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Apte-Deshpande A.D.,University of Pune | Paingankar M.S.,University of Pune | Gokhale M.D.,National Institute of Virology ICMR | Deobagkar D.N.,University of Pune
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2014

Background & objectives: The susceptibility of the mosquito to the invading pathogen is predominantly dictated by the complex interactions between the mosquito midgut and the surface proteins of the invading pathogen. It is well documented that the midgut microbiota plays an important role in determining the susceptibility of the mosquito to the pathogen. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Serratia odorifera, an endogenous cultivable midgut inhabitant of Aedes aegypti on the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) susceptibility to this mosquito. Methods: Ae. aegypti females free of gutflora were co-fed with CHIKV and either of the two midgut inhabitants namely, S. odorifeara and Microbacterium oxydans. CHIKV dissemination was checked on 10th day post feeding (DPF) using indirect immunoflurescence assay and plaque assay. CHIKV interacting proteins of the mosquito midgut were identified using virus overlay protein binding assay and MALDI TOF/TOF analysis. Results: The observations revealed that co-feeding of S. odorifera with CHIKV significantly enhanced the CHIKV susceptibility in adult Ae. aegypti, as compared to the mosquitoes fed with CHIKV alone and CHIKV co-fed with another midgut inhabitant, M. oxydans. Virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) results revealed that porin and heat shock protein (HSP60) of Ae. aegypti midgut brush border membrane fraction interacted with CHIKV. Interpretation & conclusions: the results of this study indicated that the enhancement in the CHIKV susceptibility of Ae. aegypti females was due to the suppression of immune response of Ae. aegypti as a result of the interaction between S. odorifera P40 protein and porin on the gut membrane. Source

Sahu H.K.,Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics | Singh S.N.,National Institute of Virology ICMR
Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives | Year: 2013

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine different aspects of information seeking behaviour, and specifically the information seeking behaviour and information needs of Indian astronomy/astrophysics academics, including the relationship between various variables such as academic, rank-wise statuses, age-wise of characteristics, and methods for keeping their knowledge up-to-date. Design/methodology/approach: A stratified random sample survey was used for gathering data. However, to support and authenticate the data quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. The questionnaire was mailed and was also available online. Some 400 academics from 12 astronomy and astrophysics information centres and libraries were surveyed using the questionnaire and were interviewed. The questionnaire response rate was 72 percent (288/400). Findings: The study findings show: differences in information seeking behaviour and needs for various academic is sub-fields of Indian astronomy/astrophysics, and highlights the value of information seeking behaviour to scientists working in astronomy/astrophysics. The study concludes that astronomy/astrophysics academics were making use of Astrophysics Data System followed by their use of e-archives for education and research. Astronomy/astrophysics academics work in a unique setting with specialized needs. The study findings underscored the need to continue accessing specialized needs to find innovative solutions. There are challenges and opportunities for exciting new initiatives. Originality/value: This is the first in-depth study in India exploring the information seeking behaviour and information needs of astronomy/astrophysics academics. It also gives the latest account of information seeking behaviour of information users in astronomy/astrophysics discipline. The study is also expected to guide other information service organisations to cope with their users' needs, by adopting survey methods, tools, protocols used in this study. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

Srivastava R.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences | Kalita J.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences | Khan M.Y.,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University | Gore M.M.,National Institute of Virology ICMR | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2013

Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection results in acute encephalitic illness. The affinity of JEV to different regions of brain and temporal changes in viral load have not been studied. This study was conducted to describe localization of JEV to different regions of the brain at different stages of disease in a rat model of Japanese encephalitis (JE). Methods: Twelve days old Wistar rats were inoculated intracerebrally with a dose of 3 x 106 pfu/ml of JEV. After 3, 6, 10 and 20 days post-inoculation, brains were dissected out and different regions of brain (cortex, striatum, thalamus and mid brain) were taken. Motor deficit was assessed by the rota rod and JEV RNA copies were evaluated using real-time PCR assay. Results: There was a significant increase in motor deficit in rats inoculated with JEV compared to the controls. JEV RNA copies were present in all studied regions of the brain on days 3, 6 and 10 post-inoculation. Maximum number of JEV RNA copies were present in the mid brain on days 3 and 10 post-inoculation. JEV RNA copies were not detected in any of the brain regions on day 20. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reports JEV RNA load in different brain regions of rat with higher affinity of JEV virus to thalamus and mid brain compared to other regions. Source

Gangodkar S.,National Institute of Virology ICMR | Jain P.,National Institute of Virology ICMR | Dixit N.,National Institute of Virology ICMR | Ghosh K.,National Institute of Immunohematology ICMR | Basu A.,National Institute of Virology ICMR
Journal of Electron Microscopy | Year: 2010

The biogenesis events and formation of dengue virus (DENV) in the infected host cells remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we examined the ultrastructural changes associated with DENV-2 replication in three susceptible host cells, C6/36, Vero and SK Hep1, a cell line of human endothelial origin, using transmission electron microscopy, whole-mount grid-cell culture techniques and electron tomography (ET). The prominent feature in C6/36 cells was the formation of large perinuclear vacuoles with mature DENV particles, and on-grid whole-mount examination of the infected Vero cells showed different forms of DENV core structures associated with cellular membranes within 48 h after infection. Distinct multivesicular structures and prominent autophagic vesicles were seen in the infected SK Hep1 cells when compared with the other two cell lines. ET showed the three-dimensional organization of these vesicles as a continuous system. This is the first report of ET-based analysis of DENV-2 replication in a human endothelial cell line. These results further emphasizes the strong role played by intracellular host membranesvirus interactions in the biogenesis of DENV and strongly argues for the possibility of targeting compounds to block such structure formation as key anti-dengue agents. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. Source

Verma H.,National Institute of Virology ICMR | Chitambar S.D.,National Institute of Virology ICMR | Gopalkrishna V.,National Institute of Virology ICMR
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

A five-year (2004-2008) study was conducted on patients with acute gastroenteritis from different cities of Maharashtra, western India to detect and characterize astrovirus infections. A total of 1340 fecal specimens were collected from sporadic cases that included 1240 children (≤8 years) and 100 adults (18-70 years) from Pune, Aurangabad and Nagpur cities. All specimens were subjected to astrovirus specific RT-PCR followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The overall positivity to astrovirus was found to be 3.1% with highest number of infections in winter months. A high prevalence of astrovirus was observed in children ≤1 year of age. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial ORF1a (serine protease) and ORF2 (capsid gene) regions showed the circulation of three probable recombinant types with different ORF1a/ORF2 specificities (HAstV-8/HAstV-1, HAstV-7/HAstV-2, HAstV-4/HAstV-5) along with HAstV-8 of a single specificity in the study population. HAstV-8/HAstV-1, specificity predominated (67.7%) in the region followed by HAstV-7/HAstV-2 (9.7%), HAstV-4/HAstV-5 (6.5%) and HAstV-8 (16%) types. This is the first report that highlights the genetic diversity of astrovirus strains circulating in Maharashtra state, western India. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

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