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Nagaoka T.,Niigata University | Doullah M.A.U.,Sylhet Agricultural University | Matsumoto S.,National Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science NIVTS | Kawasaki S.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | And 3 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics

To perform comparative studies of CR (clubroot resistance) loci in Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa and to develop marker-assisted selection in B. oleracea, we constructed a B. oleracea map, including specific markers linked to CR genes of B. rapa. We also analyzed CR-QTLs using the mean phenotypes of F3 progenies from the cross of a resistant double-haploid line (Anju) with a susceptible double-haploid line (GC). In the nine linkage groups obtained (O1-O9), the major QTL, pb-Bo(Anju)1, was derived from Anju with a maximum LOD score (13.7) in O2. The QTL (LOD 5.1) located in O5, pb-Bo(GC)1, was derived from the susceptible GC. Other QTLs with smaller effects were found in O2, O3, and O7. Based on common markers, it was possible to compare our finding CR-QTLs with the B. oleracea CR loci reported by previous authors; pb-Bo(GC)1 may be identical to the CR-QTL reported previously or a different member contained in the same CR gene cluster. In total, the markers linked to seven B. rapa CR genes were mapped on the B. oleracea map. Based on the mapping position and markers of the CR genes, informative comparative studies of CR loci between B. oleracea and B. rapa were performed. Our map discloses specific primer sequences linked to CR genes and includes public SSR markers that will promote pyramiding CR genes in intra- and inter-specific crosses in Brassica crops. Five genes involved in glucosinolates biosynthesis were also mapped, and GSL-BoELONG and GSL-BoPro were found to be linked to the pb-Bo(Anju)1 and Bo(GC)1 loci, respectively. The linkage drag associated with the CR-QTLs is briefly discussed. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Takeya S.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Muromachi S.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Yamamoto Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Umeda H.,National Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science NIVTS | Matsuo S.,University of Tokyo
Fluid Phase Equilibria

A comprehensive understanding of the preservation of gas hydrates is important from a physicochemical point of view, and for practical applications such as gaseous CO2 storage and transport in the form of solid hydrate. We measured dissociation rates of CO2 hydrate under different gases, such as CO2, N2 and Xe, at 0.1 MPa and studied the effects of ambient gas pressure on CO2 hydrate-dissociation rate by powder X-ray diffraction method. The crystallographic structure of CO2 hydrate was refined to estimate the amount of CO2 gas in the hydrate. CO2 hydrates showed a self-preservation phenomenon, even in CO2 + N2 mixed gases such as flue gas, and it is estimated that the self-preserved CO2 hydrate holds more than 150 times the volume of hydrate crystal at 0.1 MPa and temperatures just below the melting point of ice. Small amounts of gas molecules, such as Xe, disturb the onset of CO2 hydrate self-preservation. © 2015 Elsevier B.V... Source

Shimizu K.,Gifu University | Hossain M.M.,Gifu University | Kato K.,Shizuoka Agricultural Experimental Station | Kubota M.,National Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science NIVTS | Hyakumachi M.,Gifu University
Journal of Oleo Science

Penicillium simplicissimum GP17-2 is a plant growth-promoting fungus (PGPF) and an inducer of systemic defense responses. The mechanisms underlying the effect of GP17-2 on the reduction of cucumber leaf damage caused by the anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare were investigated. Cucumber leaves treated with the culture filtrate (CF) of GP17-2 exhibited a clear systemic resistance against subsequent infection with C. orbiculare. The number and size of lesions caused by the disease were reduced in CF-treated plants, in comparison with that in the control plants. The results showed that CF treatment could trigger a set of defense responses, including the production of hydrogen peroxide, formation of lignin, emission of ultra-weak photons, accumulation of salicylic acid, and increase in the transcription of the genes for the defense-related enzymes chitinase and peroxidase. Furthermore, subsequent inoculation of CF-pretreated plants with C. orbiculare resulted in higher systemic expression of the genes for chitinase, p-1,3-glucanase, and peroxidase relative to nontreated, inoculated plants; this indicated that CF mediates a potentiation state in the plant, enabling it to mount a rapid and effective response on infection by C. orbiculare. Our results indicate that the ability of CF of GP17-2 to stimulate active oxygen species, lignifcation, SA accumulation, and defense gene activation and potentiation in the host is the possible mode of action of the GP17-2 elicitor and inducer of induced systemic resistance against C. orbiculare infection in cucumber plants. © 2013 by Japan Oil Chemists' Society. Source

Umeda H.,National Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science NIVTS | Ahn D.-H.,National Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science NIVTS | Iwasaki Y.,National Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science NIVTS | Matsuo S.,University of Tokyo | Takeya S.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food

Even though CO2 enrichment is known to effectively promote photosynthesis and is widely used around the world, the use of this technique is uncommon in Japan. The aim of this study was to develop a new air-conditioning system for greenhouses by using a high-efficiency, low-cost cooling technique that allows CO2 enrichment during the high-temperature phase. We developed an air-conditioning system using CO2 clathrate hydrate and evaluated its performance in the laboratory. The capacity of the hydrate was sufficient to stably increase the CO2 concentration, and photosynthesis was promoted in experimental tomato plants for a given length of time. The amount of cold energy supply from the hydrate was not sufficient to completely replace electrical cooling for the entire experimental period, but this deficiency most likely can be overcome by combining this type of cooling and CO2 enrichment system with other innovative methods of cooling. © 2015 Asian Agricultural and Biological Engineering Association. Source

Diaz A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Fergany M.,Center for Research in Agricultural Genomics UAB | Fergany M.,Ain Shams University | Formisano G.,University of Naples Federico II | And 28 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology

Background: A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L.) over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in melon was constructed using primarily highly transferable anchor markers that have broad potential use for mapping, synteny, and comparative quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, increasing breeding effectiveness and efficiency via marker-assisted selection (MAS).Results: Under the framework of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI, http://www.icugi.org), an integrated genetic map has been constructed by merging data from eight independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines. The consensus map spans 1150 cM across the 12 melon linkage groups and is composed of 1592 markers (640 SSRs, 330 SNPs, 252 AFLPs, 239 RFLPs, 89 RAPDs, 15 IMAs, 16 indels and 11 morphological traits) with a mean marker density of 0.72 cM/marker. One hundred and ninety-six of these markers (157 SSRs, 32 SNPs, 6 indels and 1 RAPD) were newly developed, mapped or provided by industry representatives as released markers, including 27 SNPs and 5 indels from genes involved in the organic acid metabolism and transport, and 58 EST-SSRs. Additionally, 85 of 822 SSR markers contributed by Syngenta Seeds were included in the integrated map. In addition, 370 QTL controlling 62 traits from 18 previously reported mapping experiments using genetically diverse parental genotypes were also integrated into the consensus map. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in separate studies mapped to similar genomic positions. For example, independently identified QTL controlling fruit shape were mapped on similar genomic positions, suggesting that such QTL are possibly responsible for the phenotypic variability observed for this trait in a broad array of melon germplasm.Conclusions: Even though relatively unsaturated genetic maps in a diverse set of melon market types have been published, the integrated saturated map presented herein should be considered the initial reference map for melon. Most of the mapped markers contained in the reference map are polymorphic in diverse collection of germplasm, and thus are potentially transferrable to a broad array of genetic experimentation (e.g., integration of physical and genetic maps, colinearity analysis, map-based gene cloning, epistasis dissection, and marker-assisted selection). © 2011 Diaz et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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