections, we examined the frequencies of these cells in clinically asymptomatic, patently infected (INF) individuals, directly ex vivo and in response to parasite or nonparasite antigens; these frequencies were compared with the results for individuals with filarial lymphedema (i.e., clinical pathology [CP]) and those without active infection or pathology (i.e., endemic normal [EN]). INF individuals exhibited significant decreases in the frequencies of CD8+ T cells expressing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and interleukin-22 (IL-22) at baseline and/or in response to filarial antigens, compared with CP and EN individuals. In contrast, the same individuals exhibited significant increases in the frequencies of CD8+ T cells expressing IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and IL-21, compared with CP and/or EN individuals. Curative treatment resulted in significantly increased frequencies of CD8+ T cells expressing IL-2 and significantly decreased frequencies of CD8+ T cells expressing type 2 cytokines. Finally, the regulation of these responses appears to be independent of IL-10 and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), since blockade of IL-10 or TGF-β signaling did not significantly alter the frequencies of type 1 or type 2 cytokine-expressing CD8+ T cells. Our findings suggest that alterations in the frequencies of cytokine-expressing CD8+ T cells are characteristic features of lymphatic filarial infections. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Anuradha R.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | George J.P.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Pavankumar N.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Kumaraswami V.,Tuberculosis Research Center | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti can cause severe disease characterized by subcutaneous fibrosis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes governing extracellular remodeling by regulating cellular homeostasis, inflammation, and tissue reorganization, while tissue-inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are endogenous regulators of MMPs. Homeostatic as well as inflammation-induced balance between MMPs and TIMPs is considered critical in mediating tissue pathology. Methods: To elucidate the role of MMPs and TIMPs in filarial pathology, we compared the plasma levels of a panel of MMPs, TIMPs, other pro-fibrotic factors, and cytokines in individuals with chronic filarial pathology with (CP Ag+) or without (CP Ag-) active infection to those with clinically asymptomatic infections (INF) and in those without infection (endemic normal [EN]). Markers of pathogenesis were delineated based on comparisons between the two actively infected groups (CP Ag+ compared to INF) and those without active infection (CP Ag- compared to EN). Results and Conclusion: Our data reveal that an increase in circulating levels of MMPs and TIMPs is characteristic of the filarial disease process per se and not of active infection; however, filarial disease with active infection is specifically associated with increased ratios of MMP1/TIMP4 and MMP8/TIMP4 as well as with pro-fibrotic cytokines (IL-5, IL-13 and TGF-β). Our data therefore suggest that while filarial lymphatic disease is characterized by a non-specific increase in plasma MMPs and TIMPs, the balance between MMPs and TIMPs is an important factor in regulating tissue pathology during active infection.


Surendar J.,International Diabetes Federation | Mohan V.,International Diabetes Federation | Pavankumar N.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Babu S.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Aravindhan V.,University of Madras
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Background: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with growth factor-like properties for monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs). In the present study, serum GM-CSF levels and the activation status of DCs were studied in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects. Methods: Study subjects were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Healthy controls (n=45) and T2DM patients (n=45) were included in the study. Serum levels of GM-CSF, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured. Enumeration of circulating DCs (myeloid [m] and plasmocytoid [p]) and its surface antigen expression were quantified by flow cytometry. Results: The serum GM-CSF levels were significantly higher among diabetes subjects compared with subjects without diabetes and showed a positive correlation with glycated hemoglobin (r=0.208, P=0.018). The serum GM-CSF levels were lower in subjects on combined insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) treatment (1.09pg/mL) compared with those taking OHA alone (1.9pg/mL). The increased GM-CSF levels were associated with the activated phenotype of mDCs and pDCs, as determined by up-regulation of the lineage markers. Conclusion: The activated state of mDCs and pDCs seen among diabetes subjects might be due to the increased levels of GM-CSF and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012.


PubMed | Prof swanathan Diabetes Research Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School and National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Immunology | Year: 2016

Perturbations in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell phenotype and function are hallmarks of tuberculosis-diabetes co-morbidity. However, their contribution to the pathogenesis of this co-morbidity and the effect of anti-tuberculosis treatment on the phenotype of the T-cell subsets is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the frequency of different T-cell subsets in individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) with diabetes mellitus (DM) or without coincident diabetes mellitus (NDM) before, during and after completion of anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. PTB-DM is characterized by heightened frequencies of central memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and diminished frequencies of naive, effector memory and/or effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells at baseline and after 2months of treatment but not following treatment completion in comparison with PTB-NDM. Central memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell frequencies exhibited a positive correlation with fasting blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin A1c levels, whereas the frequencies of naive and effector memory or effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells exhibited a negative correlation. However, the frequencies of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell subsets in individuals with PTB exhibited no significant relationship with bacterial burdens. Finally, although minor alterations in the T-cell subset compartment were observed at 2months of treatment, significantly decreased frequencies of central memory and significantly enhanced frequencies of naive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were observed at the completion of treatment. Our data reveal a profound effect of coexistent diabetes on the altered frequencies of central memory, effector memory and naive T cells and its normalization following therapy.


Surendar J.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation | Mohan V.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation | Mohan V.,Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialties Center | Rao M.M.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation | And 3 more authors.
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

Objective: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity, insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, and hypertension in which inflammation plays an important role. Few studies have addressed the role played by T cell-derived cytokines in MS. The aim of the study was to look at the T-helper (Th) 1 (interleukin [IL]-12, IL-2, and interferon-γ [IFN-γ]) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) cytokines in MS in the high-risk Asian Indian population. Research Design and Methods: Study subjects were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. MS was defined using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for waist according to World Health Organization Asia Pacific guidelines. Serum cytokine profile was determined by multiplex cytokine assay in subjects with (n=21) and without (n=33) MS. Results: Both Th1 and Th2 cytokines showed up-regulation in MS. IL-12 (5.40 pg/mL in MS vs. 3.24 pg/mL in non-MS; P < 0.01), IFN-γ (6.8 pg/mL in MS vs. 4.7 pg/mL in non-MS; P < 0.05), IL-4 (0.61 pg/mL in MS vs. 0.34 pg/mL in non-MS; P < 0.001), IL-5 (4.39 pg/mL in MS vs. 2.36 pg/mL in non-MS; P < 0.001), and IL-13 (3.42 pg in MS vs. 2.72 pg/mL in non-MS; P < 0.01) were significantly increased in subjects with MS compared with those without. Both Th1 and Th2 cytokines showed a significant association with fasting plasma glucose level even after adjusting for age and gender. The Th1 and Th2 cytokines also showed a negative association with adiponectin and a positive association with the homeostasis model of assessment of IR and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Conclusions: Apart from pro-inflammatory cytokines, Th cytokines might play an important role in inflammation, IR, and MS. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Anuradha R.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | George P.J.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Hanna L.E.,National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis | Kumaran P.,National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014

Background:Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is known to be associated with an increased production of IL-10. The role of the other IL-10 family members in the pathogenesis of infection and/or disease is not known.Methodology/Principal Findings:We examined the expression patterns of IL-10 family members - IL-19, IL-24 and IL-26 in LF. We demonstrate that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells express IL-19, IL-24 and IL-26 and that the frequency of CD4+ T cells expressing IL-19 and IL-24 (as well as IL-10) is significantly increased at baseline and following filarial antigen stimulation in patients with LF in comparison to individuals with filarial lymphedema and uninfected individuals. This CD4+ T cell expression pattern was associated with increased production of IL-19 and IL-24 by filarial - antigen stimulated PBMC. Moreover, the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing IL-26 was significantly increased following filarial antigen stimulation in filarial lymphedema individuals. Interestingly, IL-10 blockade resulted in diminished frequencies of IL-19+ and IL-24+ T cells, whereas the addition of recombinant IL-10 resulted in significantly increased frequency of IL-19+ and IL-24+ T cells as well as significantly up regulated IL-19 and IL-24 gene expression, suggesting that IL-10 regulates IL-19 and IL-24 expression in T cells. In addition, IL-1β and IL-23 blockade also induced a diminution in the frequency of IL-19+ and IL-24+ T cells, indicating a novel role for these cytokines in the induction of IL-19 and IL-24 expressing T cells. Finally, elimination of infection resulted in significantly decreased frequencies of antigen - specific CD4+ T cells expressing IL-10, IL-19 and IL-24.Conclusions:Our findings, therefore, suggest that IL-19 and IL-24 are associated with the regulation of immune responses in active filarial infection and potentially with protection against development of pathology, while IL-26 is predominantly associated with pathology in LF. © 2014.


Shiny A.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Regin B.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Balachandar V.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Gokulakrishnan K.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation And Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | And 3 more authors.
Cytokine | Year: 2013

Despite the well known role of nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) receptor proteins in innate immunity, their association with diabetes is less explored. Here we report the transcriptional level of NODs and their downstream molecular signatures in CD14+ monocytes from subjects with different grades of glucose tolerance. NOD1 and NOD2 mRNA expression were significantly up-regulated in monocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and positively correlated with HOMA-IR and poor glycemic control. Patients with T2DM also exhibited increased monocyte activation markers (CD11b and CD36) and proinflammatory signals downstream of NOD (RIPK2 and NFκB) along with the increased circulatory levels of TNF-α and IL-6. In vitro stimulation of monocytes with NOD specific ligands-i-EDAP and MDP significantly up regulated the mRNA expression of NOD1 and NOD2 respectively in T2DM. Our study exposes up regulation of NODs in monocytes as an important component of inflammation and insulin resistance in patients with T2DM. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Anuradha R.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | George P.J.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Hanna L.E.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Chandrasekaran V.,National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis | And 3 more authors.
PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2014

Two different Th2 subsets have been defined recently on the basis of IL-5 expression - an IL-5(+)Th2 subset and an IL-5(-)Th2 subset in the setting of allergy. However, the role of these newly described CD4(+) T cells subpopulations has not been explored in other contexts. To study the role of the Th2 subpopulation in a chronic, tissue invasive parasitic infection (lymphatic filariasis), we examined the frequency of IL-5(+)IL-4(+)IL-13(+) CD4(+) T cells and IL-5(-)IL-4 IL-13(+) CD4(+) T cells in asymptomatic, infected individuals (INF) and compared them to frequencies (Fo) in filarial-uninfected (UN) individuals and to those with filarial lymphedema (CP). INF individuals exhibited a significant increase in the spontaneously expressed and antigen-induced Fo of both Th2 subpopulations compared to the UN and CP. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between the Fo of IL-5(+)Th2 cells and the absolute eosinophil and neutrophil counts; in addition there was a positive correlation between the frequency of the CD4(+)IL-5(-)Th2 subpopulation and the levels of parasite antigen - specific IgE and IgG4 in INF individuals. Moreover, blockade of IL-10 and/or TGFβ demonstrated that each of these 2 regulatory cytokines exert opposite effects on the different Th2 subsets. Finally, in those INF individuals cured of infection by anti-filarial therapy, there was a significantly decreased Fo of both Th2 subsets. Our findings suggest that both IL-5(+) and IL-5(-)Th2 cells play an important role in the regulation of immune responses in filarial infection and that these two Th2 subpopulations may be regulated by different cytokine-receptor mediated processes.


Kumar N.P.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Banurekha V.V.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research | Nair D.,National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis | Babu S.,National Institutes of Health International Center for Excellence in Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are classical features of granuloma formation in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). In addition, the angiogenic factor-VEGF-A is a known biomarker for PTB. Aims/Methodology To examine the association of circulating angiogenic factors with PTB, we examined the systemic levels of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2 and VEGF-R3in individuals with PTB, latent TB (LTB) or no TB infection (NTB). Results Circulating levels of VEGF-A, VEGF-C andVEGF-R2 were significantly higher in PTB compared to LTB or NTB individuals. Moreover, the levels of VEGF-A, VEGF-C and VEGF-R2 were significantly higher in PTB with bilateral and/or cavitary disease. The levels of these factors also exhibited a significant positive relationship with bacterial burdens in PTB. ROC analysis revealed VEGF-A and VEGF-R2 as markers distinguishing PTB from LTB or NTB. Finally, the circulating levels of all the angiogenic factors examined were significantly reduced following successful chemotherapy. Conclusion Therefore, our data demonstrate that PTB is associated with elevated levels of circulating angiogenic factors, possibly reflecting vascular and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, some of these circulating angiogenic factors could prove useful as biomarkers to monitor disease severity, bacterial burden and therapeutic responses.

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