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Clausen J.H.,Copenhagen University | Madsen H.,Copenhagen University | Murrell K.D.,Copenhagen University | Van P.T.,Research Institute For Aquaculture No1 | And 5 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases

Worldwide, >18 million persons were infected with fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in 2002. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for reducing prevalence and intensity of fish-borne zoonotic trematode infections in juvenile fish, we compared transmission rates at nurseries in the Red River Delta, northern Vietnam. Rates were significantly lower for nurseries that reduced snail populations and trematode egg contamination in ponds than for nurseries that did not. These interventions can be used in the development of programs for sustained control of zoonotic trematodes in farmed fish. Source

Ngo C.T.,IRD Montpellier | Ngo C.T.,National Institute of Veterinary Research | Dubois G.,IRD Montpellier | Sinou V.,Aix - Marseille University | And 4 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors

Background: Human malaria is still a burden in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces in south-central Vietnam that border Cambodia. Several Anopheles species that transmit human malarial Plasmodium may also transmit Wuchereria bancrofti, the nematode that causes Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Anopheles species in the transmission of these two pathogens in the two highly malaria endemic provinces of Vietnam. Methods. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces in November and December of 2010 and 2011. Human landing catches, paired collections on human and buffalo, and resting captures were made with mouth aspirators. Collections were also made with light traps. Morphological and PCR-based methods were used to identify the species. Real-time PCR was used to detect Plasmodium species and W. bancrofti in individual mosquitoes. Results: Twenty-four Anopheles species were identified among 797 captured mosquitoes. Anopheles dirus was found in both provinces and was the predominant species in Binh Phuoc Province; An. maculatus was the most prevalent species in Dak Nong Province. Anopheles minimus was collected only in Binh Phuoc Province. Some specimens of An. minimus and An. pampanai were misidentified based on morphology. Four specimens of An. scanloni were identified, and this is the first report of this species of the Dirus Complex in Vietnam. Two females, one An. dirus and one An. pampanai, collected in Binh Phuoc Province were infected with P. vivax, for an overall infection rate of 0.41% (2/486): 0.28% for An. dirus (1/361) and 20% for An. pampanai (1/5). No mosquitoes were found to be infected with P. falciparum, P. knowlesi or W. bancrofti in either province. Conclusion: A diversity of Anopheles species occurs in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces of Vietnam, several of which are considered to be actual and potential vectors of malarial protozoa and microfilariae. It is highly likely that two of the species, An. dirus and An. pampanai, are active in malaria transmission based on the detection of P. vivax in females of these species. This is the first report of An. scanloni in Vietnam. © 2014 Ngo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Guarino A.,University of Naples Federico II | Dupont C.,University of Paris Descartes | Gorelov A.V.,University College Dublin | Gottrand F.,Center Hospitalier University | And 5 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy

Introduction: Acute diarrhea remains a major problem in children and is associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and costs. While vaccination against rotavirus could reduce the burden of the disease, the persistent impact of intestinal infections requires effective treatment in adjunct to oral rehydration solutions, to reduce the severity and duration of diarrhea. Several therapeutic options have been proposed for acute diarrhea, but proof of efficacy is available for few of them, including zinc, diosmectite, selected probiotics and racecadotril. However, at present there is no universal drug, and therapeutic efficacy has only been shown for selected drugs in selected settings, such as: outpatients/inpatients, developed/developing countries and viral/bacterial etiology. Areas covered: This narrative review reports the opinions of experts from different countries of the world who have discussed strategies to improve the management of diarrhea. Expert opinion: More data are needed to optimize the management of diarrhea and highlight the research priorities at a global level; such priorities include improved recommendations on oral rehydration solution composition, and the reevaluation of therapeutic options in the light of new trials. Therapeutic strategies need to be assessed in different settings, and pharmacoeconomic analyses based on country-specific data are needed. Transfer to clinical practice should result from the implementation of guidelines tailored at a local level, with an eye on costs. Source

Leta S.,Adami Tullu Research Center | Dao T.H.T.,National Institute of Veterinary Research | Mesele F.,Adami Tullu Research Center | Alemayehu G.,Semera University
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. © 2014 Leta et al. Source

Sindberg D.,Copenhagen University | Nissen S.,Copenhagen University | Anh N.T.L.,National Institute of Veterinary Research | Johansen M.V.,Copenhagen University
Veterinary Parasitology

The study was conducted to evaluate copro-diagnostic techniques for detection of small trematode eggs in dogs. FLOTAC, a novel flotation technique, and DBL, a sieving and sedimentation technique developed at the former Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory (DBL), were compared using 53 subsamples from four copro-positive dogs. Moreover, a modified version of the DBL technique and the Kato-Katz (KK) thick smear were later compared using faecal samples from 21 dogs. The four techniques were pair-wise compared regarding sensitivity, infection intensity and practical applicability. For the former two techniques, egg recovery subsequent to storage and reproducibility were also compared. The DBL technique detected all 53 subsamples positive for small trematode eggs. Based on 17 subsamples, mean infection intensity of 47. ±. 49 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was detected by the technique. Due to large amount of sediment, examination of a single subsample required an average of 3. hours. The FLOTAC technique was found less sensitive (82%) than the DBL technique and recovered significantly less eggs (4. ±. 6 EPG). Both sensitivity and intensity were further reduced following storage. As the FLOTAC technique requires specialised equipment, safety disposal and personal protective equipment, it was found less suited than the DBL technique for a basic laboratory. Additionally, poor reproducibilities were found for both the DBL and FLOTAC techniques (30. ±. 15% and 38. ±. 33%, respectively). Based on the 21 faecal samples, the modified version of the DBL technique was found more sensitive (85%) than the KK technique (68%), whereas egg counts were significantly higher for the latter (23. ±. 26 EPG vs. 482. ±. 909 EPG). By modifying the DBL technique, it was possible to diminish the retained sediment and examination time to a maximum of an hour, which was also the time required by the KK technique, although the latter was faster and more easily processed. Based on the results obtained in this study, none of the techniques evaluated were found applicable in their current form for detection of small trematode eggs in faeces from dogs in Vietnam. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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